Citrus medica L., Sp. Pl. 782 1753. (Syn: Citrus acida Pers., Citrus alata (Yu.Tanaka) Yu.Tanaka, Citrus balotina Poit. & Turpin, Citrus bicolor Poit. & Turpin, Citrus bigena Poit. & Turpin, Citrus cedra Link, Citrus cedrata Raf., Citrus crassa Hassk., Citrus fragrans Salisb., Citrus gaoganensis Hayata, Citrus gongra Raf., Citrus grandis var. pyriformis (Hassk.) Karaya, Citrus hassaku Yu.Tanaka, Citrus hiroshimana Yu.Tanaka, Citrus kizu Yu.Tanaka, Citrus kwangsiensis Hu, Citrus limonimedica Lush., Citrus × lumia Risso, Citrus medica var. alata Yu.Tanaka, Citrus medica subf. aurea (Yu.Tanaka) M.Hiroe, Citrus medica subf. dulcis (Risso & Poit.) M.Hiroe, Citrus medica subf. hassaku (Tanaka) M.Hiroe, Citrus medica subf. hiroshimana (Tanaka) M.Hiroe, Citrus medica subf. kizu (Tanaka) M.Hiroe, Citrus medica var. nana Wester, Citrus medica var. odorata Wester, Citrus medica subf. pyriformis (Hassk.) M.Hiroe, Citrus medica f. sudachi (Shirai) M.Hiroe, Citrus medica var. yunnanensis S.Q.Ding ex C.C.Huang, Citrus nana (Wester) Yu.Tanaka, Citrus odorata (Wester) Tanaka, Citrus pyriformis Hassk., Citrus sarcodactylis Hoola van Nooten, Citrus tuberosa Mill., Limon racemosum Mill., Limon spinosum Mill., Limon vulgare Mill.);
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W. Central Himalaya to Myanmar: Assam, Bangladesh, East Himalaya, Myanmar, Nepal, West Himalaya; Introduced into: Alabama, Algeria, Andaman Is., Benin, Borneo, Canary Is., China South-Central, China Southeast, Comoros, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Fiji, Florida, Haiti, India, Jamaica, Laos, Leeward Is., Madeira, Mauritania, Mexico Central, Mexico Southeast, Morocco, Nicobar Is., Oman, Peru, Puerto Rico, Society Is., Sri Lanka, Tibet, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Vietnam as per POWO;
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SIT-rus — Latinized form of citron … Dave’s Botanary
MED-ee-kuh — pertaining to medicine … Dave’s Botanary
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commonly known ascitron • Assameseবিৰা জৰা bira tenga • Bengaliটাবা taba • Gujaratiબિજોરું bijoru • Hindiगलगल galgalपूरक purakतुरन्ज turanjवेतस vetas • Kannadaಮಾದಳ madalaಮಹಾಫಲ mahaphalaಮಾತುಲುಂಗ matulunga • Konkaniमौळिंग maulinga • Malayalamഗണപതിനാരകം ganapatinarakamമാതളം matalam • Manipuriহৈজাঙ heijang • Marathiमहाळुंग mahalungaमातुलुंग matulunga • Mizosêrtawk • Nepaliबिमिरो bimiro • Oriyaବୀପପୁର bijapuraଜମ୍ବିର jambiraକରୁଣା karunaନିମ୍ବୁ nimbuଟଭା ଲେମ୍ବୁ tabha-lembu • Persianترنج turanj • Punjabiਬਜੌਰੀ ਨਿੰਬੂ bajauri nimbuਖੱਟਰ khattaਕਿੰਬ kimb • Sanskritबीजाढ्य bijadhyaबीजक bijakaबीजफलक bijaphalakaबीजपूर्ण bijapurnaबृहच्चित्त brhaccittaइच्छक icchakaमातुलुङ्ग matulungaपीतसार pita-saraपूतिपुष्पिका puti-puspikaसुकेसर sukesara • Sindhiليِمو liimo • Tamilகொம்மட்டிமாதுளை kommatti-matulaiகொடியெலுமிச்சை koti-y-elumiccaiமாதுலங்கம் matulankamபேரெலுமிச்சை per-elumiccaiபீதபூரம் pitapuram • Teluguఆమ్లకేసర amlakesaraమాదీఫలం madiphalam • Tuluಮಾಪಲಪುಲಿ mapalapuli
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(Fruits big, Petioles wingless, imperfectly or not articulate at base of blade, leaflet large)
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It is very fragrant and is used predominantly by the Chinese and Japanese for perfuming rooms and personal items, such as clothing. The peel of the fruit can be candied into succade. In Western cooking, it is often used for its zest. The inner white pith is not bitter as is usually the case with citrus, so the fingers may be cut off and then longitudinally sliced, peel, pith, and all, and used in salads or scattered over cooked foods such as fish.
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Rutaceae Week :: Citrus medica at Kamshet: 9 posts by 4 authors. 8 images.
Citrus medica L.

SIT-rus — Latinized form of citron
MED-ee-kuh — pertaining to medicine
Dave’s Botanary

May 1, 2008 … at resort garden near Kamshet, Maharashtra
commonly known as: citronAssamese: বিৰা জৰা bira tengaBengali: টাবা tabaGujarati: બિજોરું bijoruHindi: गलगल galgal, पूरक purak, तुरन्ज turanj, वेतस vetasKannada: ಮಾದಳ madala, ಮಹಾಫಲ mahaphala, ಮಾತುಲುಂಗ matulungaKonkani: मौळिंग maulingaMalayalam: ഗണപതിനാരകം ganapatinarakam, മാതളം matalamManipuri: হৈজাঙ heijangMarathi: महाळुंग mahalunga, मातुलुंग matulungaMizo: sêrtawkNepali: बिमिरो bimiroOriya: ବୀପପୁର bijapura, ଜମ୍ବିର jambira, କରୁଣା karuna, ନିମ୍ବୁ nimbu, ଟଭା ଲେମ୍ବୁ tabha-lembuPersian: ترنج turanjPunjabi: ਬਜੌਰੀ ਨਿੰਬੂ bajauri nimbu, ਖੱਟਰ khatta, ਕਿੰਬ kimbSanskrit: बीजाढ्य bijadhya, बीजक bijaka, बीजफलक bijaphalaka, बीजपूर्ण bijapurna, बृहच्चित्त brhaccitta, इच्छक icchaka, मातुलुङ्ग matulunga, पीतसार pita-sara, पूतिपुष्पिका puti-puspika, सुकेसर sukesaraSindhi: ليِمو liimoTamil: கொம்மட்டிமாதுளை kommatti-matulai, கொடியெலுமிச்சை koti-y-elumiccai, மாதுலங்கம் matulankam, பேரெலுமிச்சை per-elumiccai, பீதபூரம் pitapuramTelugu: పూరము puramu
possible origin north-east India, west Myanmar; only cultivated
References: Flowers of IndiaNPGS / GRINWorld Agroforestry CentreDDSAENVIS – FRLHT
more views: May 1, 2008 … at resort garden near Kamshet, Maharashtra


It would be interesting to compare it with Citrus longilimon uploaded earlier by … efi thread

Many thanks for validating the ID, ….

Read through … post.
Had come to believe that C. medica may assume longish shape, sometimes not even symmetrical, with the hard texture while C. longlimon relatively of softer texture approaching regular sour lime that we use.
Also thinking that Assam lemons are not grown in Pune – that however is an unjustified thought.
Please help clear my thoughts.

Perhaps some one will have to dig out original description of this species to find other characters.


Wonderful presentation of taxonomic characters … the visual way.


Citrus Fruit for ID : Pune : 171212 : AK-2:
Citrus fruit at a home garden in Pune.
Pictures taken on 14th Dec,12.
A cultivated, potted tree with single fruit & buds seen.
Length of fruit was about 3 inches.


Most probably Citrus medica.
Common name: Citron • Hindi: बड़ा निम्बू Bara nimbu, बिजौरा Bijaura, Kutla • Manipuri: হৈজাঙ Heijang • Marathi: महाळुंगी Mahalungi


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2015april_sk06/06 : Citrus medica L.? : 6 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (8)
I photographed this 15 ft shrub in November last year, in a home yard. Fruits are about 4 inch long, if I remember well, may be more.FoC says fruits of C. medica L. can grow to 2 kg! A paper says 4-5 kg!
I never checked how much a C. maxima (Burm.) Osbeck weigh., the largest citrus fruit I have ever seen.
I have found another paper, in two part –

Our eFI site is of little help to me in this regard


Is that full size fruit? Hardly see how it could be C. medica if they are. I am no expert in Citrus but I know C. medica are usually huge.


Here, in this thread, I saw fruits as big as a MOSAMBI or orange; the flower character, the calyx character, the petiole character suggest this is C. medica L., I think.


MS, Sept.,2021/14 Citrus sp. for id.: 4 images- 1 high res.
Location : Kolasib

Date : 07-08-2019
Habit : Shrub
Habitat : Cultivated

could be Pamelo.


Citrus medica L.


Yes, appears close to images at Citrus medica
How big was the fruit?


About 13 cm long



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Requesting ID of this plant in a building compound :: 26MAR2014 :: ARK-23 : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (3).
Requesting to please ID this plant in a building compoundMumbai in March 2014. Is it some citrus plant?

It is seedles variety of lemon, it is a Citrus hybrid.


Thank you … for feedback, hoping to get the cultivar/hybrid name if possible…


I think Citrus limon or its hybrid


Citrus medica L.



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Citrus medica, the citron, a fruit with thick white rind, surface rough, wrinkled, green when young, yellowish when ripe, pulp rough and much less juicy.
The fruit is the source of citron juice and also used candied.

Would you consider a Citrus week?
Here is a first teaser.
Would any of those names apply to Citrus grandis / Citrus maxima ?
Would any name be only generic ? this would explain why they are applied to different species.
Are all the names spelt correctly.
Citrus medica L.
Khasi: Soh-manong
Assamese: বিৰা জৰা Bira jora, বিৰা টেঙা Bira tenga, জৰা টেঙা Jora tenga.
Bengali: জম্বির Jambira, পানি লেবু Pāni lēbu, টাবা Taba.
English: Citron
Gujarati: તુરંજ Turanj (Turanji).
Hindi: बड़ा नीबु Bara nibu, बिजौरा Bijaura, पूरक Purak, तुरन्ज Turanj, वेतस Veta.
Kannada: ಮಾದಳ Maadala.
Malayalam: ചെറുനാരകം Cerunaarakam (cĕṟunārakaṃ), ഗണപതിനാരകം (gaṇapatinārakaṃ).
Marathi: महाळुंग Mahalung, महाळुंगी Mahalungi.
Tamil: எலுமிச்சை Elumiccai, கடரநாரத்தை Kaṭāranārattai, கொம்மட்டிமாதுளை Kommatti-matulai.
Telugu: మాతులుంగము Matulumgamu (mAtulumgamu).  


Bara nembu or nibu can be any citrus. But i have eaten BIJAURA in youger days. But it was not grapefruit and it was not savour at all. It could be citrus maxima.


Bijaura must be full of seeds etymologically. By the way, Bijaura is one of the names of Citrus medica.


. .

Need info on Citrus family:

I need info on the various Citrus family trees and fruits. If someone can name their native names either in Hindi or Gujarati would be great.
Citrus Hystrix
Citrus Indica
Citrus Medica
How much different they are? are they native to India?

You can check details at our site links as below:
Citrus indica
Citrus medica
Citrus hystrix


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Santali name(s) of Citrus medica L.:
Please help with the Santali name jambir in the OI Chiki script, for Citrus medica L.
Reference: A Santali-English dictionary by A. Campbell, of the Santal mission


The Santali name for Citrus medica L. in Ol Chiki script shall be ᱡᱟᱹᱢᱵᱤᱨ (jambir).


.


Names of Plants in India :: Citrus medica L.:
Citrus medica L.

SIT-rus — Latinized form of citron … Dave’s Botanary
MED-ee-kuh — pertaining to medicine … Dave’s Botanarycommonly known as: citron • Adi: hingkom • Assamese: বিৰা জৰা bira tenga • Bengali: টাবা taba • Dimasa: rebatai • Gujarati: બિજોરું bijoru, માતુલુંગ matulunga • Hindi: गलगल galgal, पूरक purak, तुरन्ज turanj, वेतस vetas • Kannada: ಹೇರಳೆಕಾಯಿ heralekayi, ಮಾದಳ madala, ಮಹಾಫಲ mahaphala, ಮಾತುಲಂಗ matulanga • Konkani: मौळिंग maulinga • Malayalam: ഗണപതിനാരകം ganapatinarakam, മാതളം matalam • Manipuri: হৈজাঙ heijang • Marathi: महाळुंग mahalunga, मातुलुंग matulunga • Mizo: sêr-pui • Nepali: बिमिरो bimiro • Odia: ବୀପପୁର bijapura, ଜମ୍ବିର jambira, କରୁଣା karuna, ନିମ୍ବୁ nimbu, ଟଭା ଲେମ୍ବୁ tabha-lembu • Persian: ترنج turanj • Punjabi: ਬਜੌਰੀ ਨਿੰਬੂ bajauri nimbu, ਖੱਟਰ khatta, ਕਿੰਬ kimb • Sanskrit: बीजाढ्य bijadhya, बीजक bijaka, बीजफलक bijaphalaka, बीजपूर्ण bijapurna, बृहच्चित्त brhaccitta, इच्छक icchaka, मातुलुङ्ग matulunga, पीतसार pita-sara, पूतिपुष्पिका puti-puspika, सुकेसर sukesara • Sindhi: ڪَرْنو karno • Tamil: கொம்மட்டிமாதுளை kommatti-matulai, மாதுலங்கம் matulankam, பீதபூரம் pitapuram • Telugu: బీజపూరము beejapuramu, మాదిఫలము madiphalamu, నారదబ్బ naaradabba • Tulu: ಮಾಪಲಪುಲಿ maapalapuli • Urdu: گلگل galgal, پورك purak, ترنج turanj, ويتس vetasbotanical namesCitrus medica L. … synonymsCitrus acida Pers. • Citrus cedra Link • Citrus cedrata Raf. … and many more listed at POWO

Bibliography / etymology

~~~~~ ENGLISH ~~~~~
citron
~~~~~ ADI ~~~~~
hingkom
~~~~~ ASSAMESE ~~~~~
বিৰা জৰা bira tenga
  • XOBDO – A descriptive multilingual dictionary by the people, for the people and of the people of north-east India
~~~~~ BENGALI ~~~~~
টাবা taba
~~~~~ DIMASA ~~~~~
rebatai
  • XOBDO – A descriptive multilingual dictionary by the people, for the people and of the people of north-east India
~~~~~ GUJARATI ~~~~~
બિજોરું bijoru, માતુલુંગ matulunga
~~~~~ HINDI ~~~~~
गलगल galgal, पूरक purak, तुरन्ज turanj, वेतस vetas
~~~~~ KANNADA ~~~~~
ಹೇರಳೆಕಾಯಿ heralekayi
ಮಾದಳ madala
  • Shodhganga – Medicinal plants of Tulunadu … also ದೆವಮಾದಳ devamadala = God’s pomegranate; fruit is used to worship God and are considered sacred to Lord Ganapathi
  • Five Hundred Indian Plants by Basel Mission, Mangalore … also ಮಾದವಾಳ madavala
  • or ಮಾದಲ madala … Alar – an authoritative Kannada-English dictionary corpus created by V. Krishna … also ಮಾದಾಳ madala
ಮಹಾಫಲ mahaphala, ಮಾತುಲಂಗ matulanga
~~~~~ KONKANI ~~~~~
मौळिंग maulinga
~~~~~ MALAYALAM ~~~~~
ഗണപതിനാരകം ganapatinarakam
മാതളം matalam
~~~~~ MANIPURI ~~~~~
হৈজাঙ heijang
~~~~~ MARATHI ~~~~~
महाळुंग mahalunga
मातुलुंग matulunga
~~~~~ MIZO ~~~~~
sêr-pui
~~~~~ NEPALI ~~~~~
बिमिरो bimiro
~~~~~ ODIA ~~~~~
ବୀପପୁର bijapura, ଜମ୍ବିର jambira, କରୁଣା karuna, ନିମ୍ବୁ nimbu, ଟଭା ଲେମ୍ବୁ tabha-lembu
~~~~~ PERSIAN ~~~~~
ترنج turanj
~~~~~ PUNJABI ~~~~~
ਬਜੌਰੀ ਨਿੰਬੂ bajauri nimbu, ਖੱਟਰ khatta, ਕਿੰਬ kimb
~~~~~ SANSKRIT ~~~~~
बीजाढ्य bijadhya, बीजक bijaka, बीजफलक bijaphalaka, बीजपूर्ण bijapurna, बृहच्चित्त brhaccitta, इच्छक icchaka, पीतसार pita-sara, पूतिपुष्पिका puti-puspika, सुकेसर sukesara
मातुलुङ्ग matulunga
~~~~~ SANTALI ~~~~~
ᱡᱟᱹᱢᱵᱤᱨ jambir

~~~~~ SINDHI ~~~~~

ڪَرْنو karno
~~~~~ TAMIL ~~~~~
கொம்மட்டிமாதுளை kommatti-matulai, மாதுலங்கம் matulankam, பீதபூரம் pitapuram
~~~~~ TELUGU ~~~~~
బీజపూరము beejapuramu, మాదిఫలము madiphalamu, నారదబ్బ naaradabba
~~~~~ TULU ~~~~~
ಮಾಪಲಪುಲಿ maapalapuli
~~~~~ URDU ~~~~~
گلگل galgal, پورك purak, ترنج turanj, ويتس vetas
~~~~~ x ~~~~~


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Hooghly – seems to be Citrus medica var. acida Brandis : Attachments (7). 3 posts by 2 authors.


efi page on Citrus aurantiifolia (syn. Citrus medica var. acida Brandis)



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Rutaceae Week: Citrus medica L. from Delhi and Kasauni:
Citrus medica L., Sp. pl. 2:782. 1753

Common names: Citron
Hindi: Bara nimbu, bijaura, turanj
Beng: Bara nimbu, beg pura
Guj: Turanj, bijoru
Mar: Mahalunga, mavalung
Mal: Gilam, rusakam, matalanarakam
Kan: Madala, mahaphala, rusaka
Tam: Kadaranarathai
Tel: Lungamu
I have seen this tree grown very commonly in private houses as nimbu. The fruit is the size of lemon (Citrus limon) but more spherical, generally with inconspicuous nipple, but importantly the rind is very thick (often 5 mm or even more) and rough (rugose) on surface.



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Rutaceae Week_RVS3_Citrus aurantiifolia:
Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle, from a garden in Bangalore. Tamil name: ‘elumichchai’ எலுமிச்சை


I thought Citrus medica


Thanks … for the id.



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Rutaceae Week: Citrus medica L. var. sarcodactylis (Hoola van Nooten) Swingle from California:
Citrus medica L. var. sarcodactylis (Hoola van Nooten) Swingle, in C. S. Sargent, Pl. wilson. 2:141. 1914
Common name: Buddha’s-Hand, finger citron, flesh-finger citron
This fruit with interesting hand like fruit was photographed from a store in California.


yes, glad to see it, many years ago saw it in a Florida nursery that specialised in “shocking” fruits… owner took great pride in this plant and would not sell it…



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Fruits & Vegetables Week: Citrus medica var. sarcodactylis, the Budha’s hand:
Citrus medica var. sarcodactylis, the Budha’s hand, finger citron, flesh-finger citron  is a fragrant citron variety whose fruit is segmented into finger-like sections. The fruit has a thick peel and only a small amount of acidic flesh (if any) and is juiceless and sometimes seedless.
It is very fragrant and is used predominantly by the Chinese and Japanese for perfuming rooms and personal items, such as clothing. The peel of the fruit can be candied into succade. In Western cooking, it is often used for its zest. The inner white pith is not bitter as is usually the case with citrus, so the fingers may be cut off and then longitudinally sliced, peel, pith, and all, and used in salads or scattered over cooked foods such as fish.

– Yes interesting to look at. I found few specimens in weekly farmers bazaar in Sunnyvale, California
There is plenty of information on the net

 


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Attached images may be Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle. Please confirm the ID.
Date :09.03.2013
Location: Kamrup district, Assam
Family :Rutaceae
Genus & species : Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle (?)
Habitat: Grows wild on open space
Habit : Small tree
Flower : Large, White

I think Citrus longilimon
Pl. go through this thread
efi thread 1
efi thread 2


I think this is Citrus medica L., as per images and details herein.


It is citron (Citrus medica) by looking its characterstics. Citrus aurantifolia…. leaves are small and petiole winged


 


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Flora of Manipur: Citrus longilimon – efloraofindia | Google Groups:
Citrus longilimon (Rutaceae).
Planted in house gardens. Credit for the id goes to … (I originally identified this as C. limon, now i am more convinced!).

Thanks for showing us photographs of this Assam lemon, on which we had discussion last week, and I could sort out its identity after a lot of net search.

But similar plants have been identified as Citrus medica in the following sites:
http://www.vegtalk.org/fruits/citron-citrus-medica-t1635.html Citrus medica – ‘Corsican Citron’
http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Citron.html … pictures
So how to confirm this? No picture for C. longilimon available in the net. The protologue (in Bull.Univ. Osaka Perfect….1959) in also not traceable.


I am not able to distinguish it from Citrus medica, which has fruit which is variable in shape
http://www.healthkerala.gov.in/ayurveda/herb_images/4.jpg
http://faculty.ksu.edu.sa/10439/Pictures%20Library/Forms/DispForm.aspx?ID=143
http://www.flowersinisrael.com/Citrusmedica_page.htm


Assam lemon, characterised by its long fruits (distinctinctly longer than broad) have been named as C. limon at many websites, and as C. medica in many websites. It should not look strange firstly because taxonomy of Citrus is very confusing, secondly many authors consider C. limon as var. or subsp. of C. medica, and as such those not going below species level would simply call it C. medica. Plus C. longilimon (character is in the name itself) is comparatively recently established species, not known to me. NMPMD database is generally well researched, and it is from here as well photographs of Assam lemon at various websites that C. longilimon appears to be the most logical name. Plus GRIN also recognises it as distinct species.
C. limon is generally differentiated from C. medica by much thinner and smoother rind. Let us try to find out other differentiating features (in addition to longer fruit) of C. longilimon to arrive at final conclusion.

Citrus medica L. !


I agree that this is Assam lemon. But the name Citrus longilimon Tanaka, although first published in 1959 and appears in several webpages, is not yet recognized by the major taxonomic databases, including TPL, POWO, GBIF etc. Also, a recent paper (cited below) discusses the morphological diversity of C. medica in NE India and includes specimens of similar fruit shape from the same region. So, I think we can treat this plant as C. medica L. for now along with C. longilimon Tanaka as a probable synonym, until it is further resolved.
Barbhuiya AR, Khan ML, Dayanandan S. Genetic structure and diversity of natural and domesticated populations of Citrus medica L. in the Eastern Himalayan region of Northeast India. Ecology and evolution. 2016 Jun;6(12):3898-911. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1002/ece3.2174


Thanks … for confirming that this is Assam lemon for which name C. longilimon has been published by Tanaka. We already have a page on C. longilimon, and it should go there.


I think this is Citrus medica L., as per images and details herein.



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Fwd: SK1095 20 APR-2018- 1 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (5) – around 400 kb each.

Location:  Godawari, Nepal  
Date: 18 April 2018
Altitude: 5000 ft.
Habit: Looks like Wild
Citrus medica L.  ?

I think it is difficult to id citrus species without fruits.


 


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References:

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