Diospyros montana Roxb., Pl. Coromandel 1: 37 1795. (Syn: Diospyros auriculata Wight ex Hiern; Diospyros bracteata Roxb.; Diospyros calcarea Fletcher; Diospyros calycina Bedd.; Diospyros cordifolia Roxb.; Diospyros dioica Span.; Diospyros glauca Rottler; Diospyros goindu Dalzell; Diospyros heterophylla Wall. ex G.Don; Diospyros humilis Bourd.; Diospyros kanjilalii Duthie; Diospyros microcarpa Span.; Diospyros montana f. cordifolia (Roxb.) Hiern; Diospyros montana var. cordifolia (Roxb.) Hiern; Diospyros orixensis Klein ex Willd.; Diospyros pubicalyx Bakh.; Diospyros punctata Decne.; Diospyros rugosula R.Br.; Diospyros waldemarii Klotzsch);
Malayalam: Malayakathitholi, Manjakara
Common name: Bistendu, Bombay ebony • Hindi:
बिसतॆंदु Bistendu, Kala dhao, Kendu, Dakanan • Marathi: Lohari • Telugu:
kakaulimera, kakavulimidi, kakiulimera, makha • Bengali: Tamal
Flora of Ranga Reddi District Andhra Pradesh, India By T. Pullaiah, M. Silar Mohammed (2000- Description & Keys-Diospyros chloroxylon, Diospyros peregrina (Syn. of Diospyros malabarica (Desr.) Kostel. as per The Plant List), Diospyros melanoxylon & Diospyros montana)
Flora of Davanagere District, Karnataka, India By B. K. Manjunatha, V. Krishna, T. Pullaiah (2004- Description & Keys- Diospyros cordifolia (syn. of Diospyros montana Roxb. as per The Plant List), Diospyros ovalifolia, Diospyros melanoxylon & Diospyros montana)
Dioecious trees, to 20 m high, bark smooth, grey or yellowish-grey; blaze turmeric yellow; exudation scanty, watery; bole and branches with long hard, stiff, divaricate spines formed from stumps of branches; branchlets slender, glabrous, only those of the flush sparsely minutely pilose. Leaves simple, alternate, estipulate; petiole 5-10 mm, slender, grooved above, glabrous; lamina 4-10 x 2-4 cm, ovate, ovate-oblong, elliptic-oblong, base round, obtuse, subcordate or acute, apex obtuse, subacute or obtusely acuminate, margin entire, chartaceous, more or less softly pubescent when young, glabrous at maturity; lateral nerves 5-10 pairs, pinnate, slender, faint, intercostae reticulate, faint. Flowers unisexual, white; male flowers : 2-6 in axillary umbels; peduncle to 5 mm; calyx 3 mm long; lobes 4, ovate, imbricate, thick, margin ciliate, obtuse; corolla 6-7 mm long, greenish-yellow, urceolate, glabrous; lobes 4, ovate, imbricate, 2.5 mm long, subacute; stamens 16, roughly in 8 pairs, unequal; anthers lanceolate, awned; pistillode conical, pointed; female flowers: solitary, axillary; pedicel to 4 mm; calyx and corolla as in male flowers; staminodes 4, 5 mm, linear-lanceolate; ovary superior, 0.7 mm across, globose, glabrous, 8-celled, ovule one in each cell; styles 4, 1.5 mm long; stigma capitate; Fruit a berry, 1.5-2 cm across, ovoid to obconical, yellow to orange, glaucous; calyx foliaceous, slightly enlarged, foliaceous, reflexed; seeds 3-6, rough, black; endosperm equable.
Flowering and fruiting: April-February
Moist deciduous, dry deciduous and semi-evergreen forests
Indo-Malesia to Australia
(Attributions- Dr. N Sasidharan (Dr. B P Pal Fellow), Kerala Forest Research Institute, Peechi
from India Biodiversity Portal (Diospyros montana Roxb.))
Photos (lacking contrast) of an evergreen tree bearing rigour of harsh climate; leaves have almost shrivelled.
Place: Lion’s Point, Lonavala
Date: 18 JUN 09
Looks like Sonneratia apetala
… no …, this is not mangrove apple … the plant is different.
I have some photos of S. apetala: http://www.flickr.com/search/?q=Sonneratia%20apetala&w=all
the fruit: http://www.flickr.com/photos/dinesh_valke/537073266/
Guess this is some Dyospiros… not sure about species…
It can be Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb. Cor. Pl. 1: 36, t. 46, 1795..as
it could be Diospyros melanoxylon. The bark is typically black peeling off in rectangular scales
Thanks … I had labelled them as D. melanoxylon; have corrected them now.
Diospyros species ABMAY01/02 : 4 posts by 2 authors.
I found two trees near a Buddhist temple a couple of days ago that appear to me to belong to Diospyros genus (two different species). These are perhaps cultivars. I suspect the first to be D. montana female and the second D. malabarica perhaps. I could be completely off the mark too. Please advise.
Mcleodganj, Dharamshala, HP
29-30 April 2016
Diospyros montana? 6 images.
Flowers without scent;
A few days back I saw one of these trees (D. montana in my email) fruiting. I am attaching photos here. The other tree which I had thought to be D. malabarica may have been the male of the same (or another) species as it had no fruit visible anywhere. 2 images.
Diospyros montana—-for sharing : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)
photos taken at Aambyvalley Rd., Lonavala, Pune in Mar.15
VALMIKI : OBSERVER OF NATURE 45: Attaching the image of 45 th member of the series. This is TAMALA as per Valmiki. Scintifically it is known as Garcinia morella.
The tree is associated with Krishna. There are many KIRTANS (devotional songs) in Bangla, where Tamala is mentioned along with Krishna.
The picture is taken in the campus of MADAN-MOHAN temple at Cooch Behar.
The image is of Diospyros montana. As a non botanist I depended on botanical literature for identity.
There were three candidates for TAMALA ,namely,
(a) Cinnamomum tamala
(b) Garcinia morella
(c) Garcinia xanthochymus
I know the plants at (a) and (c), so I thought Garcinia morella will be the correct name. But a conservator of forest from Assam brought it to my notice that it was not Garcinia morella. Now I know for certain that the image is of Diospyros Montana. As per The Useful Plants of India the Sanskrit name of Diospyros Montana is TUMALA.
(150409SCS4-5) Botanical name of this plant (locally known as Kendu), Sonepat, Haryana : 4 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (2)
I tried in the books and on the net, but no luck so far, to id this largish shrub from Sonepat, Haryana.
Local name : Kendu.
This is also growing (4-5 shrubs) between the North Block and Rail Bhawan (New Delhi) near the Maulshree trees and the water fountain.
Shall be grateful for any help.
It is bistendu (diospyros cordifolia)
BTW,it should be flowering in the month of april.So look for it
Thank you …, You have saved me lot of troubles. So, Pradeep Krishen’s opinion in his Trees of Delhi is right,”One of Delhi’s least known native trees..”
Diopyros montenavar cordifolia : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (3)
This is Diopyros montena var cordifolia. Small shrub I have taken this photo Near Virat nagar, Jaipur. Hindi name- Vish tendu. Flowring in april fruiting May-June.
Plant 2 : 5 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (3)
Plant posted here for id was photographed at Tiwai Hill plateau, near Chas-kaman dam. Request id.
Is it not some Diospyros species from Ebenaceae?
thank you will check it out and get back.
Appears close to the images at Diospyros montana Roxb.
Location- Daouli, Dapoli, MH
Plant Habit- Tree
… most probably, some species of Diospyros.
Diospyros montana Roxb. [Ebenaceae]. The enlarged calyx lobes stretching out behind the fruit can be seen in all the images. The bark is also distinctive.
Diospyros melanoxylon :: near Lion’s Point :: 07 APR 08 : 7 posts by 4 authors. 3 images.
Near Lion’s Point , off Lonavala
Date: April 7, 2008 … Altitude: about 760 m (2500 feet) asl
Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb. … (family: Ebenaceae)
Dear friends, now when I look again at the posted plant – the large calyx lobes, leaf base, colour of the bark, tree habit, I get a feeling that the species must be D. montana.
Yes to me also appear close to images at Diospyros montana Roxb.
ANNOV24/24 Diospyros sp. for identification : 16 posts by 8 authors. Attachments (6)
Date: November 2015
Place: Turahalli, Bangalore District, Karnataka
Habitat: Scrub forest
Diospyros species in eFloraofindia (with details/ keys from published papers/ regional floras/ FRLHT/ FOI/ Biotik/ efloras/ books etc., where ever available on net)
Please check with Diospyros cordifolia.
Diospyros melanoxylon– female plant
Is it not Diospyros montana? Vide Wight, Icon. Pl. Ind. Orient. 4: t. 1225. 1848. Please also see C.J.Saldanha & Ramesh, Fl. Karnataka 1: 339. 1984.
I feel this is D. melanoxylon
The best point of reference for Diospyros melanoxylon is the protologue, i. e. Roxb., Pl. Coromandel 1: 36, t. 46. 1795. The tome 46 is a wonderful coloured drawing and the present images do not match with it.
The phyllotaxy, shape, size, texture and indumentum of leaves, infructescences and the 8-loculed fruits (as available in the images) indicate D. montana instead.
O think it is Diospyros montana
very much like Diospyros montana
Thank you very much everybody.
I will try and locate its flowers in the coming seasons in order to confirm.
Stem bark proves its identity as Diospyros montana
I agree … Thank you for confirming …
identification no 120416sn1 : 9 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (6)
Kindly help in Id.My guess is Diospyros montana.
height:upto 8 ft.
I think matches better with images of Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb. as per comparative images of species of Diospyros
To me it is Diospyros montana
Thanks, … Are the images at Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb. correct ?
I don’t think the last 2 images belong to D. melanoxylon. They look like D. montana to me. All the Diospyros melanoxylon trees I know have distinctive black bark like this:
and the fruits have a much smaller calyx than those in … images. They are also a larger size.
Bark in the image looks similar to D. montana
Thanks, … I think this image under Diospyros montana Roxb. may also not be correct. Pl. confirm
The leaves in the photo you mention seem to have very cordate bases so I am not sure.
Earlier D. montana was identified here., though just the flower buds and leaves. So i take it this is D. montana. Thanks …
Definitely not Diospyros montana. May be Diospyros melanoxylon.
it is Diospyros melanoxylon. I earlier collected this from SGNP, Mumbai. please find attachedAttachments (3)
Agree with … This is Maskudal / Govindu [D. montana]. This is definitely not Tendu / Temburni [D. melanoxylon]. Have 4 species of Diospyros on my property at Shahapur. My photographs of Tendu for comparison are available at these links : Google Groups
Good to hear from you, …, after a long time!
For id of Diospyros sp. from Morni hills .. : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (4)
Is it Diospyros montana?? Please validate…
Taken on April 2018 from Morni hills..!!
This does appear to be the male tree of Diospyros montana Roxb. [Ebenaceae].
ID request17032016PC1 : 12 posts by 6 authors. Attachments (2)
Kindly identify this tree growing in Delhi. The plant has almost shed all its leaves and is sprouting new ones. The berries are about 1.5-2.0 inches in diameter.
Just a guess from the few leaves visible.
No, the berries are much bigger and yellow like those of ber (Ziziphus) with the round type fruits. Melia azedarach has just started flowering in Delhi.
Perhaps a close up of a fallen fruit will help?
I agree with your ID. It is Melia azedirach.
Diospyros montana. Bistendu in Hindi.
I have attached some more photos. The fruit has only one black seed inside surrounded by translucent fleshy pulp (aril?) which seems to turn black on injury. Leaves appear to be simple. Could it be Diospyros montana? Attachments (4)
It looks more like Diospyros cordifolia.
Thank you. In flowersofindia site, D. cordifolia is given as synonym of D. montana. Which is the correct name?
Please refer to Pradip Krishen’s ‘Jungle Trees of Central India’
As per WCSP, Diospyros cordifolia Roxb. is a syn. of Diospyros montana Roxb., Pl. Coromandel 1: 37 (1795).
Diospyros montana – efloraofindia | Google Groups : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (5)
Diospyros montana (ID Confirmation required)
Kannada: Jagala ganti
Chandagal village, Mysore district
Date02 Feb 2010
Height of the tree: 50 -60 feet approx, huge tree
Leaves elliptic, alternate, 6-9 cms,
No fruits observed,
Habitat : Areca Farm
fruits used in fish poisoning
Yes Raghu ji this seems to be
Flora of Jamwa ramgarh Sanctury,Jaipur,Rajastan-6: Hindi name बिसतॆंदु
Scientific Name Diospyros Cordifolia
Photo taken 9.4.2009
At- Jamwa ramgarh Sanctury, Jaipur, Rajastan, India
Description very much dense crown
Flora of Haryana- Diospyros montana from Karnal DWR Fields Boundary: Diospyros montana from karnal
Photo taken 15-6-11, small tree, only fruits can be seen
It is an indigenous tree of Aravali range. And grows wildly in Delhi ridge
tree id – Ludhiana: please help me to identify the tree with following details
location ludhiana Punjab
growth habit Medium tree
flowering time March
This tree should be Diospyros montana from Ebenaceae, this is always better if you send individual pics by reducing their size..
You may use easythumbnail software for that (free available on net)
Just for convenience above zip file images are uploaded
tree id- Ludhiana: please help me to identify the tree with following details
I believe this one is Diospyros montana Clarke Syn. D. cordifolia Roxb. from Ebenaceae…locally known as Tendu or Kendu
Presume you mean Diospyros cordifolia Roxb. [syn. D. montana var. cordifolia Hiern.]. The leaves here are too elongated and pointed to be D. montana Roxb.
Definitely I wanted to convey D. cordifolia Roxb. for this plant, thanks for pointing out the issue in synonymy….
i am very much thank ful for the id provided by u all
really this group helps me to identify new plants time to time as number of trees are planted
in our university by our esteemed teachers have [planted but thier identity lost with time} but i am trying to re identify these and label thsese which we are having only one or two specimens.
Please help to id this small in size, tree …..saw today (26.3.13) on Silonda trail in SGNP, Mumbai.
This is a species of Diospyros.
it is Diospyros montana
i had seen it at SGNP, Silionda trail.
Id please : Attachments (1). 6 posts by 5 authors.
Its from panawel. Takar called it Maj….
Looks like Diospyros sps. (D. kaki ?)
efi page on Diospyros kaki
Yes. It looks like Diospyros montana -( टेंबुर्णी in Marathi I think)
ID help needed. Is it Dysoxylum sp? : 6 posts by 4 authors. 4 images.
I feel its a Dysoxylum species… Dysoxylum malabaricum?
Location: Dandeli, Karnataka
30th Dec 2013.
This tree was very frequently visited by the lot of Malabar grey hornbills.
The leaves are not compound but are simple ones and hence no chance of this being Dysoxylum. Tetracarpellary (!) , no clue from the available pictures! But the leaves seems to be familiar. Could you please upload more leaf pictures! and please tell us information regarding flowers if available.
It may be Diospyros montana.
Agree with …
I dont have the pics of flowers and also these are the only pics i have.
Many thanks to … for responding. I too now feel its a Diospyros montana. After … mail, I tried correlating this tree with the Malabar hornbill and came upon an interesting thesis paper on malabar hornbill in dandeli region. In that its clearly mentioned –
“In this study, the hornbills were observed feeding on Styrchnos nux-vomica, Ficus glomerata, F. asperrima, F. mysorensis and Diospyros montana; the main food plants found fruiting between December and March.“
This clearly co-relates with what i observed also of Malabar hornbills feeding incessantly on the fruits.
Forgot paste the link of the thesis paper
Ex-situ Silviculture : might be Diospyros montana Roxb. (var.cordifolia): 4 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (8).
Diospyros montana is often treated as a synonym of Diospyros cordifolia, which seems to be the reason why the name Diospyros montana var. cordifolia came about.
In my experience the two are quite different.
These photos show D. montana var. cordifolia, (or Diospyros cordifolia}.
Yes, Sir David Prain also thinks so.
SYMBIOSIS :568 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1).
Tree For ID : Nasik : 050514 : AK-12 : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (4).
Medium size cultivated tree with smooth leaves, lighter in color underneath.
identification no241014sn1: 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (5).
Kindly help in identification.
location: ambyvalley rd., lonavala, pune
height:about 7-8 ft.
It seems Diospyros montana
FLOWERS/PLANTS MENTIONED BY TAGORE IN HIS SONGS ( TAMAL -2 ) : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)
Attaching translated version of a song by Tagore, in which TAMAL has been mentioned.
FLOWERS/PLANTS MENTIONED BY TAGORE IN HIS SONGS ( TAMAL -1 ) : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)Attaching translated version of a song by Tagore, where TAMAL has been mentioned. The scientific name of this tree is Diospyros montana.
Garcinia xanthochymus is also called Tamal in Bangla.
Pl. confirm whether it is Garcinia xanthochymus or otherwise.
What Tagore meant by Tamal is Diospyros montana and not Garcinia xanthochymus. I have seen both these trees.
ANAPR55 Phyllanthaceae(?) tree for ID : 9 posts by 5 authors. Attachments (11)
Date: 19th January 2015
Place: Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve, Tamil Nadu
Habitat: Deciduous forest
Diospyros montana? Attached is the key to various Diospyros sp.
Not a Phyllanthaceae. Must be a Diospyros.
Yes, thank you sir.
It is Diospyros sp but not Diospyros montana for certain.
Yes, it is Diospyros montana.
Tamil name: Vakkanai (வக்கனை)
ANJUN19/20 Diospyros sp. for identification (Churdhar Trip 19) : 6 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (4)
Date: 24th May 2015
Place: Renuka Ji lake, Himachal Pradesh
Habit: Short tree
This could be D. peregryna
what a delightful fruit
Five species of Diospyros are reported by Chowdhery & Wadhwa (1984) in Flora of Himachal Pradesh. These are D.cordifolia, D.lotus, D.malabarica, D.montana and D.tomentosa.
Thank you …
Please identify Diospyros sp? : 12 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (3)
Please identify Diospyros sp?
Sir please check Diospyros montana
No sir, it is not Diospyros montana.
Pl. check comparative images at
please show us the entire shrub…. habit
and its stem bark
oh forgot to ask: size of the fruit
1-2 cm in diam.
In continuation with previous email, I am sending other photographs of Diospros sp. as asked by …
Habtat: Waste places
Also check comparative images at
Need id assistance of JNU Campus plant 090415SP1-3 : 7 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (4)
I need id assistance of following 4 images belonging to Diospyros? collected from JNU Campus
Date: SP-1-3 (09/04/2015) SP04 (fruiting–29/04/15)
Locality: JNU New Campus
Diospyros species in eFloraofindia (with details/ keys from published papers/ regional floras/ FRLHT/ FOI/ Biotik/ efloras/ books etc., where ever available on net)
Could be Diospyros montana. Check these links: http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Bistendu.html and http://www.biotik.org/india/species/d/diosmont/diosmont_en.html
Yes Diospyros montana
Seems to be Diospyros Montana.
Tree for ID Northwest Tamil Nadu NAW-MAY20-02 : 18 posts by 8 authors. Attachments (5)
Kindly identify this tree photographed in a farm in northwest Tamil Nadu, near Hosur in May 2020. The leaves are velvety. Not my photographs.
Diospyros sylvatica, Ebenaceae,
Are the leaves of Diospyros sylvatica ever velvety?
My friend another photograph of fruits she found under the tree. Maybe this will provide some more information.
Im sorry that the photograph is not very clear.
YES IT SEEMS TO DIOSPYROUS SYLVATICA
It is quite possible as this species has been reported from Tamil Nadu in Excursion flora of Tamil Nadu and flora of Eastern Ghats. Nevertheless, I am unable to decide or pin point the ID due to insufficient knowledge on various species of Diospyros.
the leaf doesn’t look like that of D.sylvatica
Fruits photo has similarity to sylvatica. Leaves may slightly vary due to edaphic and climatic factors.
It is Diospyros montana
It must be D. montana looking at bark, leaves and habit. But I’ve never seen fruits of this shape in this species or any other Diospyros!
Can fruits be of some other species?
Im sorry about the confusion. Since the photographs are not mine im confused myself. Could the last photograph be of flower buds rather than fruits?
Ill tell my friend to send some better photographs with a scale reference which might reduce the confusion. Are there any other suggestions on how to photograph the species better?