Daphne bholua Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. 68 1825.  (syn: Daphne cannabina Wall.; Daphne cannabina var. bholua (Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don) Keiss; Daphne odora D. Don);
2000-2900 m; Himalaya (Nepal to NEFA), Khasia, W. China as per Checklist of Nepal
China (NW-Yunnan), Tibet, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Darjeeling, Nepal, Sikkim, Chumbi, Vietnam as per Catalogue of Life;
Keys after studying all posts in efi site and various literature like Flora of China:
Daphne bholua Buchanan-Hamilton ex D. Don:
Margin sometimes slightly revolute and/or undulate, apex acute, rarely acuminate or obtuse.
Inflorescences terminal or axillary.
Bracts paired, caducous, broadly lanceolate or oblong-ovate, 14-18 × ca. 4 mm, sericeous.
Calyx purplish red or pink at least abaxially.
Drupe black, ovoid.
Daphne papyracea Wallich ex G. Don:
Inflorescences terminal.
bracts caducous, ovate, 7-15 × 3-4 mm, sparsely sericeous.
Calyx white or greenish white.
Drupe red, ovoid-pyriform.

Daphne bholua, the Nepalese paper plant, is a species of flowering shrub in the genus Daphne of the family Thymelaeaceae. It grows at altitudes of 1,700–3,500 m (5,577–11,483 ft) in the Himalayas and neighbouring mountain ranges, from Nepal to southern China. At lower altitudes it is found as an evergreen in thickets and forest margins; at higher altitudes, it is deciduous and is usually found in pastures and grassy glades.[2] It usually reaches a height of about 2.5 m (8 ft 2 in), though some specimens reach 4 m (13 ft) or more.[3]

Daphne bholua has leathery leaves and deep pink flowers with a powerful fragrance,[2] and a number of named cultivars have been bred and are grown as garden plants in Europe and North America.
D. bohlua is one of a number of species of Daphne that are used in traditional paper-making in Nepal,[5][6] hence its common English name of “paper daphne”.[7]. The inner bark also yields a fibre that is used to make rope.[6]. Although all parts of the plant are said to be poisonous,[8] the bark and roots are used in traditional medicine in Nepal to treat fevers.[4][6]

(from Wikipedia on 9.3.17)


Daphne bholua var. glacialis Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don ???? : 4 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (6)
Location: Pathibhara, Taplejung, Nepal
Date: 19 April 2017
Altitude: 10500 ft.

As per the keys at Flora of China as below, it does not appear to be creeping shrub:

1 Shrubs erect, 1.5-2.6(-4) m tall, leaf scar semicircular, lateral veins 11-16 pairs. 48a var. bholua
+ Shrubs creeping, 1-2 m tall, leaf scar subrhombic, lateral veins 6-11 pairs. 48b var. glacialis


Daphne bholua Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don ?? : 9 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (8)

Location: Nagarkot, Nepal  
Date: 12 December 2017
Altitude: 6600 ft.

Difficult to say with images at Daphne bholua

I think based on description in your books and at the following, you may decide between the two:

There is a confusion w.r.t. the name Daphne cannabina Wall.
It is a syn. of Daphne bholua Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don as per Catalogue of Life (updated Nov 2017)
However, Flora of China gives it as a syn. of Daphne papyracea when the Flora of China was published long back.
I think it will be better to rely on latest efforts of Catalogue of Life

That means we take it as Daphne bholua Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don ??By the way the Plant List also says Daphne cannabina Wall. is synonym of Daphne papyracea Wall. ex G. Don is

The record derives from WCSP (in review) (data supplied on 2012-03-26) which reports it as a synonym and as an illegitimate name with original publication details: Asiat. Res. 13: 385 1820.
Thus the data of The Plant List Ver. 1.1 is of 6.3.12. which was under review at that time, while Catalogue of Life (updated Nov 2017).

The Plant List was based on fixed set of Data made available to them at that time and is not being updated after that, while Catalogue of life is updated on day to day basis.

It is really a difficult task for a layperson like me as to which one to base for establishing the correct ID since there are numerous sites. I remember earlier someone suggested to base the Plant List instead of the Catalogue of Life as I was using the CoL for ID. Anyway, this will go on.

We have to understand the strength and weaknesses of each one of them and than take a decision. Even if the decision is wrong, no harm as we tried to do our best in the circumstances.


Daphne bholua Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (10)- around 800 kb each.

Location: Shivapuri National Park, Nepal
Altitude: 9000 ft.
Date: 27 March 2018
Habit : Wild 
Nepali Names : कागत पाते Kaagat Paate  / लोक्ता Loktaa / शिगु  Shigu  / बरुवा Baruwaa/ सेताबेरु Setaaberu  

Daphne bholua?- Arunachal Pradesh : 3 posts by 1 author. Attachments (2)- 2 Mb or more.

Daphne bholua?

Arunachal Pradesh
Alt 2900m amsl

Attachments (1)- 4 Mb

To me also appears close as per images at Daphne bholua
I hope … who have recently posted it can confirm.

SK395 02MAR-2017:ID : 10 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (4)
Location: Chandragiri Hills, Kathmandu, Nepal
Altitude: 8600 ft.
Date: 2 March 2017 

Spermacoceae? Pl. check the spelling.

Seems like Indian Paper plant (Daphne papyracea)

Someone suggested it to be Daphne bholua Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don (accepted name).
Need your opinion as flowering period and altitude matches.

Thanks, …, for the Id.
I also feel it is closer to Daphne bholua as per the images at the following:

Images at Daphne papyracea in efi look different.

Correct Nepali Names : बरुवा  Baruwaa / लोक्ता Lokta / सिगु Sigu / कागज पाते Kaagaj Paate 

Fwd: Fw: Daphne bholua cultivar in UK garden : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)
A not very good image of Daphne bholua ‘Jacqueline Postill’ cultivar growing in a UK garden scanned in from a slide taken 20+ years ago.

I am not absolutely certain but given the botanic garden label, this probably is in the grounds of the Royal Botanic Garden, Kew.

Tree for Id . ID11032015SH1 : (mixed thread): 12 posts by 4 authors. 1 correct image as above.
Which Citrus species is this ? The flowers were fragrant.

Location – Mishmi Hills, Arunachal Pradesh

Habitat –Wild

I may be wrong in guessing that it is more like Daphne species than Citrus one.

… is Right!!

This is Daphne papyracea Wall. ex G. Don. Traditionally, bark of this plant is used to make paper by the Monpa tribes of Tawang area of Arunachal Pradesh.
Family: Thymelaeaceae

But, Madam, I have a question – Why FoC says that flowers of D. papyracea Wall. ex G. Don are not fragrant? Interestingly, the paper Niscair pdf on the other hand says flowers are scented and refers Polunin & Stainton!

I am extremely extremely sorry …
By mistake i have posted a wrong photo which i thought was of citrus species. I am rectifying my error by posting fresh photos for id again. Sorry for the lapse on my part.

This should be Daphne bholua Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don as per keys, details and images herein.


on the way to Eaglenest sant., Arunachal; Plant for ID UP 3 – efloraofindia | Google Groups

This pictures are taken on the trekking route from Dhotre (2700 Mts from MSL) (Latitude:  27°2’59” N , Longitude: 88°6’36” E) to Tonglu (3090 Mts from MSL) (Latitude:  27°2’4″  N , Longitude: 88°4’46” E).
Please help me in identifying these flowers and trees.

Pic4 is Daphne bholua

Date/Time- 12.03.2010

Location- Place
Altitude-Trekking route from Dhotre-(2700 Mts from MSL) to Tonglu(3090 Mts from MSL)
Habitat-  Wild
Plant Habit- Shrub 
Height/Length- 6ft-7ft
Flowers Size – 1/2 inch
Colour- pinkish
Name- Daphne bholua
The place DHOTRE ((Latitude:  27°2’59”  N , Longitude: 88°6’36” E) is 120 km west of Darjeeling. Tonglu(Latitude:  27°2’4″ N , Longitude: 88°4’46″E) a 5 km trek from Dhotre. Both these places is in the extreme north of West Bengal and the area is under Singalila National Park.



Flower for Id -ID08032015SH2 : 5 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)

Flower for Id pl
Location – Mishmi Hills, Arunachal Pradesh
Habitat –Wild

It’s a Daphne sp (Thymelaeaceae)

I think it is a species of Daphne (Thymeliaceae)

I think it may be Daphne bholua Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don as per details herein.
Colours have been modified in the image from camera.


Flower for id ( from Bhutan) – ID15032018SH4 : 10 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (1)- 3 mb

Flower for id pl.Is it Daphne odora ?
Location – Near Gangtey ( Bhutan)
Date – March. 2018

Looks matching. Request to post different angle images

including leaves in future !

Posting one more image ….
I m trying to post images with full details like leaves, bark etc. But in Bhutan during this spring time most of the flowering plants had shed the leaves.
Attachments (2)

I am unable to decide from species available in efi site at Daphne

It is quite similar to Daphne odora.. but you can see also D. bholua

Leaves of my image are nearer to images of D.bholua while leaves in D.odora are bit glossy ….. but not sure

Appears to be some Daphne species (Thymelaeaceae)

I think it is Daphne bholua Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don as per details and images herein.

Ye Me. … !


For Id – Daphne sp.? – ID14032018SH1 : 4 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1) – 3 Mb.

Flower for id pl. Is it Daphne sp. ? If so, which ?
Location – Near Thimpu on the way to Dochula pass (Bhutan)
Date – March. 2018

Appears so, but difficult to id with this image.
You can check the species available under Daphne (where images are also there).

Thanks … I will check.

I think it is Daphne bholua Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don as per details and images herein.


SK 2415 27 January 2020 : 11 posts by 2 authors. 9 images- 4 to 7 mb each.
Location: Sundarijal, Shivapuri National Park
Date:  20 January 2020
Elevation: 2100m.
Habitat: Wild
Daphne papyracea Wall. ex G.Don ??

I will go for Daphne bholua Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don as per keys and comparative images at Daphne

You may be right …


Daphne papyracea Wall. ex Steud.: 10 very high resolution images.

Location: Godawari, Lalitpur
Date: 11 March 2021
Altitude: 2500m.
Habitat : Wild

I think this is Daphne bholua Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don as per keys and details herein.


Daphne bholua Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don: 7 very high res. images.

Location: Kathmandu Valley, Nepal
Date: 11 March 2023
Altitude: 2681m.
Habitat : Wild 


Daphne bholua Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don: 8 very high res. images.

Location: Phulchoki, Nepal
Date: 02 March 2024
Elevation: 2700m.
Habitat: Wild


SK 3934 07 March 2024: 7 high res. images.

Location: Phulchoki, Nepal
Date: 02 March 2024
Elevation: 2363m.

Habitat: Wild

Daphne bholua Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don ??

Yes, appears close to images at

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