Carissa spinarum L., Mant. Pl. 2: 559 1771. (Syn. Carissacongesta Wight; Carissacarandas var. congesta (Wight) Bedd.; Carissacarandas var. paucinervia (A.DC.) Bedd.; (=) Carissa brownii F. Muell.; (=) Carissa diffusa Roxb.; (=) Carissa edulis Vahl; (=) Carissa opaca Stapf ex Haines; (=) Carissa ovata R. Br.; Carissa inermis Vahl;  …………………………….);
.
commonly known as: Bengal currant, Christ’s thorn, corinda tree, karanda • Bengali: করমচা karamcha • Gujarati: કરારમર્દ kararmarda • Hindi: बलालक balalak, डिण्डिमी dindimi, करौंदा karaunda, सुषेण sushena • Kannada: ಕರೆಕಾಯಿ karekayi • Malayalam: karakka • Marathi: करांदा karanda, करवंद karavanda • Oriya: sushena • Sanskrit: करमर्द्द karamarda, सुषेण sushena • Tamil: களாக்காய் kalakkay, பெருங்களா perungala • Telugu: కలివె kalive, ఓక oka, పెద్ద వాకకాయ pedda-vakakaya ;
.
kar-ISS-uh — Latinized form of Indian vernacular name for this genus
kon-JES-tuh — congested, crowded
.
Native to: India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka
.
Edible use:

unripe fruits (as VEGETABLE) … normally pickled
ripe as well as unripe fruits (as FRUIT)
.
It’s root administered in stomachic and anthelmintic, also to control fever, cordiac, nervous system disease and acts as a wonderful controller of thirst;
.
Keys:
leaves 4-7 cm long, veins 8 pairs, corolla tube 2-2.5 cm long, fruit 1.5-2.5 cm long, purplish black when ripe, llipsoid ………..Carissa carandas
leaves 1-3.5 cm long, lateral veins 3-5 pairs, corolla tube 1-1.5 cm long, fruit 7-8 mm long, dull dark purple when ripe, globose.. Carissa spinarum
.
As per efi thread :
C. carandas                                        C. spinarum
1. Lateral veins of leaf ca. 8 pairs      1. Lateral veins of leaf 3-5 pairs
2. Leaves 3.5-8 cm long                      2. Leaves 2-5 cm long
3. Leaf apex rounded, emarginate    3. Leaf apex acute or acuminate to apiculate
4. Fruit ellipsoid, 15-25 mm long.     4. Fruit subglobose, 5-12 mm
5. Ripe fruit reddish-purple               5. Ripe fruit shining black
.

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Apocynaceae (dogbane family) » Carissa congesta
Synonym: Carissa carandas
kar-ISS-uh — Latinized form of Indian vernacular name for this genus
kon-JES-tuh — congested, crowded
Native to: India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka
Edible use (WILD):
unripe fruits (as VEGETABLE) … normally pickled
ripe as well as unripe fruits (as FRUIT)


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Weaver Ants tending Scale Insects on Carvanda: Thought this might be interesting. Photographed at my farm at Shahapur on Sunday….
Weaver ants [Oecophylla smaragdina] tending Scale insects [Family Coccidae] because they, like treehoppers, also secrete honeydew. Also seen is the start of the ant’s nest on Carvanda [Carissa congesta].

– I have seen the symbiotic relationship between these scale insects and several varieties of ants. One good way, I found to control these weaver ants is by encouraging the black cocktail ants to multiply. They too have a bad sting but not as bad as these weaver ants.



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identification no110311sn1: please confirm which Carissa sp. is it? 

date/time:feb11
location:mulshi,pune
habitat:wild


–  Carissa spinarum L.?


– Yes .. You may be right

leaves 4-7 cm long, veins 8 pairs, corolla tube 2-2.5 cm long, fruit 1.5-2.5
cm long, purplish black when ripe, ellipsoid…………………………………………………………
Carissa carandas
leaves 1-3.5 cm long, lateral veins 3-5 pairs, corolla tube 1-1.5 cm long,
fruit 7-8 mm long, dull dark purple when ripe, globose………………………………………….
Carissa spinarum



 

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Carissa spinarum from Morni hills, Haryana: Carissa spinarum L., Mant. pl. 2:559. 1771
small shrub common on hill slopes of Morni hills, photographed on April 9, 2011
Common names: carandas-plum, current-bush, Egyptian carissa, kunkerberry


– Here are mine from the same locality, we shot it together.


.


Different Strokes revisited: Photographed at my farm at Shahapur today. My last years post of the same is available at this link:
efi thread
Great pictures of *डोंगरची मैना* They appear so juicy even in the photographs


Wow, now I know of a third Carissa,  discovering a whole new world… THANKS ….
I only knew about two: Carissa macrocarpa and C. carandas… now this…
googling for c. congesta I found a bewildering  list of synonyms for Carissa cogesta
I was wondering why so much confusion, why did taxonomist/ botanists/ fruit specialist felt the need to identify the same bush and its berries with so many names…  and I discovered its not listed as Carissa congesta, but as Carissa spinarum.  and this URL wiki page lists congesta as a synonym… go figure!!!


OH I FORGOT TO GIVE THE URL FOR THE PAGE I WAS REFERING TO: HERE IT IS:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carissa_spinarum


.


220312 BRS 337 id. request. reg.: This is Karvanda [Carissa congesta]. Please check the archives of this group for my photographs of this.


Carissa congesta (syn C. carandus?)


This is Carissa spinarum L. (Syn. C. congesta)

http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl/record/kew-34226


Thanks … for sp. confirmation.

the above in my thread looks slightly differ from C.carandus?


Yes this is different from C. carandas. in C. carandas the leaves are elliptic or oblong with a round or slightly cordate base as against the ovate leaves with slightly acute or cuneate leaf base. The inflorescence in C. carandas is slightly puberulus and here it is glabrous.

C. carandas is a much bigger plant when compare to C. spinarum


efi thread


Was trying to send a few photographs but it is not happening…

Hi …, Dr Almeida in his ‘Flora of Maharashtra’, Vol 3-A, has classified Carissa villosa [syn. C. spinarium] as a separate species.


Even Gamble has classified C. spinarum and C. congesta as two different species but with very little difference (or I would say hardly any difference). He classified the Canara plant as C. congesta and the Deccan plant as C. spinarum. Roxburgh had named the same plant as C. villosa, hence there exist several names for the same plant at different places.

That would be the reason why the plant list people (who updates flora across the world) merged these two species  in to one species, ie C. spinarum (please refer the link in my previous related mail). And, I believe that, C. spinarum (among these species) would be the one that is treated as the valid publication and hence become the accepted name.    
There are several synonyms under C. spinarum that indicates the same species was handled with different name in different places/areas.

Never ending, there are about 100 synonymns for this plant as per the plant list!


Anyway, am sending this link

 



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Request Tree ID 083 – Lalbagh, Bangalore – RA: This is Karvanda [Carissa congesta]. Please check the archives of this group for my photographs of this.


one question though..can Kamarada get this tall? see pic 4 … seems old and tall?
All carissa congesta one sees in private gardens around here is usually 5 to 7 feet tall? young?


Please check this link


Interesting to look at these pictures.

When I saw this tree in Lalbagh, I thought the bush nearby has covered it, so I thought the flowers and fruits are from the bush.
But tried to trace the branches and thought it was from the tree. I was not 100% sure whether they are from the tree or the bush.

I will confirm this again when I go to Lalbagh again.


It is Carissa congesta.
Often these shrubs cover and grow around bigger trees too and the flowers appear to arise from the tree.
The Carissa shrubs can grow around covering a large area and make an area cool with good shade where a Tiger takes rest in scorchy summer season.


 

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Carissa for ID : Mumbai : 110612 : AK-2: Carissa plant seen at the Flower Show in Jijamata Udyan, Mumbai on 25/2/12. Flowers look different from the usual Carissa known to me.


This looks like the regular Carvanda [Carissa congesta] but it is difficult to make a accurate diagnosis without a photograph of the entire leaf.


Carissa congesta



 

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Different Strokes revisited: Photographed at my farm at Shahapur today. My last years post of the same is available at this link


Great pictures of डोंगरची मैना They appear so juicy even in the photographs


Found this mail while searching for my LA upload of Carissa

Yes Carissa congesta Wight is synonym of C. spinarum L.

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For Id 300612 – NS1, From Mulshi,Pune: I photographed this thorny, woody bush near Mulshi on 10 th June 12.
Habitat- Wild
Height- appx 5-6 feet
Leaves- Opposite, Oval .
Fruits- Black ( appx 1.5 cm diameter)


Carissa congestaKarvanda करवंद


How to differentiate this from Carissa spinarum?


We call this Kaali maina in Marathi


..I am not very sure is it.Carissa spinarum or  Carissa congesta,! Help.

…, Do we call karvand as Dongarchi Maina or is it a diff sp of carissa ?


I think the fruit in the picture is Carissa carandas commonly found near streams and hilly areas.

Waiting for answers from experts.


the fruits ofC.carandus are bigger (c.2-3cm long) and here it is smaller leading to C.spinarum or C.congesta. Also the leaves are obtuse tipped and about 8x5cm in C.carandus.


For me the plant is C.spinarum as suggested by … This plant is very common in Guindy National Park Chennai.


.


Carissa spinarum–sharing my pic: Sharing my pic of Wild Karanda

Pic taken at my farm at ambyvalley rd. lonavala/mulshi pune in april 12.



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Karawand (Carissa congesta) flowering:  Single shrub, of C congesta observed in flowering at Matheran on 3rd Feb 12.



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Rubiaceae Week:Carissa congesta:

Carissa congesta or karvanda

fragrant flowers, fruits are sour when green and deliciously sweet and also sticky when ripe


Very nice photographs … But it will come under Family : Apocynaceae. and not Rubiaceae.



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Carissa spinarum—for sharing and validation:  Photo of Wild Karanda taken at my farm at Ambyvalley rd.lonavala/mulshi in june 12.



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Flora of Kaiga 20052013PJ1 : Attachments (1). 2 posts by 1 author.
Sharing ,Carissa congesta ….
Summer vacation makes our village children busy in quenching their thrist in collecting forest fruit.
It is a road side shrub in the Kaiga-Karwar Road.

It’s root administered in stomachic and anthelmintic, also to control fever, cordiac, nervous system disease and acts as a wonderful controller of thirst.


 

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Carissa spinarum Fruits : For ID Confirmation : Anjaneri,Nasik : 010713 : AK-4 : Attachments (1).  9 posts by 3 authors.

Had bought these small fruits from locals selling them at Anjaneri, near Nasik on 14/4/13.

Very sweet tasting.
Carissa spinarum?
Earlier we got a lot of these in Kasara Ghat area. But with the new national highways, we miss out on them.

Kindly confirm id.


Carissa spinarum


If they are large [about 2.5 cms long], very sweet and look like plums then they are more likely to be Carissa inermis. Sending one of my photographs.


Forgot to mention – in C. villosa [C.spinarium], the berry is only 6 mm long.


Thanks for your picture and feedback.

Berries were not very large, approx 1 to 1.5 cm.

Most of them sweet, few a bit sour.
Years ago, I recollect these were sold by vendors at the Kasara railway station, in tiny baskets made of leaves.

You see a lot of these bushes in the Kasara-Igatpuri ghat.


I could find a picture taken at Anjaneri of the flowers.
Bush growing wild by the roadside.

Picture is taken on 26/2/2011.


In that case it is the humble Carvanda [Carissa congesta].
Though both look identical, C.congesta is the more prevalent species.
4 seeded – C.congesta.
2 seeded – C.carandas
Some of my photographs of C.congesta are available at this link

Thanks for the beautiful pictures.

I did not count the seeds. will keep in mind next time I find them.


Carissa congesta Wight & Carissa inermis Vahl are now considered as syn. of Carissa spinarumL. as per the Plant List & as per discussions at efi page: Carissa spinarum.



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carissa spinarum perhaps : Attachments (2). 3 posts by 2 authors.

carissa spinarum perhaps

in the shivalik hills near chandigarh
photographed in the month of may

the flowers were much smaller than that of carissa carandas


Yes Carissa spinarum, a common shrub in the area with mildly fragrant flowers.. fruits turning purple on maturity..



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Carrissa spinarum—-for sharing and validation : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (3).

Pic of Wild Karanda, taken at ambyvalley rd., lonavala, pune in feb14.



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Anmod Ghat NH4A descending from Anmod, Karnataka to Mollem, Goa

Date: 26 MAY 2013 Altitude: descends from about 640 m asl to 90 m asl

Carissa spinarum L. (family: Apocynaceae)


Diverse vegetation indeed.


Many thanks …, indeed vegetation of Western Ghats is charming.



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Need Id assistance for following image belonging to Carissa? : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)

I need id assistance for the following image belonging to Carissa?
Date of Collection: 23th April 2015
Locality : JNU New Campus, New Delhi

Corolla: white, scented, pollinated at night by Hawk moth


Carissa spinarum I hope


Sir again thanks a lot for your id assistance.



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Carissa spinarum—-for sharing : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)

Pic taken at Aambyvalley rd., Lonavala, Pune in March 15.



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few medicinal plants from FRLHT: Pictures of few Medicinal Plants found in FRLHT Campus.
1. Withania somnifera Fruits
2. Rauvolfia tetraphylla Fruits
3. Carissa carandas Fruits

Nice photographs ! The third is Carissa congesta var. albida. Please check this link for our previous discussion on this

About Carrissa, my thought is same as … Carissa congesta var. albida.
Most probably Rauvolfia tetraphylla and this variety of Carrissa congesta are only found planted.


Yes third one is Carissa spinarum L. (Syn: Carissa congesta var. albida and Carissa carandas var. congesta(Wight) Bedd.


This is turning interesting. Carissa congesta Wight even (not to say of var. albida Santapau) as well as C. opaca Stapf ex Haines (name given to Indian specimens of C. spinarum (non L.) are treated as a synonym of C. spinarum. This is followed by both The Plant List and Wikipedia (which generally has reliable information)

This leaves decision between C. spinarum L. (or if we treat C. congesta and C. opaca as distinct) and Carissa carandas.
C. carandasC. spinarum
1. Lateral veins of leaf ca. 8 pairs      1. Lateral veins of leaf 3-5 pairs
2. Leaves 3.5-8 cm long                    2. Leaves 2-5 cm long
3. Leaf apex rounded, emarginate     3. Leaf apex acute or acuminate
to apiculate
4. Fruit ellipsoid, 15-25 mm long.     4. Fruit subglobose, 5-12 mm
5. Ripe fruit reddish-purple               5. Ripe fruit shining black
There is, however, a big catch. Flora of Pakistan considers C. congesta as synonym of C. carandas (and not C. spinarum, but then we have seen such confusion in this website.
Things are not very clear seeing lot of variability and confusion in literature but for me most features especially leaves and young fruit go with C. carandas

 


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Plant for validation :: Devgad, Konkan :: March 2016 – ARKOCT12 : 6 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (2)

Attached are pics of Carissa carandas. Requested to please validate the ID.

Pics taken in March 2016


Missed attaching the pic of the fruits

Attachments (1)


Pl. check keys & comparative images at Carissa

I am leaning more towards Carissa spinarum


Thanks for the suggestion. Also attaching a pic of the fruit taken 2 years ago from a nearby area, maybe this might help.
I had assumed C. carandas due to the emarginated leaves.
Hoping to get it validated.
Attachments (1)

Thanks, … Only very leaves are emarginated. Also check the ripe fruit & other keys at Carissa


Thank you … I take it as Carissa spinarum.


Attaching ripened fruits captured this season. Attachments (3)



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Carissa (Apocynaceae) for ID :: Feb2018 MK003 : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (4)
Please help me in identifying this Carissa species.
Habitat: scrub forests
Habit: shrub
Fruit: slightly elliptic and 1 cm long
The spines are non-dichotomous
Date: 29 Jan 2018
Place: Jammu, J & K

Pl. check


Looks like Carissa spinarum



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Carissa inermis SN 06032019 : 6 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (2)
Carissa inermis, armed shrub from Agumbe area of Karnataka

i forgot to ask: like other carissa’s does this plant also have spines/thorns? if yes, are they bifurcated ?


did you take pictures of the short and curved spines on this particular plant? if so, can i see them



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Flowering nearing over in Pune- 30/1/08; Velliangiri- April’09?; Sonepat, Haryana, 18 Apr 09; on 9.5.09- Yamuna Bio diversity park, Delhi; May 15, 2010 at 3.08pm IST: Veermata Jijabai Bhonsale Udyan (Nursery); in delhi ridge, jnu and in Sanjay van- May’10?; in and around cities of Mumbai and Thane; on 11/4/09 near Hyderabad at Samirpet; Srinagar, Uttarakhand, June 09; NATIVE :: Apocynaceae (dogbane family) » Carissa congesta – efloraofindia | Google Groups
Butterfly/Moth eggs – indiantreepix | Google Groups 070409 woody climber for id – indiantreepix | Google Groups Christ’s Thorn Carissa congesta from Sonepat, Haryana – indiantreepix | Google Groups

Carissa congesta (Karaunda)? – indiantreepix | Google Groups


ID request – Flora of Uttarakhand (200609SS2)



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Carissa spinarum :: Osudu, Puducherry :: 14 OCT 19 : 4 posts by 3 authors. 3 images.

Osudu  Puducherry

Date: October 14, 2019 … Altitude range: about 15 m (50 feet) asl

Carissa spinarum  L.


Nice post . Flowers looks like Jasminum sp.

wild caramda. very nice


Thank you very much …

Yes, the flowers look quite like those of jasmine.



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Carissa carandas 271011PD02 Flora of Orissa: Dear all sharing the picture of one of the most common wild edible fruit plant of Orissa consumed by all class of people
Date of collection: 25/06/11
Place of collection: Ranpur, Nayagarh, Orissa
Habit: Shrub
Habitat: Scrub forest and near the edge of the forest


beautiful flowers and fruits. These fruits are sold in our area in the name of “Kali maina” mainly near schools as children loves it. The unripe fruits are used in pickles.


To add your observations, this plant is locally called Khirikoli (latex fruit) in Orissa as the fruit secret milkey latex during harvesting and also called Nitipokhati (fertile throughout the year) as it produce flower through out the year.


Should it not be Carissa spinarum if we go by keys provided by … as per efi thread ?
C. carandas                                        C. spinarum
1. Lateral veins of leaf ca. 8 pairs      1. Lateral veins of leaf 3-5 pairs
2. Leaves 3.5-8 cm long                      2. Leaves 2-5 cm long
3. Leaf apex rounded, emarginate     3. Leaf apex acute or acuminate to apiculate
4. Fruit ellipsoid, 15-25 mm long.     4. Fruit subglobose, 5-12 mm

5. Ripe fruit reddish-purple               5. Ripe fruit shining black


 


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09062013 ASP 44 : Attachments (1). 2 posts by 2 authors.

Can you please ID this small climber with jasmine like flowers. Photo was taken along a fence in Sri Lanka in March 2012.


Could be Carissa carandas.


Carissa carandas L. and Carissa spinarum L. only 2 sp. recorded in Sri Lanka and looks more close to Carissa carandas L. .


Carissa spinarum


Yes, Carissa spinarum L. as per keys herein.


I agree with both of you


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Carissa Species for ID : Lonavala : 16APR19 : AK-8 : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)

Carissa Species seen on a mountain slope in Lonavala.

For Species id please.

for carissa, i like to see the spines, their place on the twig and shape, they are often unique to the spaces. so i hope you have loads of more pictures


Sorry I have just one picture.


Carissa carandas L. ??


I agree with …


Carissa spinarum L. as per keys herein.


This is not Carissa spinarum


Pl. check the keys at my given link.


I too agree for spinarum



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References:

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