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Images by Alka KhareNidhan SinghPrashant AwaleDinesh Valke (ID Mahadeswara), Satish Nikam and Saroj Kasaju (ID confirmation Nidhan Singh), inserted by Gurcharan Singh (Please click links to see details and more images).

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Images by Anurag Sharma (ID Surajit Koley), Shahina ShanavasPrashant AwaleDinesh Valke and Prashant Awale, inserted by Gurcharan Singh (Please click links to see details and more images.

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Image by Shahina Shanavas, Inserted by Gurcharan Singh (Please click link to see details)

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Canscora Lam. (GENTIANACEAE)

Species of Canscora Lam. in India

The genus Canscora is comprised of 11 species distributed in Tropical Asia, Africa and Australia. In India, it is represented by 8 species, of which 6 are found in southern India.

1.   Canscora alata (Roth) Wall.

      Synonyms: Canscora decussata (Roxb.) Roem. &
Schult.
; Pladera
decussata
Roxb.; Exacum alatum Roth
      Distribution:
Global: Tropical Africa and South Asia. India: Throughout sub-tropical regions
.


2.   Canscora andrographioides Griff. ex C.B.Clarke

      Synonyms: Canscora diffusa
Wall.; Pladera virgata Griff.

      Distribution-India:
Uttar Pradesh (Lakhimpur), Khasi and Jaintia hills, Aka Hills, Lushai hills,
Assam, Nagaland, Manipur.


3.   Canscora concanensis C.B.Clarke

      Distribution-India:
Endemic-Concan (South Maharashtra and North Karnataka, Gujarat).


4.   Canscora diffusa (Vahl) R.Br. ex.
Roem. & Schult.

      Synonyms: Gentiana
diffusa
Yahl; Canscora lawii Wight, non C.B.Clarke; Exacum erectum Roth; E. diffusum Willd.;
      Canscora diffusa var. tetraptera Naik & Pokle
; C. tenella Wight; C. diffusa var. tenella
(Wight) C.B.Clarke
;
      C. khandalensis
Santapau;
C. lanciflora
Miq.; C. decurrens Dalz.
 
     
Distribution:
Global: Tropical Africa, Asia and Australia. India: Throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions.

5.   Canscora heteroclita (L.) Gilg     
     
Synonyms: Gentiana
heteroclita
L.; Canscora sessiliflora
Roem. & Schult.; Exacum heteroclitum Willd.
      Distribution:
Global: India and Sri Lanka. India: Upper Gangetic Plains, North-East
Rajasthan, Gujarat,
Maharashtra,              South India.

6.   Canscora pauciflora Dalz.
      
Synonym: Exacum macrantherum Miq.
      Distribution:
Global: Tropical Africa and Asia. India: South India (?).

7.   Canscora perfoliata Lam.

      
Synonym: Canscora grandiflora
Wight; C. alata Wall.

      Distribution:
Endemic to western and southern India (Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala).


8.   Canscora roxburghii Arn. ex Miq.

      Synonyms: Canscora wallichii
C.B.Clarke
; C. perfoliata auct. non Lam.; Pladera perfoliata sensu Roxb., non quoad
      basionym; Exacum connatum Moon, p.p.
      Distribution:
Global: South India and Sri Lanka. India: Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala.



Notes:

1. Canscora bhatiana K.S.Prasad &
Raveendran is a synonym of Canscorinella
bhatiana
(K.S.Prasad & Raveendran)

    Shahina & Nampy

2. Canscora stricta Sedgw. is a synonym of Canscorinella
stricta
(Sedgw.) Nampy & Shahina

3. Canscora devendrae Singh & Diwakar is
a synonym of Canscorinella
stricta
(Sedgw.) Nampy & Shahina

4. Canscora sanjappae Diwakar &
R.Kr.Singh is a synonym of
Canscora diffusa (Vahl) R.Br. ex.
Roem. & Schult.


References:

1. Bhat KG and Vishwanatha. 2009.
Two little known plants from Peninsular India. Indian Journal of Forestry. 32 (1):
175-178.

2. Diwakar PG and Singh RK. 2009. Canscora
sanjappae
(Gentianaceae) – A new species from Mookambika wildlife

    sanctuary, Karnataka, India. Indian Journal of Forestry. 32 (2): 337 – 342. [Full article at academia.edu]
3. Diwakar PG and Singh RK. 2010.
Rediscovery of Canscora stricta Sedgw. (Gentianaceae) – A little known, strict
endemic
    and threatened taxon from Mookambika wildlife sanctuary, Karnataka.
Indian Journal of Forestry. 33 (1): 97 – 98.


Garg S.
    1988. Indian Gentianaceae: A check-list. Northern Book Center, New Delhi.
4. Singh RK and Diwakar PG. 2011. Canscora
devendrae
(Gentianaceae) – A new species from Western Ghats, India. Indian

    Journal of Forestry. 34 (2): 249 – 252. [Full article at academia.edu]
5. Subrahmanya Prasad K and Raveendran K. 2012. Canscora bhatiana
(Gentianaceae), a new species from Kerala, India.
    International Journal of
Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences 2(4): 197-201.
    Accessed at http://www.ijpaes.com/admin/php/uploads/255_pdf.pdf


6. Thiv M. 2003. A taxonomic
revision of Canscora, Cracosna, Duplipetala, Hoppea,
Microrphium, Phyllocyclus and Schinziella
    (Gentianaceae-Canscorinae).
Blumea, 48 (1): 1 – 46.


7. Shahina PM, Santhosh Nampy. 2014. A taxonomic revision of the genus Canscora in South India, and the erection of the
    new genus Canscorinella (Canscorinae, Gentianaceae) with two new combinations.” Phytotaxa 164(4): 201–225. DOI:
    http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.164.4.1
 




 
Key to the South Indian species of Canscora as per Shahina PM, Santhosh Nampy. 2014. A taxonomic revision of the genus Canscora in South India, and the erection of the new genus Canscorinella (Canscorinae, Gentianaceae) with two new combinations.” Phytotaxa 164(4): 201–225. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.164.4.1  
1. Filaments of the upper stamen broadened below the anther …… 2
– Filaments of the upper stamen not broadened below the anther …. 4
2. Bracts perfoliate …… 3
– Bracts linear-lanceolate ……. 1. C. alata
3. Stems prominently winged (wings 2−5 mm broad); calyx winged ….. 5. C. perfoliata
– Stems narrowly winged (wings 1−1.5 mm broad); calyx striate ….. 6. C. roxburghii
4. Flowers pedicellate …… 5
– Flowers sessile …… 3. C. heteroclita
5. Cymes dense; pedicels not thickened below the calyx; calyx without wings or striations ….. 2. C. diffusa
– Cymes lax; pedicels thickened below the calyx; calyx striate ……… 4. C. pauciflora


Indian Gentianaceae: A Check-list By Sunita Garg (1988)-

Canscora andrographioides,
Canscora concanensis,
Canscora decussata (now Canscora alata (Roth) Wall.),
Canscora diffusa,
Canscora heteroclita,
Canscora perfoliata,
Canscora roxburghii &
  

Binomial Habit Notes References Distribution
Canscora decurrens Dalz. is a synonym of Canscora diffusa (Vahl) R.Br. ex Roem. & Schult. Herb Plains to Mid Altitude, Moist Localities Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 Coimbatore, Nilgiri, Salem, Thanjavur, Tiruchchirappalli
Canscora decussata (Roxb.) Schultes & Schultes = Canscora alata (Roth) Wall. Herb Plains to Mid Altitude, Moist Localities Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Matthew 1983 Coimbatore, Dharmapuri, Nilgiri, Salem, Tiruchchirappalli, Tiruvannamalai
Canscora diffusa (Vahl) R.Br. ex Roem. & Schultes Herb Plains to Mid Altitude, Moist Localities Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Matthew 1983 Coimbatore, Dharmapuri, Nilgiri, Salem, Tiruchchirappalli
Canscora heteroclita (L.) Gilg Herb Plains to Low Altitude, Moist Localities Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Fischer 1921, Matthew 1983 All districts
Canscora perfoliata Lam. Herb Western Ghats, Evergreen Forests Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 Coimbatore, Nilgiri
Canscora roxburghii Arn. ex Miq. Herb Western Ghats, Moist Deciduous to Evergreen Forests Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987 Coimbatore, Dindigul, Kanniyakumari, Nilgiri, Theni, Tirunelveli, Tiruvannamalai


 


 

Botanical name Synonyms Family Common name
Canscora alata Exacum alatum, Canscora decussata, Pladera decussata Gentianaceae Winged-Stem Canscora
Canscora devendrae
Gentianaceae Devendra’s Canscora
Canscora diffusa
Gentianaceae Kilwar
Canscora khandalensis is a synonym of Canscora diffusa (Vahl) R.Br. ex Roem. & Schult.
Gentianaceae Khandala Canscora
Canscora perfoliata
Gentianaceae Pierced Leaf Canscora


 
  
  
Flora of Davanagere District, Karnataka, India By B. K. Manjunatha, V. Krishna, T. Pullaiah (2004)- Details with keys
  
Flora of Medak District, Andhra Pradesh, India By T. Pullaiah, Chintala Prabhakar, B. Ravi Prasad Rao (1998)- Details with keys

  
Flora of Ranga Reddi District Andhra Pradesh, India By T. Pullaiah, M. Silar Mohammed (2000)-
Details with keys

  
  
  
Flora of Madhya Pradesh: Chhatarpur and Damoh By G. P. Roy, B. K. Shukla, Bhaskar Datt (1992)-

Details with keys

  
Canscora : 1 post by 1 author.

I have updated eFI (efloraofindia) page on Canscora

Attempts have been made to incorporate most of the species available in India & nearby areas with details & keys directly or through links as far as possible. It’s quite possible that there may be some discrepancy in the accepted names & synonyms taken from other links.

Species discussed so far in efloraofindia are given at the bottom of the page in the form of links against Subpages. On clicking them one can see all the details.

If someone can provide complete list of Indian species with source references it will be wonderful.

Any comments/ corrections are welcome


  
CANSCORA BHATIANA (GENTIANACEAE), A NEW SPECIES FROM KERALA, INDIA by K. Subrahmanya Prasad* and K. Raveendran (2012)- (with Comparison of Canscora diffusa, C. sanjappae, C. devendrae and C. bhatiana.)
ABSTRACT: A new species of Canscora, C. bhatiana K. S. Prasad & K. Ravi, is described from the lateritic hillocks of Kasaragod District, Kerala. It differs from the allied C. devendrae R. Kr. Singh and Diwakar in clear dichotomous apical branching, winged stem, farinaceous leaves, much reduced upper cauline leaves, pedicellate flowers, lanceolate bracts, two times longer filaments and much shorter ovary.


 
Canscora devendrae (Gentianaceae) – a new species from Western Ghats, India (2011) (pdf– around 2 MB)- by R. Kr. Singh and P. G. Diwakar


  
Canscora sanjappae (Gentianaceae) – A new species from Mookambika Wildlife Sanctuary, Karnataka, India (2011) (pdf– around 4 MB)- by R. Kr. Singh and P. G. Diwakar- Indian J. Forest. 32: 337 2009.


  
A taxonomic revision of the genus Canscora in South India, and the erection of the new genus Canscorinella (Canscorinae, Gentianaceae) with two new combinations by SHAHINA P.M. & SANTHOSH NAMPY*- Phytotaxa 164 (4): 201–225- 2014- (with Keys & details to the South Indian species of Canscora.)
Abstract The genus Canscora in South India is revised based on field and herbarium studies and in consultation with types and protologues. C. pauciflora, which was previously treated as conspecific to C. diffusa is reinstated while C. sanjappae and C. devendrae are synonymised under C. diffusa and C. stricta (= Canscorinella stricta) respectively. The present study supports the exclusion of two species of Canscora i.e., C. stricta and C. bhatiana resulting in the establishment of the new genus Canscorinella and two new combinations: Canscorinella stricta and Canscorinella bhatiana. The new genus Canscorinella is characterized by the presence of actinomorphic corolla and isomorphic stamens. This brings the number of species currently recognized for the genus Canscora to eleven worldwide, six (55 %) of which occurring in South India. Descriptions, photo plates and keys to the South Indian species of Canscora and Canscorinella are provided here.


Please have a look at new developments in this regard:

Thanks, …, May be authors can say better. May be there are some other papers after them.
Problem with Catalogue of Life is that they do not give references of publications as done by GRIN.


There had been random publications in the group in recent past which lead on to more confusions than solutions. This paper is valuable as it clarifies some doubts. Can I have a PDF of the full paper for reference?


Thanks, … Sent to you in a separate mail under subject heading: “things to submit”


  

I have updated list of Canscora species in India. Added synonyms, distribution and references.


Thanks, … That is really wonderful.


 

Pl. go through Canscora (‎‎‎‎‎‎‎‎‎‎‎Gentianaceae‎) page with images of species in efloraofindia.

If you find any incorrect identification, pl. let us know. If anybody can send images of other species of this genera (for incorporation in the website), if any, or can identify unidentified images, it will be really nice. 


 

 
 

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