BOM-baks — from the Greek bombyx (silk), referring to the silken fibers from this tree
SAY-buh — Latinized form of the South American name for this tree
commonly known as: Indian cottonwood, Indian kapok, red silk-cotton tree, simal tree • *Assamese*: himila, himolu • *Bengali*: katseori, roktosimul • *Gujarati*: સફેદ શીમળો safed shimalo • *Hindi*: कांटीसेंबल kaantisenbal, रक्त सेंबल rakta senbal, सेमल semal, सेमर कंद semar kanda, सेमुल semul, सेमुर semur, शेंबल shembal, शिंबल shimbal, सिमल simal, सिमुल simul • * Kannada*: ಕೆಮ್ಪುಬೂರುಗ kempuburuga • *Malayalam*: ഇലവ് ilav, മുളളിലവ് mulalilav, പൂള puula • *Manipuri*: tera • *Marathi*: शाल्मली shaalmali, सांवर saanvar, सांवरी saanvari, सौर saura • *Mizo*: pang, phunchawng • * Oriya*: similikonta • *Sanskrit*: शाल्मली shaalmali, शल्मली shalmali • * Tamil*: இலவு ilavu, பூலா puulaa, முள்ளிலவு mullilavu • *Telugu*: బూరుగ buruga
Native to: tropical southern Asia, northern Australia
Deciduous tree with spiny trunk; leaves palmate compound with 3-7 elliptic-obovate leaflets; floers solitary, clustered near ends of branches; flowers dull to bright red; stamens numerous in two whorls; capsules up to 15 cm long, slightly angled with numerous seeds embedded in wool..
Bombax insigne has far more number of stamens than Bombax ceiba.
This tree is a magnet for birds during flowering.

Images by tspkumar


TSPNOV2015-57: Images of Bombax ceiba ( Malvaceae) : 6 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (6)

It is my pleasure to share few images of Bombax ceiba (Malvaceae 

Habit: Tree. 

Habitat: Wild, Dry decidous forest fringe. 

Sighting: Devarayanadurga, Tumkur, Karnataka, about 800 msl 

Date: 22-02-2015 and 23-03-2015

very nice photographs.

the green bark intrigues me, never having seen them in the sheemul trees from all over kolkata and in all the gardens here and those grown in parks, gardens botanical gardens in tropical parts of the western world. may be you can tell us …?

the green bark later on turns woody and becomes brown.

oh. so its a matter of time before i can see them here in the street trees!


reqest for plant id:
is this safed saawar ?

– Affirmative. This is the white flower variety of Simul [Bombax ceiba] – the Red Silk Cotton tree.

– Oh That’s amazing. We commonly observe Bombax ceiba in Red colour flowers. We had recently seen yellow coloured Bombax ceiba posted by .. and now you have shown here the white flowered variety of Bombax ceiba.
   The conventional; so called safed Sawar; is a different species Ceiba pentandra from the same family which has been discussed on the group several times.

– Would like to add that these differences in colour is due to pollinator difference. The white ones would be most probably bat pollinated ! Also would like to inform that Bombax ceiba is now Salmalia rubra, would not know what the variation in  white is called though!

Since when is Silk cotton (Bombax ceiba) called as Salmalia rubra? Is there a formal note on this? If yes, can you pls share?


Yellow Silk Cotton flowering:
Photographed at my farm at Shahapur today.

Same from Chaul, Alibag on 30Jan, 2011

I think … species is not Cochlospermum but Yellow coloured Bombax ceiba from family Bombacaceae. Excellent and unusual.

Also Cochlospermum religiosum [Yellow Silk Cotton] is an unarmed tree, where prickles are seen on the stem and branches of the tree in your photographs.

As I had stated earlier …’s tree is a yellow-flower variety of Bombax insigne.


[EfloraofIndia_230212PD03_bombax ceiba_Flora of Odisha] : Attachments (1 + 1 + 11).  7 posts by 4 authors.
sharing the image of bombax ceiba flowering on the way to Bhubaneswar

Adding another colse up of the anthers and stigma of bombax ceiba

Simply superb!


Thanks … for sharing. Here are my pictures from Ecoport. Attachments (11)

Thanks … for appreciation. … you completed the series. Thanks for sharing all details


Hooghly Today : Bombax ceiba L.: (12 images- mostly close ups of flower & one complete view of the flowering leafless tree)
I am very happy to find these flowers and take some close shots!
ID Help : – efi thread

this is from me

Beautiful, …, never seen white variety yet.

Thank you very much …, usually it is hard to find flowers of this tree close to ground.



Fwd: BIRDS AND FLOWERS  : 3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (3).
There are three birds sunbird and myna …on two different flowers, can u pls help me with flower IDs. They bloom now a days and pictures clicked in Bhopal.

Thanks, … These are Bombax ceiba & Spathodea campanulata respectively.

Purple Sunbird-Nectarinia asiatica male on Bombax malabaricum, purple sunbird female on Bombax malabaricum and Common Myna-Acridotheres tristis on Spathodia campanulata.


Bombax ID from Bangladesh SM 184 (All are Bombax Ceiba???????) : 6 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (9)
Habitat; Wild
Taken different part of Bangladesh

I think yes.

Why the colour variation ?

Don’t know why colour variation, but colour varies-
as per FoC = red or orange-red
as per FoP = red, yellow or white

plant physiologists would know
anybody  with degrees in plant physiology or a lot of esoteric knowledge?
this is for you

Maybe one day we will have var. or ssp. of B. ceiba L., as Australia has as per link, that can explain colour variation.

There is some problem with the nomenclature –
Some info at Britanicca – britannica.
Attached here Flora Indica.
… may like following articles, for other reason than the id –
  2. forestrynepal.pdf

Attachments (3)


SYMBIOSIS ;740 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)
Attaching an image of Indian Jungle Crow on Bombax ceiba.


Malvaceae Fortnight: Bombqx ceiba from Delhi-GSJULY15/15  : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (3)
Bombax ceiba L., Sp. pl. 1:511. 1753, nom. cons.
Syn: Bombax malabaricum DC.; Gossampinus malabaricus (DC.) Merr.; Salmalia malabarica (DC.) Schott & Endl.
Common names: Indian kapok, red cottontree, red silk-cotton, silk-cottontree, simal
Deciduous tree with spiny trunk; leaves palmate compound with 3-7 elliptic-obovate leaflets; floers solitary, clustered near ends of branches; flowers dull to bright red; stamens numerous in two whorls; capsules up to 15 cm long, slightly angled with numerous seeds embedded in wool.

Thanks, …, for starting your postings from your treasure trove.


Malvaceae Week: Bombqx ceiba from Delhi:
Bombax ceiba L., Sp. pl. 1:511. 1753, nom. cons.
Syn: Bombax malabaricum DC.; Gossampinus malabaricus (DC.) Merr.; Salmalia malabarica (DC.) Schott & Endl.
Common names: Indian kapok, red cottontree, red silk-cotton, silk-cottontree, simal
Deciduous tree with spiny trunk; leaves palmate compound with 3-7 elliptic-obovate leaflets; floers solitary, clustered near ends of branches; flowers dull to bright red; stamens numerous in two whorls; capsules up to 15 cm long, slightly angled with numerous seeds embedded in wool.

Vow Silk Cotton!!!!! we use this for making pillows for little babies


Malvaceae (inc. Tiliaceae) Fortnight: Malvaceae Bombax ceiba L. from Assam – KD 06 July2015 : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (4)
Attached images are Bombax ceiba L.  Sweet from Assam.


Malvaceae Fortnight :: Bombax ceiba :: Navi Mumbai:: PKAJUL25 ::  : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)
Bombax ceiba from CBD Hills, Navi Mumbai.

Bombax ceiba L. … Also placed in: Bombacaceae
in and around Mumbai and Thane on various dates 

Malvaceae week :: Bombax ceibaBombax ceiba  L.
BOM-baks — from the Greek bombyx (silk), referring to the silken fibers from this tree
SAY-buh — Latinized form of the South American name for this tree
[image: Rakt Senbal (Hindi: रक्त सेंबल)]<…>
Feb 28, 2010 in premises of Shivneri fort
*commonly known as*: Indian cottonwood, Indian kapok, red silk-cotton tree, simal tree • *Assamese*: himila, himolu • *Bengali*: katseori, roktosimul • *Gujarati*: સફેદ શીમળો safed shimalo • *Hindi*: कांटीसेंबल kaantisenbal, रक्त सेंबल rakta senbal, सेमल semal, सेमर कंद semar kanda, सेमुल semul, सेमुर semur, शेंबल shembal, शिंबल shimbal, सिमल simal, सिमुल simul • * Kannada*: ಕೆಮ್ಪುಬೂರುಗ kempuburuga • *Malayalam*: ഇലവ് ilav, മുളളിലവ് mulalilav, പൂള puula • *Manipuri*: tera • *Marathi*: शाल्मली shaalmali, सांवर saanvar, सांवरी saanvari, सौर saura • *Mizo*: pang, phunchawng • * Oriya*: similikonta • *Sanskrit*: शाल्मली shaalmali, शल्मली shalmali • * Tamil*: இலவு ilavu, பூலா puulaa, முள்ளிலவு mullilavu • *Telugu*: బూరుగ buruga
Native to: tropical southern Asia, northern Australia

   – [image: roktosimul (in
Feb 26, 2011 in Vasai (Bassein) fort premises
– [image: Similikonta (in
Feb 7, 2009 at Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary
– [image: ngio pong daeng (Thai:
Mar 8, 2008 along Ghodbunder Road near Kapurbawadi, Thane
– … more views:


Malvaceae Fortnight-PC-27..07.2015-Bombax malabaricum-05 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (2)
here are few picture of Bombax malabaricum.


Malvaceae Fortnight- Post 42 :: Bombax ceiba from Karnal: NS August 27/27  : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (5)
This is also planted for its showy flowers..
Bombax ceiba, recorded from Karnal (Haryana)…


Malvaceae Week- Salmalia malabarica from Karnal:
This picture of Silk Cotton Tree was taken at Karnal, Haryana in June 2011.

The correct name is Bombax ceiba L.(syn: Bombax malabaricum DC.; Salmalia* *malabarica* (DC.) Schott & Endl <>

Bombax ceiba (the silk cotton tree)

Bombax ceiba Linn. is an American plant… Indian plant is different from them…

All following databases treat them as synonyms of Bombax ceiba

SYMBIOSIS : 851  : 3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (1)
In the attached collage there are 8 species of bird acting as pollinators for three different plant species.

Very nice collage, … !!!


Bombax ceiba and insigne:
Red/Yellow Bombax ceiba and Bombax insigne for comparison

–  It can clearly be observed that Bombax insigne has far more number of stamens than Bombax ceiba.



Bombax pods:
Pods of Bombax ceiba and B.insigne

– You mean to say the pods of Bombax ceiba are directed downwards while those of B.insignae are erect and directed upwards ?

To me DSC03549.JPG looks like that of Ceiba pentendra and unlike those of Bombax insigne

… to me, DSC03549.JPG is Bombax ceiba
DSC03492.JPG is Bombax insigne.

Thanks, …,
Your images of the fruits of this species at the following look different to me:
Malvaceae Fortnight :: Bombax insigne :: northern Western Ghats :: DVJUL03
Malvaceae week :: Bombax insigne

for sure, neither of the pods in … post are C. pentandra.
C. pentandra
pods are comparatively longer (and thus appear slender), about twice the length of B. insigne‘s or B. ceiba‘s.
C. pentandra pods taper on both sides much more than the other two. This tree is not our native, it is found only planted along roads and avenues.

Thanks, …, I will check again. But we do not know whether pods shown by him are of a planted tree or a wild one.

Agree. DSC03549.JPG may be of Bombax insigne


recently .. had posted bombax with various colored flowers saw this orange variety in and around chandigarh where it is not so uncommon


Bombax ceiba in Chennai: The trees have dropped all leaves to show off their flowers, unfortunately very high up. Photographed at Chennai yesterday.The last snap shows the bark.


FROM NATURE: Not many migratory birds visit this place during winter. But few like Gadwall, visit ponds, rivers and lakes of the place. I captured few images of Gadwall in flight today.I am attaching one,titled BOUNDLESS SKY. Attaching another image of Bank Myna on flower of Silk Cotton.


Update on Bombax and Ceiba genera: Would like to inform the group that the latest search on Kew plant list will show an absence of family Bombacaceae. We have been putting Red silk cotton tree as Bombax Ceiba L. in family Bombacaceae. It is now as per Kew in the new family of Malvaceae !  The genus Bombax is now placed in Malvaceae and so is the genus Ceiba !


white bombax ceiba:
can any one tell the ayurvedic importance of this


You must have noticed that, Silk Cotton (SHIMUL) is in bloom, indicating the arrival of spring. Flame of The Forest is about to bloom. Next in the list is Indian Coral. Koels have become vocal, they are in search of partner. Same goes for Barbets, Doves, Robins etc. Time for regeneration. Attaching two images on spring.


Photo Essay on Birds on Silk Cotton Tree (Bombax ceiba, Semal):
A fascinating and beautiful topic – Birds on the Silk Cotton Tree (Semal, Bombax ceiba). This tree is a magnet for birds.

    … of Birds of India had asked for pictures of birds on this tree. He has now created a photo essay on this tree and the birds which visit it. Two of my contributions, viz., Chestnut Shouldered Petronia and Grey Hornbill have been selected.

    Click here <> to see this photo essay – so fascinating to see so many species on this one species of tree.
    Birds on the Semal:
(1) Eurasian Golden Oriole
(2) Black Headed Oriole
(3) Red Billed Blue Magpie
(4) Black Rumped Flameback
(5) Fulvous Breasted Woodpecker
(6) Rufous Treepie
(7) Grey Treepie
(8) Blue Throated Barbet
(9) Great Barbet
(10) Vernal Hanging Parakeet
(11) Jungle Myna
(12) Rosy Starling
(13) Asian Pied Starling
(14) Spot Winged Starling
(15) Chestnut Tailed Starling
(16) Hill Myna
(17) Red – vented Bulbul
(18) Black Bulbul
(19) Red Whiskered Bulbul
(20) Lineated Barbet
(21) Maroon Oriole
(22) Oriental Magpie Robin
(23) Greater Necklaced Laughing Thrush
(24) Spangled Drongo
(25) Chestnut-Shouldered Petronia
(26) Baya Weaver
(27) Oriental White Eye
(28) Greater yellownape
(29) Lesser Adjutant
(30) House Crow
(31) Himalayan Bulbul
(32) Rufous Sibia
(33) Common Tailorbird
(34) Grey Hornbill
(35) Chestnut Bellied Rockthrush
(36) Large-billed Crow.
(37) Egret

Bombax is much liked by birds but not preferred by Monkeys. Farmers allow it in field bunds for this reason.  Trees not preferred by Hanuman Langur. Part-1

– In Mumbai Goldfronted Chloropsis, Goldmantled Chloropsis, Hair-crested Drongo and other species of Drongo’s also frequent this tree. In addition, these species are quite aggressive and are good mimics, often fooling birders by mimicking other species in the vicinity.

    (Repost of “the changing face of Bombax ceiba” after corrections in the local, scientific tree name, added relevant photo sequence  )
It was a stark, stark scene. The Bombax Ceiba Tree stood shorn of its leaves and red glistening flowers just like a bride that had just removed all her finery. But three weeks later when we chanced to see the tree, it made for a splendid sight. The entire tree sported lovely red blossoms that made one to pause and stare. Moments later, we saw one of the winter visitors, Rosy Pastors for which the Bombax Ceiba flowers might have been nothing short of a banquet. What a wonderful tableau it created – the sunlight seeping in through the branches even as the birds chirped away to their hearts content.. The gentle breeze made the flowers, which were just buds three weeks before, drop to the ground with a soft pop. Of course by April, the whole tree would be covered with leaves. We rested under the cool shade of the Bombax Ceiba Tree a landscape far removed from that of the city, which we knew awaited us, with all its noise and smells, its relentless pace and sometimes uncaring nature !
    Photo date : 24 Feb 2008,                      05 Apr 2008
Moodlu Koppal, Mysore district

Vernacular : Buruga, Burugada mara English : Silk Cotton
Family: Malvaceae Genus: Bombax Species: B. ceiba
    “Look at the trees, look at the birds, look at the clouds, look at the stars… and if you have eyes you will be able to see that the whole existence is joyful.  Everything is simply happy.  Trees are happy for no reason; they are not going to become prime ministers or presidents and they are not going to become rich and they will never have any bank balance.  Look at the flowers – for no reason.  It is simply unbelievable how happy flowers are.  ~Osho ”

– What a magnificent old tree,  and lovely writing… with a spiritual soul…

– Very interesting association. The Rosy Starlings are on their up migration when the Bombax trees bloom in February (In south India). Red flowers are designed to attract birds and they have sweet nectar to offer to birds as a reward for effecting the pollination. The nectar is so abundent that it spills down as the birds tilt the flowers. It appears as if the Rosy Starlings also take away the rosy colour on their chest feathers because they acquire the breeding plumage during their return journey. The change of latitude probably offers the Rosy Starlings full bloom at every place as they travel northwards. Nice observations that refresh everyone from the routine ID exchange.

–  Bombax ceiba grows fast and huge. This tree I guess should be in its prime between 20-30  years. Not very old.  In fact its quite tough to see  any trees which are more than 20 years old in my village sorroundings. Please do read  excerpts from one of my earlier eflora posts (pasted below)  which speaks on the native trees -having lost their rights to complete their full life span.
    During my birding & tree sighting trips in Mysore district, Karnataka. I sometime try to know &  photograph old and heritage trees. Soon,  I find it tough to sight trees and realize there are hardly any trees which are more than 20 years old, other than those found near temples, railway stations, various government premises and exclusive farms. Thanks to the tobacco growers and contractors for they spare no trees. They buy all kinds of trees from villagers, growing anywhere – in the open fields, farms, canal, river edges, schools and even the road side trees. The wood logs are later taken to tobacco auction places in neigbouring places and districts  to be burnt in kilns to dry tobacco leaves.
With international demand for the locally grown tobacco (FCV – Flue cured Virginia, Mysore tobacco) leaves increasing and prices soaring from Rs. 48/kg (year 2006) to Rs 95/- (year 2009) and upto Rs. 150/kg this year, there is less chance for the trees to inhabit the earth.
Again, it’s a known fact that once tobacco plants are grown in agricultural fields for couple of years, the land loses its ability to grow other crops. 
    On another side, the demands of civilization makes the the Govt. to take massive projects like road widening process, highways and bridges in my town which have made countless age old road side trees cut down and leave no trace of its existence. 
    The nursery run by the forest dept grows & supply saplings recommended by the dept. A good initiative.
We could find Indigenous trees like Mysore fig itself  missing in the nursery.

    Sometimes I wonder as if the native trees have lost their rights in completing their full life span.
Thanks again to the meddling of human beings. )
efi thread
Price update 2011 Apr: Tobacco prices have crashed – approx. 90 Rs/Kg (for the best kind.)
Five years before,  large number of farmer families had turned down  growing rice, ragi, pulses, areca..and resorted to tobacco , hoping to get better price. Some were successful and were able to clear their age old loans which prompted the rest of the community to take the short path. This year there is surplus tobacco leaf supply allover and less buyers.
Hopefully they make a U turn to  crops, vegetables, fruits pulses..  I wish they get a bumper price.

– Sending a few of my photographs just to add to the list. The photographs were taken on my property at Shahapur.

– in the mail i was to add the word katesawar. in these photos of .. you can see those ‘kate’, the thorns ( correct term?) on the tree.

– And just see the amount of cotton! Actually I can feel the silky touch too!


Flora of Kaiga_ID_Plz_14072011 PJ3: Flora of Kaiga_ID_Plz_14072011 PJ3

Date/Time-: 12/05/11   –    10:50
Location- Place, Altitude – Kaiga , Uttar Kannada ,Karnataka, 380 mtrs
Habitat- Garden/ Urban/ Wild/ Type-   wild
Plant Habit- Tree/ Shrub/ Climber/ Herb- Tree
Height/Length- 2m


VALMIKI : OBSERVER OF NATURE 45: Attaching the 45th member of the series. In Ramayan this tree is mentioned as SHALMALI. Scientifically it is Bombax ceiba. Commonly known as Silkcotton Tree. This is Semul in Hindi and Shimul in Bangla.

Malvaceae week 952011-9112011 UD 020 Bombax ceiba Lal Sheemul:
For about 8 to 10 day at the very beginning of spring in Kolkata there is  a bright red spot among the bare branched tree tops… and if you pay attention you can count numerous birds, esp bulbuls and sunbirds etc  drinking nectar and eating away something….
I believe … had done a series this year to document the species of birds visiting the red Sheemul flowers…
The two pictures I am sending in are from a tree whose branches come down to my eye level…   near where we  go for morning walks….
Family:                   Malvaceae
Subfamily:                       Bombacoideae
Genus:                                      Bombax  L.
Species :                                                 Bombax ceiba
Colloquial names : red sheemul,  shimul,  shalmali etc

Again never occured that Katesavari is Malvaceae

pls see the link

yes …. keep it open… this family is in a great flux… APG APGII and Thorne systems come to mind…  each system it seems keeps moving the chess pieces around….in subfamily, and tribes… so one never knows (esp people like me semi serious “non-botanist-botanist” types… for me this was a source of confusion and apprehension,)


Malvaceae week 952011-9112011 UD 020Bombaxceiba Lal Sheemul:
Liked the idea of merger like the caporates.
But would have preferred individual entity. They have there own characters, speciaities. Why merge?
Ayway who am I to even cast the vote infront of the gaints among the scientists? But I feel everyone should have there own space.

There are three major Systems of recent Systems of classification: APG III (2009), Takhtajan (2009) and Thorne (2007) who all include these under Malvaceae and this has been done after decades of search especially at DNA level, and it is advisable to follow them. If all of us use our own space then the whole process of arranging more than quarter million flowering plants would be a great mess. Same is the case with names, although name changes are headache it is sane to follow what is latest trend.

Bombax ceiba Thorns on trunk:
Here are the pictures from a plant growing in my garden.
Please see the thorns on trunk. They are growing as the trunk growing. On top area trunk is smooth no Thorns.


Malvaceae week : Bombax ceiba:
Kate sawar, Shalmali


Bombax ceiba:
Bombax ceiba
Marathi names: Kate-sawar, Shalmali
At Alibag


Bombax ceiba :: Hooghly, WB:
You may find it quite interesting that today i walked more than a km along a railway track in order to take these photographs of Bombax ceiba! We call it SHIMOOL in Bengali. The irony is that there is a SHIMOOL tree just about 200 mt away from my home. But it doesn’t bloom when i keep a watch on it!

Species : Bombax ceiba
Type : plantation
Date : 28-Feb-2012, 1.24 p.m.
Place : Hooghly, West Bengal

Oh. It happens .
One observation made by me regarding the blooms: I observed that  the flowers turn towards the sun.  As the sun moves the direction of the flowers also change. Hence, you get the back portion of the flowers when you  take photographs in the morning sun light .   If you try to photograph in the after noon also (around 4 p.m ) the problem is they will be facing the sun.  With the result most of the photographers end up with back portion of the flowers.   If you try taking photographs in the morning (dawn) from the western side one can get the front view of the flowers.  But the light is a problem.  After sun rise, the the light is in the opposite direction!   I will post the photographs taken by me at Mysore.


Attaching the image of the 140th member of the series. In this a Treepie is on the flowers of Bombax ceiba. This is our Shimul.


efloraindia: 051111 BRS130:
Pl. find the attached file contain flowers of Bombax ceiba. Location NBNP Garden, Anaikatti, Coimbatore Dist.,



A treeful of Petronia… Mhow, Indore, MP:
Symbiosis… A semal tree full of petronia. I see them when the tree is on flower but they seem to be genuinely fond of this tree….
Location: Mhow, Dist Indore, MP, India

Bombax ceiba of Malvaceae family.


Banyan Tree (?):
new to he group, I‘ll start my posting with something easy (I hope). These should be the flowers of Ficus benghalensis, I think. Beautiful flowers. Confirmation of my ID or correction welcome. Photograph taken in Goa (February).

This is Bombax ceiba.


Attaching the 131st member of the series. In this a Chestnut-tailed Starling i on the flowers of Bombax ceiba. This tree is commonly known as Silk Cotton Tree. Shimul/Semal in Bangla/Hindi.


18022012 SR-1 Which species of Bombax it is?:
Cooch Behar ID the species of this Bombax 20.02.2011

I think this is Bombax ceiba only.

Yes it is Bombax ceiba
Variation in colour…..uncommon but sometimes observed.


Simul flowering:
Photgraphed on my property at Shahapur today (19.2.12). Bombax ceiba was flowering. Sending a few photographs.

Three-stiped Palm Squirrel.jpg
Jungle Babblers.jpg
Red-vented Bulbul.jpg
Rufous-backed Long-tailed Shrike.jpg
Spotted Dove.jpg
Ashy Prinia.jpg
Yellow-eyed Babbler.jpg
Ashy Drongo.jpg

Good Shots … Birds are enjoying the flowering


Attaching the 131st member of the series. In this a Chestnut-tailed Starling i on the flowers of Bombax ceiba. This tree is commonly known as Silk Cotton Tree. Shimul/Semal in Bangla/Hindi.


Attaching the image of the 132nd member of the series (Rose ring Parakeet)

SYMBIOSIS : 315 :  1 image. 1 post by 1 author.
Attaching an image of a Rose-ring Parakeet eating fruit of Bombax ceiba. Commonly known as SILK COTTON TREE.
It is SEMUL in Hindi and SHIMUL in Bangla. I read an interesting information in EDIBLE WILD PLANTS OF THE HIMALAYAS by Shri R L Badhwar and Dr R R Fernandez in 1983, which states,
The calyces of flower buds and tender fruits are eaten as vegetable. Seeds are also eaten after roasting.”
All these days I was thinking, tender fruits must be eaten by some birds (particularly Parakeets). I was very happy to record this happening today.

March 2013
Requesting identification of a big road side tree on BJMC road at Pune. leaves few, deep pink red flowers.

Bombax ceiba

Many thanks … for the Id. The flowers really have a beautiful color and look beautiful even from a distance

Yes, this is Bombax ceiba known as “कांटेसावर” or “शाल्मली” in Marathi. The same cotton is used to make pillows.


The gum obtained from this Red Silk Cotton Tree is used for many purposes. One of the claim is, if early morning few drops of this gum are put in the nostrils, it can cure Spondylitis.


Hooghly Today : fruits : Bombax ceiba L. : Attachments (3). 3 posts by 2 authors.
My earlier posts on the same species –

efi thread 1
efi thread 2

Nice Shots … Lovely seed dispersal mechanism

Thank you very much Sir.
This cotton makes pillows and mattresses or quilts more comfortable.



SYMBIOSIS :133 : Attachments (1).  2 posts by 2 authors.
Attaching an image of the 133rd member of the series. In this a Bluethroated Barbet is on the flower of Bombax ceiba.


images of Bombax ceiba from Coimbatore :  Attachments (3 + 10). 5 posts by 3 authors.
Sharing the images of Bombax ceiba from NBNP, Coimbatore.


Thanks for Sharing. My pictures from Ecoport.


Silk Cotton Tree For ID : Uttarakhand : 270913 : AK-1 :  Attachments (5). 3 posts by 2 authors.
Silk Cotton Tree seen in the Naukuchiatal area on 23/3/13 with Golden flowers.

Tree was at a distance and I could not get closer.
First time I have seen flowers in Golden color.
Is this the common Bombax ceiba or something else?
Experts kindly confirm.

Bombax ceiba


Bombax ceiba L. from Assam-09 2014 : Attachments (8). 1 post by 1 author.

Attached images are Bombax ceiba L.
Date :12.02.2014
Location: Assam
Family : Malvaceae
Genus & species : Bombax ceiba L.
Vern. Name : Simolu (Assamese)
Habitat: Grows wild on roadside
Habit : Tree


Bombax ceiba [Simul] flowering : 3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (8).
Sending a few photographs to dispel any confusion. Please also check these links : Google Groups
Google Groups

Excellent photographs..


SYMBIOSIS : 738 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)
Bombax ceiba (SHIMUL) is in full bloom at this time of the year at Cooch Behar. Birds are having feast on nectar of the flowers of Bombax ceiba. Attaching an image where Black-hooded Oriole is in action.

SYMBIOSIS :739 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)
Attaching an image of an Asian Pied Starling on flowers of Bombax ceiba (SHIMUL)

SYMBIOSIS : 741 :  1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)
Attaching an image of a Red Vented Bulbul on flowers of Bombax ceiba.

Bombax ceiba


Bombax ceiba ABJAN01/05 : 5 posts by 2 authors. 5 images.

Our Semal trees (locally simbal) are in flower attracting not only kites who nest and mate on these trees but also other birds. I saw a parakeet, a Rufous Tree Pie and a couple of mynahs on the tree dipping their beaks into the flowers within a couple of minutes I spent photographing the tree. I am not sure what parts of the flowers/buds they eat but they seem to like it.
There are several trees on road verges in the lower Dharamshala town and they look stately with their tall trunks and spread branches. I read somewhere that because they are tall they are a preferred roosting place for large birds such as vultures which are sadly in serious decline. And since vultures are considered harbingers of bad-luck, people do not plant semal near homes.
The wood from semal makes poor timber and locals occasionally use it in planking (and in manufacturing matchsticks elsewhere). Surprisingly, people do not exploit the commercial value of the cotton obtained from the tree here. But perhaps that’s not such a bad thing for the tree.
Here are some photographs from today and one of the flower bud from a couple of days back.
Bombax ceiba—Silk-cotton Tree, Semal, Simbal
Dharamshala, HP
1400m approx.
10 January 2016

awesome. i love the first picture seems to be from some other time other dreamy time. looks old world// old time as if from some 50 to 70 year ago…
seemul silk/cotton is used by villagers in bengal and biihar
make religious diya/ghee lamp wicks.  sometimes (often near Diwali time) and holi time they come to the cities to sell them, i buy them often, love them.
sheemul tulo ie silk cotton is prized for pillows in bengal and this is now without seeds, but in the decades leading upto 7os the silk cotton used to have the seeds with the threads and that prevented matting, useful then for baby’s pillows, to easily change shape
in many countries its used for stuffing water bouys and life saving vests.
sheemul seed oil is important in pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, need to search for exact details. and the spines on the trunk is used instead of chandan to make pralep
for various skin conditions by bengali kaviraj (vaidya).

Thank you … as always. I have made note of these uses and hope to put all this information together in one place someday.
I asked a local lady this morning and she said that she used to eat the seeds contained inside the fruit as a child (along with other children) and said that the seeds were sweet tasting. That was something new. I asked her a few more questions to verify if she knew Semal and she gave all the correct details. I will ask more people in the lower town and see if they have had a similar experience.

good. was that seed eating when the fruit was brown and fibre fluff was flying around or was it when it was green? lets keep  compiling and may be you can a collection, your pictures are superb, good for a book or two. or three….

I will ask her when I meet her next and update you. I am collecting all information I can find on my neighbourhood trees atleast. One of these days I will put all that in pdfs and share her.

Bombax ceiba L. (accepted name) : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (4)
Location:  Balaju, Nepal
Altitude:  4900 ft.
Date: 20 January 2017
Nepali Name : सिमल Silk Cotton Tree

Location: Dhulikhel, Nepal
Altitude: 4600 ft.
Date: 26 March 2013
Please consider pod only !


SYMBIOSIS : 900 : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)
Attaching a collage of Chestnut tailed Starling visiting flowers of Bombax ceiba (SILK COTTON TREE/ SHIMUL)


Bombax ceiba :: Lalbagh Botanical Gardens :: 19 FEB 2017 : 2 posts by 2 authors. 5 images.
Lalbagh Botanical Gardens Bangalore
Date: 19 FEB 2017 … Altitude: ~ 906 m (2972 ft) asl
Bombax ceiba L. … (family: Malvaceae) … native

Fwd: RABINDRA SANGIT : CUCKOO-2 : 3 posts by 1 author. Attachments (1)
Here is a translation of another song (Translated by Akashik). The bird in the original song is BOU KATHA KAO (Indian Cuckoo).

The tree is Bombax ceiba.


Semal bark is aphrodisiac : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (3)
Here are a few pictures that I took in Allahabad University campus in oct. 08. One can see that the trunk of the Semal/Bomabx Ceiba looks strangely damaged. Actually people have dug in the bark to extract the gummy exudation that is supposed be toinc, stimulant and aphrodisac according to the traditional medicine.
That explains the population of this country!


silk cotton in nehru park – indiantreepix | Google Groups : 3 posts by 3 authors.
right now in nehru park new delhi one can see silk cotton trees loaded with cotton. so is the carpet below the trees. here are 3 pictures of this morning

Wonderful compositions, … I think it’s Bombax ceiba.

This beautiful has started flowering in Kolkata, though the pictures attached are of 2007.
Bombax ceiba, like other tree from genus Bombax, is commonly known as cotton tree or tree cotton. The tropical tree is with straight tall trunk and its leaves are deciduous in winter. Red flowers with 5 petals are born in the spring before green leaves. Small husks raped contain fibres like cotton. Its trunk bears spikes to deter attacks by animals. Although its trunk looks good for timber, its wood is too soft for use.
The tree might be from India but widely planted in Malay, Indonesia, south China, Hong Kong and Taiwan.
The cotton in the husks were used a substitute of cotton. Its flower was a common ingredient in Chinese herb tea.
The Sanskrit name for this tree is Salmali. In the Rigveda, the chariot is made of Salmali (RV 10.85.20) and other woods.
Folk knowledge in Hong Kong states that soon after the tree blooms, the weather will get hotter.
The above information taken from Wikipedia link:
Bombax species are among the largest trees in their regions, reaching 30 to 40 metres in height and up to 3 metres trunk diameter. The leaves are compound with entire margins and deciduous, being shed in the dry-season. They measure 30 to 50 cm across and are palmate in shape with 5 to 9 leaflets. The calyx is deciduous, meaning it does not persist on the fruits. They bear 5 to 10 cm long red flowers between January and March while the tree is still leafless. The stamens are present in bundles in two whorls, while the staminal column lacks lobes. The ovary matures into a husk containing seeds covered by a fibre similar to that of the kapok (Ceiba pentandra) and to cotton, though with shorter fibres than cotton, that does not lend itself to spinning, making it unusable as a textile product.[2]
The above inf. taken from Wikipedia link:

beautiful pics! Bombax is yet to flower here in nagpur. it starts flowering here by late feb and early march and that’s when the rosy starlings come to nagpur as well! so its the best sight to watch pink starlings on the scarlet flowers of Bombax.

Here in Pune also all the Bombax are still totally dry as if dead. Suddenly one day these beauties will start arising on it as if from nowhere.
Today I saw one flowering tree in one part of the city.??Exception

    No thorns in the bark of the tree.
    White cotton flying off very frequently from the seeds
    No flowers
    young leaves
    Tree name plate- Bombax Malabaricum
Lal bagh Bangalore,
May 2008
Please see the next photograph a cotton tree with thorns

what i understand is that the thorns disappear with age. any comments?

I would agree with … It has to do with age rather than change of sub species

Agreed, that the spikes smooth out over age. But in this case. the tree posted with  spikes in its trunk has a trunk girth – double than that of the tree without spikes.

Agreed, that  the spikes smooth out over age. But please note, the tree posted without spikes (this mail chain ) has a girth – half the size of the tree with spikes (emailed later)  the cotton seed color again differs.

Without flowers it is very difficult to be certain. The foliage of Bombax ceiba/malabaricum usually has a shape somewhat distinct from Ceiba pentandra, a little larger and with a more pronounced acuminate tip, and with some marginal serration:

Completely agree with .. A detailed description of leaves (rather than only the picture) may be helpful, in absence of flowers, which in both these trees would have finished long back. Another differentiation is distincly green bark in Ceiba speciosa and C. insignis (both of which have thorny barks)


in Feb.’08 near Badalapur, Maharastra, in Mumbai & near Pune; in Bassein fort – Vasai, District Thane on 17th and 24th February 2008; begun flowering in Nagpur; in full bloom on 24/2/08 at Moodlu Koppal, Mysore district; in Delhi- first noted in 2nd week of Feb.; in March’ 08  – Juhu Scheme (Mumbai); Sanjay Gandhi National Park(SGNP) (Borivali & Thane) Maharashtra- 14/3/08; in March-2006- Kolkata; at Sagargad, Alibag- Jan’10?; all over the Goa Trek in Dec ’09; at CBD Hills, Navi Mumbai- 20/2/10; at Narendrapur;
Beautiful Trees & Shrubs of Calcutta by Sh. R.K. Chakraverty & S.K.Jain states that flowering occurs in early spring (Feb.- March).  Trees of Delhi states  that though flower buds appear long before, first flowers wink on in Feb.; prime time in Delhi is early to mid March.


Wynad flora #1 – 07Mar10AR011:
Date/Time-10th Jan 2011 06:26 PM
Location- Place, Altitude, GPS- Near Karapuzha, Wynaad
Habitat- Garden/ Urban/ Wild/ Type-, Wild, Western ghats,
Plant Habit- Tree/ Shrub/ Climber/ Herb-Forest stream edges
Height/Length-approx – 9 – 12 feet
Leaves Type/ Shape/ Size- Shape – Not observed
Inflorescence Type/ Size-Not observed
Flowers Size/ Colour/ Calyx/ Bracts-
Large, 10cms, Red,
Fruits Type/ Shape/ Size Seeds- No fruits
Other Information like Fragrance, Pollinator, Uses etc.- Low light photograph

The flower of this plant resemble to that of a white  silk cotton tree in size, shape, color and appearance.But will such a small plant (around 10 feet)  bear flowers. Could this be a kind of cactii ?.

Affirmative … This is a species of Bombax possibly Bombax insigne. Have also seen small trees flowering and fruiting at Shahapur.

Bombax species.

Yes, they do look like Bombax.
Here is a link from … flickr photo album
Even these flowers look alike with that of mine – the flower, stem, thorns, curvy branches.. .. …, Pls let me know the height of your flowering plant – if you could remember. I am just curious ..

It is Bombax. Am attaching pictures of a tree that is over 80′ as such the thorns are not very visible. The tree in the picture sent by .. is small and as such the thorns are very clearly visible.

The tree appears to be Salmalia malabaricum.

I agree with Salmalia malabaricum, (synonums Bombax malabaricum DC. <>
Salmalia malabarica),

This is a withered flower of B. insigne Wall. The corolla is 15-20 cm (10-12 cm), number of stamens are 200 (60) and the filaments are filiform (flattened). The leaflets are obovate (elliptic). Key features (bracketed for B. ceiba) are not visible in the pictures.

Salamalia malabarica [Bombax ceiba auct (non L.)].

I think close to images at Bombax ceiba L.


.Medicinal Plants and Holi Festival: After getting permission from moderators I am initiating this new thread on Medicinal Plants associated with Holi festival. Please share your views and celebrate holi in this way.
We are going to discuss from decreasing population of Bombax due to Holi in Rajasthan to use of Bhang and its antidote in Holi festival. From many years I am suggesting burning of obnoxious weed Parthenium hysterophorus in Holika Dahan. Many residents are adopting this suggestion and in this way keeping control over Parthenium population in surroundings.
Most of the Indians cities are affected by pollution as well as mosquitoes. Plants like Blumea are present in our surroundings. Blumea is in use in form of Herbal Cigarette in Traditional Healing since time immemorial. Blumea leaf fumes are spread in patient’s room like Neem leaves specially when patients suffer from respiratory diseases. Based on Blumea and Neem like healing herbs I have prepared an herbal mixture and giving it to the local committees free of cost in order to burn it during Holika Dahan. The fumes help in managing mosquitoes and also good for lungs.
I was informed that in Rajasthan Bombax is closely associated with Holi and Holika Dahan is considered incomplete without it. Due to this religious importance Bombax population is decreasing at alarming rate. There are many organisations working to protect Bombax.
The Traditional Healers having expertise in treatment of bone diseases collect many herbs on the day of Holi. Vanda is one of these herbs. Parsa Kauagodi means Vanda growing on Butea monosperma is collected once in a year on this day. The Healers claim that on this particular day plants are specially rich in medicinal properties. They eagerly wait for Holi for one time collection of Vanda.
Let’s make this thread enriched with knowledge.

I am sure at the end of it all our list would become much larger. Here is what I read about Holi Celebrations in Guyana located on N E Coast of South America:
The Holi season there starts a month earlier with the planting of the Holika, the castor oil plant, Ricinus communis. The plant is burnt on holi day commemorating Prahlad’s legendary devotion to Lord Shiva and also the Triumph of good over evil. For more details pl. see

can this herbal mixture be burned daily to expel mosquitoes from homes?
and would it be possible for you to send few packets of the herbal mixture of neem and blumea to me, so that i could try it out in my home?

Neem and Blumea based formulations can be made more promising by adding more herbs one by one up to 100 herbs.

Fwd: SYMBIOSIS : 1056 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)
Attaching a collage of Jungle Myna visiting flowers of Bombax ceiba (SILK COTTON TREE/ SHIMUL)

Fwd: SYMBIOSIS : 1057 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)
Attaching a collage of Spangled Drongo visiting flowers of Bombax ceiba. (SILK COTTON/ SHIMUL)

Fwd: SYMBIOSIS : 1063 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)
Attaching a collage of Asiatic Pied Starling visiting flowers of Bombax ceiba (SILK COTTON TREE/ SHEMUL)

Fwd: SYMBIOSIS : 1064 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)
Attaching a collage of Chestnut-tailed Starling visiting flowers of Bombax ceiba (SILK COTTON/ SHIMUL).

Fwd: SYMBIOSIS : 1065 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)
Attaching a collage of Black Hooded Oriole visiting flowers of Bombax ceiba (SILK COTTON TREE/ SHIMUL).

Fwd: SYMBIOSIS : 1069 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)
R W Bulbul visiting flowers of Bombax ceiba.


Fwd: SYMBIOSIS : 1070 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)
Attaching a collage of Red vented Bulbul visiting flowers of Bombax ceiba (SILK COTTON/SHIMUL).

ORNITHOPHILY IN BOMBAX CEIBA : 5 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (1)
          I spent quite few years at Pachmarhi in my service life at different time. Some time in 1982 I noticed different birds visiting flowers of Bombax ceiba (SHIMUL/ SILK COTTON TREE). After reading Salim Ali I came to know that there are flowers which are mainly pollinated by birds and one such flower is Bombax ceiba. The phenomenon is known as ornithophily.
        I am recording bird visitors on flowers for last few years. I  have recorded the following birds visiting flowers of Bombax ceiba
1. Black headed oriole
2.  Blue throated Barbet
3. Common Myna
4. Chestnut tailed Starling
5. House crow
6 Jungle crow
7. Jungle Myna
8. Rose ring Parakeet
9 .Asiatic pied Starling
10 . red vented Bulbul
11. red whiskered Bulbul
12 .Spangled Drongo
13 Tree pie
14 Yellow toed Green pigeon
Attached collage  is of Black hooded oriole visiting flowers of Bombax ceiba .

Thanks, …, I also see similar birds from my 4th floor house, on five of these trees, in front of my flat in Kolkata.

Thank you. i love this.
We just had a flock of these orioles passing thru south 24 paragans which direction they took i know not but they made quite a ruckus for a couple of days. my mom had planted several of these shimul trees in our front yard. it was new subdivision then with dirt roads and the trees got to be about 20 feet tall and we used to see a lot of bulbuls and other birds come and hop and sing all day. my dad took movies and then one day the local corporation office came and cut down the trees and confiscated the land to widen the road. i remember we were very very sad. not for loss of land but for the trees and the birds. i even cried. that was more than 60 years ago.
have you made a montage of all those birds on Bombax?

Thank you very much … for sharing. This is very good data about Bombax Ceiba.

Fwd: Bombax ceiba Buttress roots : 3 posts by 1 author. 3 images- 2 to 3 mb each.
sending photos of Buttress roots of Bombax ceiba L., Malvaceae, clicked on 11/08/2020, place- bank of river Bhargabi at Satakania, Balakati, dist Khurda,
observed nearly 6 to 7 ft ht soil around eroded, plant ht 30 ft approx., girth 3 ft approx., length of one buttress root found to be 10ft.,

Thanks, … It appears that soil has gone away due to floods or heavy rain.

The Buttress roots are seen clearly nearly above 2ft from the original surface soil & below the surface soil, nearly 6ft ht soil volumes have been eroded.


131222020PP1: 2 images.
Request for identification of this tree.
Date: 16th June 2020
Time: 1008 hrs
Location- Eco-park, Bilaspur, Himachal Pradesh
Habitat- Wild, inland, hilly regions
Bark: Thorny
P.S. Seen sitting on tree: Streptopelia chinensis (Spotted Dove)

Another picture from top of a different individual taken on a same day (with Cacomantis passernis – Grey-bellied Cuckoo sitting on it instead)


Bombax ceiba: 1 image.
Found in Auroville near Puducherry Tamil Nadu,

Looks good. But for confirmation please post the foliage pictures and if available flowers as well

Tree for ID : Way to Nasik : 20JUN21 : AK-08: 2 images.
Seen while travelling to Nasik in the ghats.

I think it is difficult to id with such images.

My guess would be Pisa, Actinodaphne hookeri.

I think your guess is correct since the arrangement of the leaves is similar.
Let me take more pictures when I’m passing the place next.

Sorry canopy structure from Actinodaphne, it could Hyminodictyon orixense, canopy structure and leaves are matched,

Yes, quite likely

Yes ma’am it’s different from Actinodaphane,

Leaves appear to be a bit narrow as compared to those at Hymenodictyon orixense
May I request you to pl. post high res. images.

Adding the high resolution image.

Looks different.

I will click more pictures with my zoom camera when travelling through that place again.

Adding close up images of the same tree clicked yesterday.
4 images.

Sterculia foetida

Bombay ceiba I think. This tree has deceived us all! Thank you … for an evocative photo of the Ghats.

Bombax! My phone had other ideas

Did you observed any fruits or fruit pieces under the tree or on the tree …,

There are many Bombax trees on this route.
I will be observing it every time I pass by.
When I was travelling to Nasik, the area was completely covered with mist.
This is at the beginning of Kasara Ghat as it is commonly known, the other name being Thal Ghat.
Hope to catch the flowers/pods some day.

Did you check with Bombax suggested by …?
The leaves look more closer to Bombax and there are many Bombax trees on the way.

Kindly recheck.

The place has a deep slope, combined with rain it was very slippery.
Cannot go closer, I could only click pictures with my zoom camera.
Will be observing this tree for flowers/fruits when I pass by the same road.

Whenever you passed that route, find flowers or fruits that will be rock ID ma’am,


Yes, I agree with …, as per images at Bombax ceiba


Bombax insigne from Lal Bagh Bangalore-GS17052022-2: 4 very high res. images.

Bombax insigneWall.
Syn: B. scopulorum Dunn
photographed from Lal Bagh Bangalore, 29-9-2015

You have an endless collection of images.

Was there a name plate?
If not, it is more likely to be Bombax ceiba

Thanks a lot …, you are a genius. There was definitely a label, but if you treat B. scopulorum Dunn and B. insigne Wall. distinct (as BSI eFlora) or under B. insigne (POWO) they have sessile leaflets, whereas they are stalked in B. ceiba and my plant from Bangalore also. They can be easily seen on enlarging images of leaves. This means many labels may be long.
1 attachment


Bombax ceiba L.: 12 very high res. images.

Location: Pharping, Kathmandu, Nepal
Altitude:  1593m.
Date: 20 December 2022
Habit : Wild


Bombax ceiba: 1 image.
Bombax ceiba
A light orange variant
Local name: Simbal
Bilaspur (H.P.)

Thanks very much … for the local name of the plant; I hope it is written in Devanagari as सिंबल



Bombax ceiba L. :: Waghbil, Thane :: Mar 2, 2008 · JUN23 DV269: 1 image.

Bombax ceiba L.
Waghbil, Thane :: Mar 2, 2008 · 4:13 PM IST :: about 3 m (10 ft) asl
Many thanks to Radha Veach for validating the ID at iNaturalist.
Mix of plants in this observation; we see the climber – Combretum albidum G.Don


Bombax ceiba L. :: Thane, Maharashtra :: Mar 8, 2008 · JUN23 DV533: 1 image.

Bombax ceiba L.
Thane, Maharashtra :: Mar 8, 2008 · 4:38 PM IST :: about 11 m (36 ft) asl
Many thanks to Aditya Gadkari and Bharat Godambe for validating the ID at iNaturalist


Malvaceae: Bombax ceiba L.: 2 high res. images.
synonyms: Bombax malabaricum DC., Gossampinus malabarica (DC.) Merr.
location/date: Pench National Park. Seoni Distr., Madhya Pradesh [locations uncertain]