Canscora Lam. (GENTIANACEAE)
Species of Canscora Lam. in India
The genus Canscora is comprised of 11 species distributed in Tropical Asia, Africa and Australia. In India, it is represented by 8 species, of which 6 are found in southern India.
1. Canscora alata (Roth) Wall.
Synonyms: Canscora decussata (Roxb.) Roem. &
2. Canscora andrographioides Griff. ex C.B.Clarke
Synonyms: Canscora diffusa
3. Canscora concanensis C.B.Clarke
4. Canscora diffusa (Vahl) R.Br. ex.
5. Canscora heteroclita (L.) Gilg
6. Canscora pauciflora Dalz.
8. Canscora roxburghii Arn. ex Miq.
Synonyms: Canscora wallichii
1. Canscora bhatiana K.S.Prasad &
Shahina & Nampy
2. Canscora stricta Sedgw. is a synonym of Canscorinella
3. Canscora devendrae Singh & Diwakar is
4. Canscora sanjappae Diwakar &
1. Bhat KG and Vishwanatha. 2009.
6. Thiv M. 2003. A taxonomic
7. Shahina PM, Santhosh Nampy. 2014. A taxonomic revision of the genus Canscora in South India, and the erection of the
new genus Canscorinella (Canscorinae, Gentianaceae) with two new combinations.” Phytotaxa 164(4): 201–225. DOI:
Key to the South Indian species of Canscora as per Shahina PM, Santhosh Nampy. 2014. A taxonomic revision of the genus Canscora in South India, and the erection of the new genus Canscorinella (Canscorinae, Gentianaceae) with two new combinations.” Phytotaxa 164(4): 201–225. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.164.4.1
1. Filaments of the upper stamen broadened below the anther …… 2
– Filaments of the upper stamen not broadened below the anther …. 4
2. Bracts perfoliate …… 3
– Bracts linear-lanceolate ……. 1. C. alata
3. Stems prominently winged (wings 2−5 mm broad); calyx winged ….. 5. C. perfoliata
– Stems narrowly winged (wings 1−1.5 mm broad); calyx striate ….. 6. C. roxburghii
4. Flowers pedicellate …… 5
– Flowers sessile …… 3. C. heteroclita
5. Cymes dense; pedicels not thickened below the calyx; calyx without wings or striations ….. 2. C. diffusa
– Cymes lax; pedicels thickened below the calyx; calyx striate ……… 4. C. pauciflora
Canscora decurrens (now Canscora diffusa (Vahl) R.Br. ex Roem. & Schult.),
Canscora decussata (now Canscora alata (Roth) Wall.),
Canscora khandalensis (now Canscora diffusa (Vahl) R.Br. ex Roem. & Schult.),
Canscora pauciflora (now Canscora diffusa (Vahl) R.Br. ex Roem. & Schult.),
Canscora roxburghii &
Canscora stricta (now Canscora diffusa (Vahl) R.Br. ex Roem. & Schult.))
Species with description & pictures in Flowers of India as on 9.3.14:
Flora of Davanagere District, Karnataka, India By B. K. Manjunatha, V. Krishna, T. Pullaiah (2004)- Details with keys–
Flora of Medak District, Andhra Pradesh, India By T. Pullaiah, Chintala Prabhakar, B. Ravi Prasad Rao (1998)- Details with keys–
Flora of Ranga Reddi District Andhra Pradesh, India By T. Pullaiah, M. Silar Mohammed (2000)-
Details with keys–
Plant Wealth of the Lower Ganga Delta: An Eco-taxonomical Approach, Volume 2 By Kumudranjan Naskar (1993)-
Indian Medicinal Plants: An Illustrated Dictionary edited by C.P. Khare (2007)-
Flora of Madhya Pradesh: Chhatarpur and Damoh By G. P. Roy, B. K. Shukla, Bhaskar Datt (1992)-
Canscora : 1 post by 1 author.
I have updated eFI (efloraofindia) page on Canscora
Attempts have been made to incorporate most of the species available in India & nearby areas with details & keys directly or through links as far as possible. It’s quite possible that there may be some discrepancy in the accepted names & synonyms taken from other links.
Species discussed so far in efloraofindia are given at the bottom of the page in the form of links against Subpages. On clicking them one can see all the details.
If someone can provide complete list of Indian species with source references it will be wonderful.
Any comments/ corrections are welcome
CANSCORA BHATIANA (GENTIANACEAE), A NEW SPECIES FROM KERALA, INDIA by K. Subrahmanya Prasad* and K. Raveendran (2012)- (with Comparison of Canscora diffusa, C. sanjappae, C. devendrae and C. bhatiana.)
ABSTRACT: A new species of Canscora, C. bhatiana K. S. Prasad & K. Ravi, is described from the lateritic hillocks of Kasaragod District, Kerala. It differs from the allied C. devendrae R. Kr. Singh and Diwakar in clear dichotomous apical branching, winged stem, farinaceous leaves, much reduced upper cauline leaves, pedicellate flowers, lanceolate bracts, two times longer filaments and much shorter ovary.
Canscora devendrae (Gentianaceae) – a new species from Western Ghats, India (2011) (pdf– around 2 MB)- by R. Kr. Singh and P. G. Diwakar
Canscora sanjappae (Gentianaceae) – A new species from Mookambika Wildlife Sanctuary, Karnataka, India (2011) (pdf– around 4 MB)- by R. Kr. Singh and P. G. Diwakar- Indian J. Forest. 32: 337 2009.
A taxonomic revision of the genus Canscora in South India, and the erection of the new genus Canscorinella (Canscorinae, Gentianaceae) with two new combinations by SHAHINA P.M. & SANTHOSH NAMPY*- Phytotaxa 164 (4): 201–225- 2014- (with Keys & details to the South Indian species of Canscora.)
Abstract The genus Canscora in South India is revised based on field and herbarium studies and in consultation with types and protologues. C. pauciflora, which was previously treated as conspecific to C. diffusa is reinstated while C. sanjappae and C. devendrae are synonymised under C. diffusa and C. stricta (= Canscorinella stricta) respectively. The present study supports the exclusion of two species of Canscora i.e., C. stricta and C. bhatiana resulting in the establishment of the new genus Canscorinella and two new combinations: Canscorinella stricta and Canscorinella bhatiana. The new genus Canscorinella is characterized by the presence of actinomorphic corolla and isomorphic stamens. This brings the number of species currently recognized for the genus Canscora to eleven worldwide, six (55 %) of which occurring in South India. Descriptions, photo plates and keys to the South Indian species of Canscora and Canscorinella are provided here.
Please have a look at new developments in this regard:
Thanks, …, May be authors can say better. May be there are some other papers after them.
Problem with Catalogue of Life is that they do not give references of publications as done by GRIN.
There had been random publications in the group in recent past which lead on to more confusions than solutions. This paper is valuable as it clarifies some doubts. Can I have a PDF of the full paper for reference?
Thanks, … Sent to you in a separate mail under subject heading: “things to submit”
I have updated list of Canscora species in India. Added synonyms, distribution and references.
Thanks, … That is really wonderful.
Canscora (Gentianaceae) page with images of species in efloraofindia : 1 post by 1 author.
If you find any incorrect identification, pl. let us know. If anybody can send images of other species of this genera (for incorporation in the website), if any, or can identify unidentified images, it will be really nice.