Citharexylum spinosum L., Sp. Pl. 625 1753 (Syn. Citharexylum bahamense Millsp. ex Britton; Citharexylum broadwayi O.E.Schulz; Citharexylum caudatum Sw. [Illegitimate]; Citharexylum cinereum L. [Illegitimate]; Citharexylum cinereum Moc. & Sessé ex D.Don [Illegitimate]; Citharexylum coriaceum Desf.Citharexylum fruticosum L. ……….; Citharexylum hybridum Moldenke; Citharexylum laevigatum Hostm. ex Griseb.; Citharexylum molle Salisb.; Citharexylum molle Jacq. ex Spreng. [Illegitimate]; Citharexylum pentandrum Vent.; Citharexylum polystachyum Turcz.; Citharexylum pulverulentum Pers.; Citharexylum quadrangulare Jacq.; Citharexylum spinosum f. brittonii (Moldenke) I.E.Méndez …..; Citharexylum subserratum Sw.Citharexylum surrectum Griseb.; Citharexylum teres Jacq.; Citharexylum tomentosum Poir.; Citharexylum villosum Jacq.; Colletia tetragona Brongn.);
Caribbean, Panama to N. South America: Bahamas, Colombia, Cuba, Dominican Republic, French Guiana, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Netherlands Antilles, Panamá, Puerto Rico, Suriname, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is.; Introduced into: Andaman Is., Bermuda, Fiji, Hawaii, India, Mozambique, Tunisia as per POWO;
Common name: Fiddlewood, Fiddlewood Tree, Spiny Fiddlewood • Kannada: ಬಕಳೆ Bakale ಬೇಲಿಪಾರಿಜಾತ Beli parijaata
sith-uh-REKS-il-um — from the Greek kithara (lyre) and xylon (wood); a Latinized form of the Jamaican vernacular term for ‘fiddlewood’
spy-NO-sum — with spines
Native of: s-e U.S.A, Caribbean Islands, n South America. Cultivated elsewhere in tropics.

Confirmation of ID Requested_28122010_DS_SN4:
By searching internet, it seems to me as Citharexylum quadrangulare : in Bengali  it is called ‘Parijat‘ or ‘Brindaboni Champa’.
Located in a garden in Uluberia, south of West Bengal.
Time : Sep. 2010

ID confirmation Requested_28122010_DS_SN5:
The pics for citharexylum quadrangulare is attached in this mail again. Confirmation of Botanical name is requested.

– This is the Zither-wood tree [C.quadrangulare], a native of the West Indies. It is a fairly common roadside tree in Bandra, Bombay.

sith-uh-REKS-il-um — from the Greek kithara (lyre) and xylon (wood); a Latinized form of the Jamaican vernacular term for ‘fiddlewood’
spy-NO-sum — with spines
May 30, 2008 at Rose Garden, Chandigarh
commonly known as: fiddlewood tree, spiny fiddlewood;
Native of: s-e U.S.A, Caribbean Islands, n South America. Cultivated elsewhere in tropics.
   – [image: Fiddlewood]<>
… Apr 30, 2007 in office building premises, Mumbai
– [image: Citharexylum spinosum]<>
… May 30, 2008 at Rose Garden, Chandigarh
– [image: Citharexylum spinosum]<>
… May 30, 2008 at Rose Garden, Chandigarh

Lamiaceae & Verbenaceae Week: Verbenaceae – Citharexylum quadrangulare:
Lamiaceae & Verbenaceae Week: VerbenaceaeCitharexylum quadrangulare
From Kudremukh Karnataka.

Lamiaceae & Verbenaceae Week: Verbenaceae-Citharexylum spinosum:
Spiny Fiddlewood TreeCitharexylum spinosum Ulsoor Lake Bangalore

Wonderful… now I am sure what my unknown neighbor tree is… photographed last month but did know where to begin to ID it… my dad used to call it Manjari… but had no idea about its botanical ID ……
now I read all that I could lay my hands on including  the wiki and A P Benthall’s Trees of Calcutta, a 1946 book…!!! and lo and behold… its listed and described in detail… at the end of the day I’ ll return from class and upload my pics…

Possibly this is Species: Citharexylum spinosum
Family: Verbenaceae
Photographed in June 2011
Site: Residential suburb, South Kolkata
Tree ID: Possibly Citharexylum spinosum
My ID is based on reading up following posting recently by … from Bangalore See thread Similar pictures at url : http://group/indiantreepix/thread/ec0…
These photographs are taken from my balcony about 70 feet away.. with a zoom lens on a sony prosumer camera, handheld.. Close up of the flowers is not available YET…. In the first picture the background id provided by a Peltoforum, leaves turning dark, and copper pods are getting bigger. The foreground tree is a mangifera. The middle tree is the one in question…. It is about 20 feet tall, with light grey to dark bark, no prominent furrows etc… Leaves are elliptic-oblong, about 5-7 inches long, plain (non serrated ) margins. All three trees are about 25 to 30 years old… I SHALL GREATLY APPRECIATE  INPUTS FROM THE EXPERTS…

Yes, indeed it is Citharexylum spinosum. We call it ‘Parijatam’ in  Malayalam. Very fragrant flowers. I have it in my garden. Attracts a lot of butterflies and bees. Easy to propagate from cuttings.

efloraindia: Citheroxylum subserratum:
Sharing the images of Citheroxylum subserratum from NBNP, Anaikatti, Coimbatore.

Oh this seems to be different than the more common one Citharexylum spinosum syn. Citharexylum quadrangulare.
Please note the correct genus name.
Family : Verbenaceae
Checked again after writing the text. Citharexylum subserratum is also a synonym of C.spinosum


unknown tree from Alipore 28-05-12 SK:

Though this is also form The Agri-Horticultural Society of India, Alipore, i photographed it outside the garden, standing on the footpath.
Species : UNKNOWN
Habit & Habitat : garden tree
Date : 25-05-12, 12.14 p.m.
Place : The Agri-Horticultural Society of India, Alipore (Kolkata)

Citharexylum qudrangulare. Verbenaceae

How does one tell the difference between this one and Citharexylum spinosum ?

according to wiki they are synonyms.

Wiki says this is a flowering plant from US. Don’t know why they imported it!

thank you but the inflorescence in your pic looks different from those I see every day: efi thread
I am not sure … slight difference? do not know…

Tried more than an hour and a half to understand the differences in the between the inflorescence in my images and that of by … – efi thread.
But failed to find any between efi thread (mine) and efi thread (…).
However, pasting some links for the sake of keeping records, or in other words for the sake of time and money spent ! –
Tree ID- fragrant white flowers, Bangalore:
Please help to identify.
Location- Aurobindo Ashram Garden, opp Ulsoor Lake, Bangalore
Date- June 17, 2012
The small white flowers have a nice fragrance. Sorry- my camera/ photographic skills did not allow me to get a nice focused picture of the flower itself.

Citharexylum qudrangulare.

Thank you …! I noticed a similarity to Citharexylum spinosum whose images I saw at
How does one differentiate between spinosum and qudrangulare?

They are same.


Citharexylum sp. (?) for Id:
Please identify this shrub or a small tree appeared to be Citharexylum of the family Verbenaceae, growing in the garden of Saudi Arabia

Citharexylum qudrangulare

Looks like Buddleja sp. (Family: Buddlejaceae).

sorry this is not Buddleja sp.
please look carefully stame structure and leaf shape and also flower spike or inflorescence. 

… I agree with …
Citharexylum spinosum L. is the accepted name of Citharexylum quadrangulare Jacq.
And this plant grows straightly attaining a height of at least 10 meters. The flowers, when bloom attract many insects and sunbirds.
In the areas of Uttara Kannada district of Karnataka, this is called “kol sampge” and is used as a potential plant in Apiculture.

Thank you for all the posts. Finally I concluded it to be C. spinosum as suggestedd by …, but shows slight variations.


Tree ID from Bangladesh SM069 : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (2).
Habit: Tree
habitat: Garden
Flowering: May

Interesting observation …, would like to know id.. matches well with Citharexylum spinosumBut I have doubts, this occurs in that area.. 

Thanks … Yes it is Citharexylum spinosum. Bloomed Mar to June. End of the winter the reddish leaves fall

It is planted in Kolkata.

ID pls – seen at Kolkata – 700001 area
Big tree in full bloom now in JUL_AUG

looks like Citharexylon pf verbanaceae

nice close up of flowers

this looks like: Citharexylum spinosum
… had uploaded a set for ID – efi thread
efloraindia site has many such threads


Lamiaceae (incl. Verbenaceae) Fortnight :: Verbenaceae :: Citharexylum spinosum :: Mumbai :: ARKMAY-04/04: 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (2)
Citharexylum spinosum captured at Mumbai in October 2012.


Sharing the images of Citheroxylum subserratum from Coimbatore.


Citharexylum spinosum

Citharexylum spinosum L.
at Rose Garden, Chandigarh on May 30, 2008

68-TSP-ID-22MAY2016-1: Tree @ Kalasa for ID : 6 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (6)

Kindly identify this tree locally known as Beliparijatha in Kannada…..Beli=Hedge, Parijatha=A flower. The flowers are fragrant. 

Habit: Medium sized tree. 

Habitat: Tree, cultivated as a boundary tree along the hedges in Coffee plantations. 

Sighting: Kalasa, Chikmagalur, Karnataka, about 1200 msl 

Date: 01-07-2015

I am not very sure, but check for Citharexylum spinosum…

Yes Citharexylum spinosum.
Have seen them in Karnataka in Someshwar near Udipi

Matches with Citharexylum spinosum (Verbenaceae)

On way to Kudremukh sanctuary in Karnataka-22/5/07; In Srushti Complex of Mira Road, Thane (2005)- in April; Rose garden at Chandigarh– Sept’09?; At Prakruti Resort Kashid, Murud, Maharashtra; On 31/10/09 at Herbal Garden, on the outskirts of Hyderabad, A.P.; Pune; at Ziradpada, Alibag- Oct’10?; at Kodachadri ranges, Shimoga district, Karnataka– Oct’10?;
ID please : 3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (1) – 5 mb.
Can someone please identify this species for me.. clueless
The tiny flowers have a very faint honey fragrance

Cithrexylum subserratum,
Verbenaceae member,

When and where was it clicked ?
Thanks, …, for the id.
Yes, Citharexylum spinosum as per images, details and references herein.

ID required plzz.. its from a botanical garden lahore Pakistan..Thankyou : 5 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (2)
I think it is Citharexylum sp.

We have only Citharexylum spinosum so far in efi. Pl. check.

I think C. spinosum only, matches with pictures and also reported from Pakistan

Yes !


323 ID wild tree: 19 high res. images.
Please ID wild tree growing in a medicinal garden, no fruits,
Location: near Vannappuram, Thodupuzha, Idukki Dist.,Kerala PIN:685607
Altitude: 1500fsl
Flower date: 10.06.2022, 04.30pm
Habitat: wild, moisture, sunlight
Plant habit: tree, erect, branches, hard cylindrical old stem upto 20 inches base diameter, rough brown bark, hexagonal young shoot, long lasting
Height: 06 meters
Leaves: opposite, ovate, oblong, apex, serrated margins, bitter taste, glossy, size upto:15×8cm
Flower: axillary racemose, clustered,  diameter:11mm, white,  good fragrance

Camera: CANON EOS1500D +filter lens×10

Pl. check

Yes from me.

Yes, it is Citharexylum spinosum, thanks a lot dear …, sharing an image,


Verbenaceae: Citharexylum spinosum L.: 1 image.
synonyms: Citharexylum fruticosum L., Citharexylum macrophyllum Poir., Citharexylum cinereum L.
location/date: Thirthahalli, Shimoga Distr., Karnataka, July 1997