Keys in Flora of Bhutan:
I. Plant slender. glabrous; stem unbranched; flower solitary. terminal . . . . . .. 2
+ Plant slender or coarse. erect. ascending or decumbent. hairy. branched; flowers 1-6 at apex and on lateral branches .  . . .. 3
2. Capsule cylindrical: calyx lobes usually longer than corolla ……. 1. C. aristata
+ Capsule turbinate (developing shape apparent even at anthesis). calyx lobes usually shorter than corolla .  . . .. 2. C. immodesta
3. Leaves linear. to 3mm wide: stem slender. scabrous: flowers 1-3 grouped at stem apex .  . . . . .. 3. C. sylvatica
+ Leaves lanceolate. ovate or elliptic. sometimes linear on stem. all or majority more than 3mm wide; stem villous. hirsute or pilose; flowers 1-6 at apex and on lateral branches . . . .. . . . . . .. 4    
4. Mid-cauline leaves lanceolate to linear. at least 6 >< as long as broad (rarely less); flowers often clustered . .. . .. 4. C. benthamii
+ Mid-cauline leaves elliptic to ovate. to 5 >< as long as broad; flowers never clustered . . . . . . . . 5
5. All flowers sessile or short pedicellate. pedicels to 7mm: leaves to 14mm …. 6. C. cana
+ At least some flowers long pedicellate with pedicels 7-25mm; leaves 4-50mm . . . . . .. 6
6. Plant decumbent. softly villous; calyx lobes entire; leaves rarely more than 15mm . .  . .. 7. C. argyrotricha
+ Plant erect. hirsute; calyx lobes toothed: leaves usually more than 15mm … 5. C. pallida



Campanula argyrotricha Wall. ex A.DC. (Images by D.S.Rawat (1,2) and Prashant (3,4-ID by D.S.Rawat))


(Images by Dinesh Valke (1) and Anjar A.Khuroo (2,3-ID validation by D.S.Rawat))


Campanula cana Wall. (Himalaya to S. Central China and N. Indo-China: Assam, Bangladesh, China South-Central, East Himalaya, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand, Tibet, West Himalaya as per POWO)

Images by Gurcharan Singh (1,2,3)


Campanula cashmeriana Royle (Images by Narendra Joshi (1,2) and Aarti S.Khale (3,4- ID by D.S.Rawat and Gurcharan Singh))

The complete account of Campanulaceae of India is available in FACSICLES OF FLORA OF INDIA FASCICLE-22 published by BSI in 1996. This account is written by V.K.Haridasan and P.K.Mukerjee.
In this document (Haridasan and Mukerjee,1996) following wild species of Campanula are mentioned growing in India-
1- Campanula alphonsii Wall. ex A. DC. [Mentioned as ‘Rare’ in Red Data Book of Indian Plants]

2- C. alsinoides Hook.f. et Thoms.

3- C. argyrotricha Wall. ex A. DC.

4- C. aristata Wall.

5- C. benthamii Wall. ex Kitam. (line diagram given) = Campanula dimorphantha Schweinf.

6- C. cana Wall. (line diagram given)

7- C. cashmeriana Royle (line diagram given)
8- C. latifolia L.
9- C. modesta Hook.f. et Thoms. = Campanula immodesta Lammers
10- C. pallida Wall. (var. pallid, var. tibetica)
11-C. sylvatica Wall.
12- C. wattiana Nayar et Babu [Mentioned as ‘Rare’ in Red Data Book of Indian Plants]   


Species with description & keys in Flora of Pakistan :  

Campanula alsinoides

Campanula argyrotricha

Campanula aristata

Campanula benthamii (syn. of Campanula dimorphantha Schweinf. as per The Plant List)

Campanula cashmeriana

Campanula latifolia

Campanula leucantha (No distribution in India)

Campanula leucoclada (No distribution in India) 

Campanula pallida

Campanula pallida var. pallida

Campanula pallida var. tibetica

Campanulapolyclada (No distribution in India)

Campanula staintonii (No distribution in India)

Campanula sulaimanii (No distribution in India)

Campanula sylvatica

Campanula tenuissima (No distribution in India)

Campanula tristis (No distribution in India)


Species in annotated checklist of Flowering plants of Nepal :

Campanula argyrotricha Wall. ex A. DC.

Campanula aristata Wall.

Campanula benthamii Wall. ex Kitam. (syn. of Campanula dimorphantha Schweinf. as per The Plant List)

Campanula cana Wall.

Campanula latifolia L.

Campanula modesta Hook. f. & Thomson = Campanula immodesta Lammers

Campanula nakaoi Kitam. (No distribution in India)

Campanula pallida Wall.

Campanula sylvatica Wall.


Binomial Habit Notes Ref. Distrib.
Wall. ex A.DC.
Herb Western Ghats,
Evergreen Forests in Rock cleft
Flora of Tamil
Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Gamble 1957
Coimbatore ,
Dindigul, Nilgiri
Campanula benthamii Wall. ex Kitam. = Campanula dimorphantha Schweinf. Herb Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests in Rock cleft
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Gamble 1957
Tirunelveli, Virudhu nagar
Campanula drabifolia Sibth. & Smith Herb Western
Ghats, Cultivated, Native of Mediterra nean Region
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Campanula latifolia L. Shrub Western
Ghats, Cultivated, Native of Mediterra nean Region
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Campanula medium L. Herb Western
Ghats, Cultivated, Native of Mediterra nean Region
Campanula ramulosa Wall. is a synonym of Campanula pallida Wall. Herb Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests, Grasslands
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Campanula rapunculoides L. Herb Western
Ghats, Cultivated, Native of Mediterra nean Region
Campanula wightii Gamble is a synonym of Campanula pallida Wall. Herb Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987


Campanula aristata Campanula aristata var. longisepala, Campanula cylindrica Campanulaceae Long-Sepal Bellflower
Campanula incurva Campanula leutweinii Campanulaceae Evia Bellflower
Campanula latifolia Campanulaceae Large Bellflower
Campanula medium ‘Calycanthema’ Campanula medium var. calycanthema Campanulaceae Cup and Saucer Bellflower
Campanula medium Campanulaceae Canterbury Bells
Campanula pallida Campanula colorata, Campanula himalayensis, Campanula hoffmeisteri, Campanula ramulosa Campanulaceae Purple Bellflower
Campanula pallida Campanula colorata Campanulaceae Pale Bellflower
Campanula pallida Wall. var. tibetica Campanula colorata var. tibetica Campanulaceae Tibetan Pale Bellflower


1997 IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants edited by Kerry Scott Walter, Harriet J. Gillett
Campanula wattiana B.K.Nayar & Babu- R- Himachal & Uttar Pradesh


Floriculture in India By Gurcharan Singh Randhawa, Amitabha Mukhopadhyay (1986)-
Campanula latiloba a synonym of Campanula grandis Fisch. & C.A.Mey.


Forest Plants of Eastern India By Amal Bhusan Chaudhuri (1993)- Brief details-
Campanula canescens Wall. ex A.DC. is a synonym of Campanula dimorphantha Schweinf.
Campanula fulgens Wall. is a synonym of Asyneuma fulgens (Wall.) Briq.


Flora of Madhya Pradesh: Chhatarpur and Damoh By G. P. Roy, B. K. Shukla, Bhaskar Datt (1993)- Details-


In eFI database I have added the list of wild species of Campanula in India based on the document FACSICLES OF FLORA OF INDIA FASCICLE-22, in which Campanulaceae is written by V.K.Haridasan and P.K.Mukerjee. This document is published by BSI Calcutta in 1996.

Campanula : post by 1 author.

I have updated eFI (efloraofindia) page on Campanula

Attempts have been made to incorporate most of the species available in India & nearby areas with details & keys directly or through links as far as possible. It’s quite possible that there may be some discrepancy in the accepted names & synonyms taken from other links.

Species discussed so far in efloraofindia are given at the bottom of the page in the form of links against Subpages. On clicking them one can see all the details.

If someone can provide complete list of Indian species with source references it will be wonderful.

Any comments/ corrections are welcome.


Pl. go through Campanula page (‎‎‎Campanulaceae) with images of species in efloraofindia (done by …).

If you find any mis-identification, pl. let us know.

If anybody can send images of other species of this genera (for incorporation in the website), it will be really nice. Also, if anybody is interested to take up the activity of inserting images on efloraofindia pages from efloraofindia posts, pl. let us know.


Dr Ralph Stewart in ‘An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Pakistan & Kashmir’ (1972) wrote that “Campanula alsinoides (which he recorded from N.Pakistan Kashmir incl. Kishtwar) seemed like an AN APETALOUS form of Campanula colorata var. tibetica (which we now call C.pallida var. tibetica). The cleistagamous forms of the Campanulas are often hard to identify. Someone needs to CULTIVATE the forms of this genus in the garden or a greenhouse”.
I agree WHOLEHEARTEDLY with Dr Stewart.  Sometimes, complex taxonomic problems can be RESOLVED by having the opportunity to EXAMINE CLOSELY plants of known provenance belonging to the genera concerned.
The Nagoya Protocol DESTROYS this opportunity.
Stewart recorded Campanula argyrotricha from N.Pakistan and Kashmir (incl. Zoji La, Banihal & Tangmarg @ 1200-3000m.  He recorded C.colorata (now C.pallida) as VERY COMMON and VERY VARIABLE from 500- 2800m in N.Pakistan and Kashmir. He recognised var. tibetica (recorded from N.Pakistan & Ladakh incl. Suru & Zanskar @ 2650-3800m.
Plants of Gulmarg recorded C.alsinoides from rock crevices above Leinmarg (not familiar with this place); C.argyrotricha from moist places at Tangmarg; C.colorata (now C.pallida) from Gulmarg.
Flora of Lahaul-Spiti  records all 3 species:  C.alsinoides (which it says has white flowers – so is NOT ‘cleistagamous’) as rare in rock crevices at Shansa-Jalma;  C.argyrotricha as common on glacial slopes at Kiber; C.pallida var. pallida rare on moist sandy slopes at Jispa, var. tibetica extremely rare along boulders and in rock cervices at Patseo.
I think that Campanula cashmeriana also needs to be considered amongst all this. Stewart found this to be common in rock cervices in Kashmir; also found in Ladakh.
Plants of Gulmarg record C.cashmeriana from Tangmarg.  Flora of Lahaul-Spiti record it on the strength of Chowdhery- Wadwha though had not seen it there themselves nor had come across any pressed specimens in Indian herbaria to support this claim.
Dickore & Klimes in the most up-to-date check-list for Ladakh (2005) record all 4 species there.
In Campanulaceae (Flora of Pakistan, 1984) Nasir separates C.alsinoides from C.pallida on the basis of plants being procumbent, flowers up to 3mm, petals absent & minute calyx teeth in the former whilst plants erect to procumbent, flowers 1cm long, corolla campanulate, calyx teeth prominent.
Just to help, Campanula cana is NOT known from Pakistan/Kashmir.


Since joining this group, I have not noticed any suggestions that hybridisation MIGHT be a complicating factor in any genus IN THE WILD?  The only mention of hybrids I can quickly locate is for cultivated plants.
But what about hybridisation, where populations overlap?   Could this be a complicating factor.
I have observed recent introductions of Campanulas from the Himalaya hybridise – with the off-spring markedly different to the original species.


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