Diospyros montana Roxb., Pl. Coromandel 1: 37 1795. (Syn: Diospyros auriculata Wight ex Hiern; Diospyros bracteata Roxb.; Diospyros calcarea Fletcher; Diospyros calycina Bedd.; Diospyros cordifolia Roxb.; Diospyros dioica Span.; Diospyros glauca Rottler; Diospyros goindu Dalzell; Diospyros heterophylla Wall. ex G.Don; Diospyros humilis Bourd.; Diospyros kanjilalii Duthie; Diospyros microcarpa Span.; Diospyros montana f. cordifolia (Roxb.) Hiern; Diospyros montana var. cordifolia (Roxb.) Hiern; Diospyros orixensis Klein ex Willd.; Diospyros pubicalyx Bakh.; Diospyros punctata Decne.; Diospyros rugosula R.Br.; Diospyros waldemarii Klotzsch);
Tropical Asia: Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Cambodia, East Himalaya, India, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Myanmar, Nepal, Nicobar Is., Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Thailand, Vietnam as per POWO;
Tamil: Vakanai Malayalam: Malayakathitholi, Manjakara
Common name: Bistendu, Bombay ebony • Hindi: बिसतॆंदु Bistendu, Kala dhao, Kendu, Dakanan • Marathi: Lohari • Telugu: kakaulimera, kakavulimidi, kakiulimera, makha • Bengali: Tamal
Flora of Ranga Reddi District Andhra Pradesh, India By T. Pullaiah, M. Silar Mohammed (2000- Description & Keys-Diospyros chloroxylon, Diospyros peregrina (Syn. of Diospyros malabarica (Desr.) Kostel. as per The Plant List), Diospyros melanoxylon & Diospyros montana)

Flora of Davanagere District, Karnataka, India By B. K. Manjunatha, V. Krishna, T. Pullaiah (2004- Description & Keys- Diospyros cordifolia (syn. of  Diospyros montana Roxb. as per The Plant List), Diospyros ovalifolia, Diospyros melanoxylon & Diospyros montana)

Dioecious trees, to 20 m high, bark smooth, grey or yellowish-grey; blaze turmeric yellow; exudation scanty, watery; bole and branches with long hard, stiff, divaricate spines formed from stumps of branches; branchlets slender, glabrous, only those of the flush sparsely minutely pilose. Leaves simple, alternate, estipulate; petiole 5-10 mm, slender, grooved above, glabrous; lamina 4-10 x 2-4 cm, ovate, ovate-oblong, elliptic-oblong, base round, obtuse, subcordate or acute, apex obtuse, subacute or obtusely acuminate, margin entire, chartaceous, more or less softly pubescent when young, glabrous at maturity; lateral nerves 5-10 pairs, pinnate, slender, faint, intercostae reticulate, faint. Flowers unisexual, white; male flowers : 2-6 in axillary umbels; peduncle to 5 mm; calyx 3 mm long; lobes 4, ovate, imbricate, thick, margin ciliate, obtuse; corolla 6-7 mm long, greenish-yellow, urceolate, glabrous; lobes 4, ovate, imbricate, 2.5 mm long, subacute; stamens 16, roughly in 8 pairs, unequal; anthers lanceolate, awned; pistillode conical, pointed; female flowers: solitary, axillary; pedicel to 4 mm; calyx and corolla as in male flowers; staminodes 4, 5 mm, linear-lanceolate; ovary superior, 0.7 mm across, globose, glabrous, 8-celled, ovule one in each cell; styles 4, 1.5 mm long; stigma capitate; Fruit a berry, 1.5-2 cm across, ovoid to obconical, yellow to orange, glaucous; calyx foliaceous, slightly enlarged, foliaceous, reflexed; seeds 3-6, rough, black; endosperm equable.

Flowering and fruiting: April-February
Moist deciduous, dry deciduous and semi-evergreen forests
Indo-Malesia to Australia
(Attributions- Dr. N Sasidharan (Dr. B P Pal Fellow), Kerala Forest Research Institute, Peechi
from India Biodiversity Portal (Diospyros montana Roxb.))


… another fruit at Lion’s Point : 9 posts by 5 authors. Attachments (3)

Photos (lacking contrast) of an evergreen tree bearing rigour of harsh climate; leaves have almost shrivelled.
ID please.
Place: Lion’s Point, Lonavala
Date: 18 JUN 09

Looks like Sonneratia apetala

… no …, this is not mangrove apple … the plant is different.

Guess this is some Dyospiros… not sure about species…

It can be Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb. Cor. Pl. 1: 36, t. 46, 1795..as
the leaves seems to be like that.

it could be Diospyros melanoxylon. The bark is typically black peeling off in rectangular scales

Diospyros montana Roxb. as per another thread.

Thanks … I had labelled them as D. melanoxylon; have corrected them now.

Diospyros species ABMAY01/02 : 4 posts by 2 authors.
I found two trees near a Buddhist temple a couple of days ago that appear to me to belong to Diospyros genus (two different species). These are perhaps cultivars. I suspect the first to be D. montana female and the second D. malabarica perhaps. I could be completely off the mark too. Please advise.
Mcleodganj, Dharamshala, HP
29-30 April 2016
Diospyros montana? 6 images.
Flowers without scent;

On casually going through their images at comparative images of Diospyros, I feel you may be right. efi pages with images on Diospyros montana & Diospyros malabarica                        

A few days back I saw one of these trees (D. montana in my email) fruiting. I am attaching photos here. The other tree which I had thought to be D. malabarica may have been the male of the same (or another) species as it had no fruit visible anywhere. 2 images.

Diospyros montana—-for sharing : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)
photos taken at Aambyvalley Rd., Lonavala, Pune in Mar.15

Attaching the image of 45 th member of the series. This is TAMALA as per Valmiki. Scintifically it is known as Garcinia morella.
The tree is associated with Krishna. There are many KIRTANS (devotional songs) in Bangla, where Tamala is mentioned along with Krishna.  The picture is taken in the campus of MADAN-MOHAN temple at Cooch Behar.  

Images may be of Garcinia xanthochymus Hook.f. ex T.Anderson as per images herein & do not match with images of Garcinia morella (Gaertn.) Desr.

The image is of Diospyros montana. As a non botanist I depended on botanical literature for identity.

There were three candidates for TAMALA ,namely,
(a) Cinnamomum tamala
(b) Garcinia morella
(c) Garcinia xanthochymus
I know the plants at (a) and (c), so I thought Garcinia morella will be the correct name. But a conservator of forest from Assam brought it to my notice that it was not Garcinia morella. Now I know for certain that the image is of Diospyros Montana. As per The Useful Plants of India the Sanskrit name of Diospyros Montana is TUMALA.

I tried in the books and on the net, but no luck so far, to id this largish shrub from Sonepat, Haryana.
Local name : Kendu.
This is also growing (4-5 shrubs) between the North Block and Rail Bhawan (New Delhi) near the Maulshree trees and the water fountain.
Shall be grateful for any help.

It is bistendu (diospyros cordifolia)

BTW,it should be flowering in the month of april. So look for it

Thank you …, You have saved me lot of troubles. So, Pradeep Krishen’s opinion in his Trees of Delhi is right,”One of Delhi’s least known native trees..”

Diopyros montenavar cordifolia : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (3)
This is  Diopyros montena var cordifolia. Small shrub I have taken this photo Near Virat nagar, Jaipur. Hindi name- Vish tendu. Flowring in april fruiting May-June.

Plant 2 : 5 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (3)
Plant posted here for id was photographed at Tiwai Hill plateau, near Chas-kaman dam. Request id.

Is it not some Diospyros species from Ebenaceae?

thank you will check it out and get back.

Appears close to the images at Diospyros montana Roxb.


VZT3-24/1/17- 1 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (8)

Location- Daouli, Dapoli, MH
Habitat- Wild
Plant Habit- Tree
Height-10 meter

… most probably, some species of Diospyros.

Diospyros montana Roxb. [Ebenaceae]. The enlarged calyx lobes stretching out behind the fruit can be seen in all the images. The bark is also distinctive.


Diospyros melanoxylon :: near Lion’s Point :: 07 APR 08 : 7 posts by 4 authors. 3 images.
Near Lion’s Point , off Lonavala
Date: April 7, 2008 … Altitude: about 760 m (2500 feet) asl
Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb. … (family: Ebenaceae)   

Dear friends, now when I look again at the posted plant – the large calyx lobes, leaf base, colour of the bark, tree habit, I get a feeling that the species must be D. montana.
Please validate.

Yes to me also appear close to images at Diospyros montana Roxb.

ANNOV24/24 Diospyros sp. for identification : 16 posts by 8 authors. Attachments (6)

Family: Ebenaceae
Date: November 2015
Place: Turahalli, Bangalore District, Karnataka
Habit: Tree
Habitat: Scrub forest

Diospyros species in eFloraofindia (with details/ keys from published papers/ regional floras/ FRLHT/ FOI/ Biotik/ efloras/ books etc., where ever available on net) 

Please check with Diospyros cordifolia.

Diospyros melanoxylon– female plant

Is it not Diospyros montana?  Vide Wight, Icon. Pl. Ind. Orient. 4: t. 1225. 1848.  Please also see C.J.Saldanha & Ramesh, Fl. Karnataka 1: 339. 1984.

efi page on Diospyros melanoxylon & Diospyros montana (syn: Diospyros cordifolia Roxb.)

I feel this is D. melanoxylon

The best point of reference for Diospyros melanoxylon is the protologue, i. e. Roxb., Pl. Coromandel 1: 36, t. 46. 1795.  The tome 46 is a wonderful coloured drawing and the present images do not match with it.
The phyllotaxy, shape, size, texture and indumentum of leaves, infructescences and the 8-loculed fruits (as available in the images) indicate D. montana instead.

O think it is Diospyros montana

very much like Diospyros montana

Thank you very much everybody. I will try and locate its flowers in the coming seasons in order to confirm.

Stem bark proves its identity as Diospyros montana

I agree … Thank you for confirming …

identification no 120416sn1 : 9 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (6)
Kindly help in Id.My guess is Diospyros montana.
location:aambyvalley rd.,lonavala,pune
height:upto 8 ft.

I think matches better with images of Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb. as per comparative images of species of Diospyros

To me it is Diospyros montana

Thanks, … Are the images at Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb. correct ?

I don’t think the last 2 images belong to D. melanoxylon. They look like D. montana to me. All the Diospyros melanoxylon trees I know have distinctive black bark like this:
and the fruits have a much smaller calyx than those in … images. They are also a larger size.

Bark in the image looks similar to D. montana
please refer – http://www.ifoundbutterflies.org/larval-host-plants/329/Diospyros-montana

Thanks, … I think this image under Diospyros montana Roxb. may also not be correct. Pl. confirm

The leaves in the photo you mention seem to have very cordate bases so I am not sure.
Please refer to Pradip Krishen’s Jungle Trees of Central India for clear images of these Diospyros species, as well as D. cordifolia
which is clearly different from D. montana.
Due to poor connection it is not possible for me to upload my own images.

Earlier D. montana was identified here., though just the flower buds and leaves. So i take it this is D. montana. Thanks …

Definitely not Diospyros montana. May be Diospyros melanoxylon.

it is Diospyros melanoxylon. I earlier collected this from SGNP, Mumbai. please find attached Attachments (3)

Agree with … This is Maskudal / Govindu [D. montana]. This is definitely not Tendu / Temburni [D. melanoxylon]. Have 4 species of Diospyros on my property at Shahapur. My photographs of Tendu for comparison are available at these links : Google Groups

Good to hear from you, …, after a long time!
…, your fruits in the image are Diospyros melanoxylon. They don’t match with those in the original post by … which clearly have enlarged calyx lobes spreading out behind the fruit. The leaves have quite a different shape.
We can take another clue from the location of … images which is Amby valley road. This area has good evergreen and semi evergreen forest and not the drier forest patches associated with D. melanoxylon.
Incidentally Lion’s Point, where … images of the same tree were taken, is also quite typical habitat for D. montana. Flora of Khandala by Father Santapau covers this whole region and does not contain a mention of D. melanoxylon.

For id of Diospyros sp. from Morni hills .. : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (4)
Is it Diospyros montana?? Please validate…
Taken on April 2018 from Morni hills..!!

This does appear to be the male tree of Diospyros montana Roxb. [Ebenaceae].


ID request17032016PC1 : 12 posts by 6 authors. Attachments (2)
Kindly identify this tree growing in Delhi. The plant has almost shed all its leaves and is sprouting new ones. The berries are about 1.5-2.0 inches in diameter.

Melia azedarach? Just a guess from the few leaves visible.

No, the berries are much bigger and yellow like those of  ber (Ziziphus) with the round type fruits. Melia azedarach has just started flowering in Delhi.

Perhaps a close up of a fallen fruit will help?

I agree with your ID. It is Melia azedirach.

Diospyros montana. Bistendu in Hindi.

I have attached some more photos. The fruit has only one black seed inside surrounded by translucent fleshy pulp (aril?) which seems to turn black on injury. Leaves appear to be simple. Could it be Diospyros montana? Attachments (4)

It looks more like Diospyros cordifolia.

Thank you. In flowersofindia site, D. cordifolia is given as synonym of D. montana. Which is the correct name?

Please refer to Pradip Krishen’s ‘Jungle Trees of Central India’

As per WCSP, Diospyros cordifolia Roxb. is a syn. of Diospyros montana Roxb., Pl. Coromandel 1: 37 (1795).


Diospyros montana – efloraofindia | Google Groups : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (5)

Fam: Ebenaceae
Diospyros montana (ID Confirmation required)
Kannada: Jagala ganti
Chandagal village, Mysore district
Date02 Feb 2010
Height of the tree: 50 -60 feet approx, huge tree
Leaves elliptic, alternate, 6-9 cms,
No fruits observed,
Habitat : Areca Farm
fruits used in fish poisoning

Yes Raghu ji this seems to be Diospyros montana.

Flora of Jamwa ramgarh Sanctury,Jaipur,Rajastan-6: Hindi name बिसतॆंदु
Scientific Name Diospyros Cordifolia
Family Ebenaceae
Photo taken 9.4.2009
At- Jamwa ramgarh Sanctury, Jaipur, Rajastan, India
Description very much dense crown


Flora of Haryana- Diospyros montana from Karnal DWR Fields Boundary:
Diospyros montana from karnal
Photo taken 15-6-11, small tree, only fruits can be seen

It is an indigenous tree of Aravali range. And grows wildly in Delhi ridge


tree id – Ludhiana:
please help me to identify the tree with following details

location ludhiana Punjab
altitude 247m
growth habit Medium tree
flowering time March

This tree should be Diospyros montana from Ebenaceae, this is always better if you send individual pics by reducing their size..

You may use easythumbnail software for that (free available on net)

Just for convenience above zip file images are uploaded


tree id- Ludhiana:
please help me to identify the tree with following details
location ludhiana Punjab
altitude 247m
growth habit Medium tree
flowering time March

I believe this one is Diospyros montana Clarke Syn. D. cordifolia Roxb. from Ebenaceae…locally known as Tendu or Kendu

Presume you mean Diospyros cordifolia Roxb. [syn. D. montana var. cordifolia Hiern.]. The leaves here are too elongated and pointed to be D. montana Roxb.

Definitely I wanted to convey D. cordifolia Roxb. for this plant, thanks for pointing out the issue in synonymy….

i am very much thank ful for the id provided by u all
really this group helps me to identify new plants time to time as number of trees are planted
in our university by our esteemed teachers have [planted but thier identity lost with time} but i am trying to re identify these and label thsese which we are having only one or two specimens.

Images by Renee Vyas (Identification by Satish Pardeshi) (Inserted by J.M.Garg)



Tree for ID: RV 26032012: RV 1 : Attachments (3).  6 posts by 4 authors.
Please help to id this small in size, tree …..saw today (26.3.13) on Silonda trail in SGNP, Mumbai.

This is a species of Diospyros.

Diospyros species.

it is Diospyros montana. i had seen it at SGNP, Silionda trail.


Id please :  Attachments (1). 6 posts by 5 authors.
Its from panawel. Takar called it Maj….

Looks like Diospyros sps. (D. kaki ?)

efi page on Diospyros kaki 

Diospyros montana

Yes. It looks like Diospyros montana -( टेंबुर्णी in Marathi I think)


ID help needed. Is it Dysoxylum sp? : 6 posts by 4 authors. 4 images.
Kindly need help to ID this tree. I dont have many good pics…have put all the pics i could salvage…

I feel its a Dysoxylum species… Dysoxylum malabaricum?
Location: Dandeli, Karnataka
30th Dec 2013.
This tree was very frequently visited by the lot of Malabar grey hornbills.

The leaves are not compound but are simple ones and hence no chance of this being Dysoxylum. Tetracarpellary (!) , no clue from the available pictures! But the leaves seems to be familiar. Could you please upload more leaf pictures! and please tell us information regarding flowers if available.

It may be Diospyros montana.

Agree with …

I dont have the pics of flowers and also these are the only pics i have.
Many thanks to … for responding. I too now feel its a Diospyros montana. After … mail, I tried correlating this tree with the Malabar hornbill and came upon an interesting thesis paper on malabar hornbill in dandeli region. In that its clearly mentioned –

In this study, the hornbills were observed feeding on Styrchnos nux-vomica, Ficus glomerata, F. asperrima, F. mysorensis and Diospyros montana; the main food plants found fruiting between December and March.
This clearly co-relates with what i observed also of Malabar hornbills feeding incessantly on the fruits.

Forgot paste the link of the thesis paper


Diospyros montana is often treated as a synonym of Diospyros cordifolia, which seems to be the reason why the name Diospyros montana var. cordifolia came about.
In my experience the two are quite different.
These photos show D. montana var. cordifolia, (or Diospyros cordifolia}.

Yes, Sir David Prain also thinks so.

SYMBIOSIS :568 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1).
Attaching an image of a bee on the flower of Diospyros Montana.

Tree For ID : Nasik : 050514 : AK-12 :  3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (4).
Medium size cultivated tree with smooth leaves, lighter in color underneath.
No flowers or fruits. 

This looks like Diospyros montana.

Thanks for the id.

identification no241014sn1: 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (5).
Kindly help in identification.
location: ambyvalley rd., lonavala, pune
plant habit:tree?
height:about 7-8 ft.

It seems Diospyros montana


FLOWERS/PLANTS MENTIONED BY TAGORE IN HIS SONGS ( TAMAL -2 ) : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)
Attaching translated version of a song by Tagore, in which TAMAL has been mentioned.


FLOWERS/PLANTS MENTIONED BY TAGORE IN HIS SONGS ( TAMAL -1 ) : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)
Attaching translated version of a song by Tagore, where TAMAL has been mentioned. The scientific name of this tree is Diospyros montana.

Garcinia xanthochymus is also called Tamal in Bangla. Pl. confirm whether it is Garcinia xanthochymus or otherwise.

What Tagore meant by Tamal is Diospyros montana and not Garcinia xanthochymus. I have seen both these trees.

ANAPR55 Phyllanthaceae(?) tree for ID : 9 posts by 5 authors. Attachments (11)

Date: 19th January 2015
Place: Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve, Tamil Nadu
Habit: Tree
Habitat: Deciduous forest

Diospyros sp.

Diospyros montana? Attached is the key to various Diospyros sp.

Not a Phyllanthaceae.  Must be a Diospyros.

Yes, thank you sir.

It is Diospyros sp but not Diospyros montana for certain.

Yes, it is Diospyros montana.
Tamil name: Vakkanai (வக்கனை)

Family: Ebenaceae
Date: 24th May 2015
Place: Renuka Ji lake, Himachal Pradesh
Habit: Short tree

This could be D. peregryna

what a delightful fruit

Five species of Diospyros are reported by Chowdhery & Wadhwa (1984) in Flora of Himachal Pradesh. These are D.cordifolia, D.lotus, D.malabarica, D.montana and D.tomentosa.
The plant looks like D.montana.

Thank you …

Please identify Diospyros sp? : 12 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (3)

Please identify Diospyros sp?
Locality: Lucknow
Date: 20-06-2018
Habit: shrub

Sir please check Diospyros montana

No sir,  it is not Diospyros montana.

Pl. check comparative images at https://sites.google.com/site/efloraofindia/species/a–-l/e/ebenaceae/diospyros

please show us  the entire shrub…. habit and its stem bark

oh forgot to ask: size of the fruit

1-2 cm in diam.

In continuation with previous email, I am sending other photographs of Diospros sp. as asked by …

Locality: Lucknow
Date: 20-06-2018
Habit: shrub
Habtat: Waste places
Attachments (4)

Also check comparative images at /species/a—l/e/ebenaceae/diospyros

Closest I can go is Diospyros montana Roxb. as per comparative images at Diospyros


Need id assistance of JNU Campus plant 090415SP1-3 : 7 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (4)

I need id assistance of following 4 images belonging to Diospyros? collected from JNU Campus
Date: SP-1-3 (09/04/2015) SP04 (fruiting–29/04/15)
Locality: JNU New Campus

Diospyros species in eFloraofindia (with details/ keys from published papers/ regional floras/ FRLHT/ FOI/ Biotik/ efloras/ books etc., where ever available on net) 

Diospyros montana?

Could be Diospyros montana. Check these links: flowersofindia  and biotik

Yes Diospyros montana

Seems to be Diospyros Montana.

Tree for ID Northwest Tamil Nadu NAW-MAY20-02 : 18 posts by 8 authors. Attachments (5)
Kindly identify this tree photographed in a farm in northwest Tamil Nadu, near Hosur in May 2020. The leaves are velvety. Not my photographs.

Diospyros sylvatica, Ebenaceae,

Are the leaves of Diospyros sylvatica ever velvety?
Not sure about the bark either in the posted picture. Can it be a local variation?
In Maharashtra bark is smooth and dark, leaves are glabrous.

My friend another photograph of fruits she found under the tree. Maybe this will provide some more information.
Im sorry that the photograph is not very clear. 


It is quite possible as this species has been reported from Tamil Nadu in Excursion flora of Tamil Nadu and flora of Eastern Ghats. Nevertheless, I am unable to decide or pin point the  ID due to insufficient knowledge on various species of Diospyros.
Book Link

the leaf doesn’t look like that of D.sylvatica

Fruits photo has similarity to sylvatica. Leaves may slightly vary due to edaphic and climatic factors.

Diospyros montana

It is Diospyros montana

Other recipients:
It must be D. montana looking at bark, leaves and habit. But I’ve never seen fruits of this shape in this species or any other Diospyros! regards Radha . >

It must be D. montana looking at bark, leaves and habit. But I’ve never seen fruits of this shape in this species or any other Diospyros!

Can fruits be of some other species?

Im sorry about the confusion. Since the photographs are not mine im confused myself. Could the last photograph be of flower buds rather than fruits?
Ill tell my friend to send some better photographs with a scale reference which might reduce the confusion. Are there any other suggestions on how to photograph the species better?

Id please : 8 posts by 6 authors. Attachments (4)

ID Please
A Medium sized tree
Local Marathi name is Gondal
At Ratnagiri, Maharashtra
25 Dec,2014

It looks like Diospyros montana, but I’m not used to seeing it in fruiting condition at this time of year.

efi page on Diospyros montana 

The photograph particularly the fruits resemble the Diospyros brasiliensis

yes, looks more like Diospyros montana.

To me it seems to be Diospyros melanoxylon

efi page on Diospyros melanoxylon. No efi page on Diospyros brasiliensis as yet. 

If the fruits are more than 3 cm across, it could be Diospyros melanoxylon. In D. montana, the fruits are usually less than 2 cm across.

Based on your Id in another thread: Can it be Diospyros montana Roxb. only ?

Yes, I think so. Diospyros montana Roxb. [Ebenaceae].

I don’t think it to be Diospyros montana.

Request for ID – 271010RA1:
Request ID of this tree with persistent calyx fruits. The leaves have wavy
margins, oblong, acute, glaucous texture, prominent middle venation.
Seen  at Matheran, Mah., on 24 Oct ’10.

Diospyros sp.

Diospyros for sure…. may be as simple as malabarica.

This is Diospyros condolleana locally called Kalino.

It cannot be D. candolleana where the leaves are more or less oblong (elongated) and is an evergreen tree.
This plant appears to be deciduous and may be close to D. montana or D. cordifolia.

Thanks for your comments. Have studied the flora of Matheran with Mr.B.G.Gavade [Dr.Almeida’s student]. Don’t think this is D.cordifolia which has strong often branched thorns scattered over the trunk and larger branches. Also don’t think it is Govindu / Maskudal [D.montana]. Have it on my farm. Also have not figured out how you deduced this is a deciduous tree ?

Thanks to all for the leads. … I think this is not D. candolleana– having recently seen and posted the pics of the tree ided by Dr. Almeida at Amboli. Thanks … for the possible alternatives Shall await further inputs.

It could be Diospyros sylvetica. Ref:- Flora of Maharashtra- Vol 3-page 177.

Thanks … Just checked, I find D. sylvatica description of the bark as coloured, thin, smooth, leaves elliptic and paler beneath not quite matching. I find D. montana slightly more matching. Hope to get more expert opinions.

To me it appears more closer to Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb.  as per images herein. Also see images at Diospyros melanoxylon ? 

As per threads: Diospyros for ID : 060111 : AK-1 & 12082015KSB1 for identification, looks similar to Diospyros malabarica (Desr.) Kostel.

Based on your Id in another thread: Can it be Diospyros montana Roxb. only ?

Yes, this appears to be Diospyros montana Roxb. [Ebenaceae].

big gap of field exposure, rarely going to forest these days.
*Trunk appears typical of Diospyros montana.
Leaves are not of typical D. montana of Goa & Karnataka W. Ghats.
I have seen Diospyros melanoxylon only is Sagar, Shimoga (Karnataka) and the leaves were not at all glabrous, shiny. 

01052015 BRS 002 for id. request from Chennai : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (4)
Pl. find the attached file contain photos for id. request.
Date: 01.05.2015
Location: Adyar, Chennai
Habitat: Garden
Habit: Tree

Diospyros Species.

Appears close to images at Diospyros montana Roxb. 

To me it seems to be some species of Diospyros. Leaf tip of Diospyros montana is slightly pointed and the tree trunk is black in colour. Diospyros montana is famous TAMAL associated with lord Krishna.


ID from Hastinapur Wildlife Sanctuary Meerut 1: 1 high res. image.
Please Identify this plant species

I think it appears close to images at Diospyros montana Roxb.


ID from Hastinapur Wildlife Sanctuary Meerut 3: 1 high res. image.
Please Identify this plant species

Please check for Diospyros species

Yes, appears close to images at Diospyros montana Roxb.


MS,May, 2022/21 Diospyros sp. for id.: 5 images.
Location : Lungkulh, Mizoram

Altitude : ca.350 m.
Date : 20-01-2016
Habit : Medium-sized evergreen tree
Habitat : Wild

Pl. check https://efloraofindia.com/2011/02/26/diospyros/

Diospyros montana ?

Any keys?
Yes, appears close to images at Diospyros montana Roxb.

Yes D. montana looks likely ID


Identification of plant specimen 130722 SS1: 2 high res. images.
Posting again as clubbed at Identification of plant specimen, due to same subject.

Let us know the Habit details …, either its Tree or Staggling shrub,
if it’s a shrub, seems Olax sp.

The plant is shrub type as enquired by you.

Pl. check

Not Grewia

It could be Olax

This plant specimen seems to Diospyros cordifolia….. Kendu.


Regarding identification of tree sp. BHUBANESWAR, ODISHA, FEB.2023: 9 images.

Dyospyros species (D.montana ???)

Yes, apepars close as per images at

Another closer species seems to be Diospyros cordifolia (but this tree is armed as per keys in FoPI) as per Flora of Peninsular India
I will have to recheck other observations at

Yes … Diospyros cordifolia

Diospyros cordifolia is a syn. of D.montana as per POWO  and Catalogue of Life


Regarding identification of the species collected from Dhenkanal Odisha 2: 7 high res. images.
Reposting again as clubbed due to same subject:
Posted by …

https://efloraofindia.com/2011/02/26/diospyros/ !

Diospyros montana.

Yes, appears close as per images at


Diospyros montana Roxb. :: Matheran :: Apr 1, 2023 · JUN23 DV227: 5 images.

Diospyros montana Roxb.
Matheran :: Apr 1, 2023 · 2:37 PM IST :: about 800 m (2,625 ft) asl
Many thanks to Radha Veach for validating the ID at iNaturalist


Fruit for Id -ID211023SH1: 2 high res. images.

Fruit for Id pl.
Location – Rajgir, Bihar
Date – September 2023

Diospyros sp. [Ebenaceae]. Probably Diospyros montana Roxb.

Seems to be D montana


Ebenaceae: Diospyros montana Roxb.: 1 image.
synonyms: Diospyros cordifolia Roxb., Diospyros pubicalyx Bakh.
location/date: University of Agricultural Sciences campus, Bangalore, July 1997


Regarding identification of a species collected from Koraput Odisha: 2 high res. images.

Diospyros ??

Yes sir

I think appears close to images at





POWO  Catalogue of Life  The Plant List Ver.1.1  WCSP  GRIN  Flowers of India  India Biodiversity Portal (Diospyros montana Roxb.) Biotik  India Biodiversity Portal (Diospyros cordifolia Roxb.)