Diospyros montana Roxb., Pl. Coromandel 1: 37 1795. (Syn: Diospyros auriculata Wight ex Hiern; Diospyros bracteata Roxb.; Diospyros calcarea Fletcher; Diospyros calycina Bedd.; Diospyros cordifolia Roxb.; Diospyros dioica Span.; Diospyros glauca Rottler; Diospyros goindu Dalzell; Diospyros heterophylla Wall. ex G.Don; Diospyros humilis Bourd.; Diospyros kanjilalii Duthie; Diospyros microcarpa Span.; Diospyros montana f. cordifolia (Roxb.) Hiern; Diospyros montana var. cordifolia (Roxb.) Hiern; Diospyros orixensis Klein ex Willd.; Diospyros pubicalyx Bakh.; Diospyros punctata Decne.; Diospyros rugosula R.Br.; Diospyros waldemarii Klotzsch);
Tropical Asia: Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Cambodia, East Himalaya, India, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Myanmar, Nepal, Nicobar Is., Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Thailand, Vietnam as per POWO;
Tamil: Vakanai Malayalam: Malayakathitholi, Manjakara
Common name: Bistendu, Bombay ebony • Hindi: बिसतॆंदु Bistendu, Kala dhao, Kendu, Dakanan • Marathi: Lohari • Telugu: kakaulimera, kakavulimidi, kakiulimera, makha • Bengali: Tamal
Flora of Ranga Reddi District Andhra Pradesh, India By T. Pullaiah, M. Silar Mohammed (2000- Description & Keys-Diospyros chloroxylon, Diospyros peregrina (Syn. of Diospyros malabarica (Desr.) Kostel. as per The Plant List), Diospyros melanoxylon & Diospyros montana)
Flora of Davanagere District, Karnataka, India By B. K. Manjunatha, V. Krishna, T. Pullaiah (2004- Description & Keys- Diospyros cordifolia (syn. of Diospyros montana Roxb. as per The Plant List), Diospyros ovalifolia, Diospyros melanoxylon & Diospyros montana)
Dioecious trees, to 20 m high, bark smooth, grey or yellowish-grey; blaze turmeric yellow; exudation scanty, watery; bole and branches with long hard, stiff, divaricate spines formed from stumps of branches; branchlets slender, glabrous, only those of the flush sparsely minutely pilose. Leaves simple, alternate, estipulate; petiole 5-10 mm, slender, grooved above, glabrous; lamina 4-10 x 2-4 cm, ovate, ovate-oblong, elliptic-oblong, base round, obtuse, subcordate or acute, apex obtuse, subacute or obtusely acuminate, margin entire, chartaceous, more or less softly pubescent when young, glabrous at maturity; lateral nerves 5-10 pairs, pinnate, slender, faint, intercostae reticulate, faint. Flowers unisexual, white; male flowers : 2-6 in axillary umbels; peduncle to 5 mm; calyx 3 mm long; lobes 4, ovate, imbricate, thick, margin ciliate, obtuse; corolla 6-7 mm long, greenish-yellow, urceolate, glabrous; lobes 4, ovate, imbricate, 2.5 mm long, subacute; stamens 16, roughly in 8 pairs, unequal; anthers lanceolate, awned; pistillode conical, pointed; female flowers: solitary, axillary; pedicel to 4 mm; calyx and corolla as in male flowers; staminodes 4, 5 mm, linear-lanceolate; ovary superior, 0.7 mm across, globose, glabrous, 8-celled, ovule one in each cell; styles 4, 1.5 mm long; stigma capitate; Fruit a berry, 1.5-2 cm across, ovoid to obconical, yellow to orange, glaucous; calyx foliaceous, slightly enlarged, foliaceous, reflexed; seeds 3-6, rough, black; endosperm equable.
Flowering and fruiting: April-February
Moist deciduous, dry deciduous and semi-evergreen forests
Indo-Malesia to Australia
(Attributions- Dr. N Sasidharan (Dr. B P Pal Fellow), Kerala Forest Research Institute, Peechi
from India Biodiversity Portal (Diospyros montana Roxb.))
… another fruit at Lion’s Point : 9 posts by 5 authors. Attachments (3)
Photos (lacking contrast) of an evergreen tree bearing rigour of harsh climate; leaves have almost shrivelled.
Place: Lion’s Point, Lonavala
Date: 18 JUN 09
Looks like Sonneratia apetala
… no …, this is not mangrove apple … the plant is different.
I have some photos of S. apetala: http://www.flickr.com/search/?q=Sonneratia%20apetala&w=all
the fruit: http://www.flickr.com/photos/dinesh_valke/537073266/
Guess this is some Dyospiros… not sure about species…
It can be Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb. Cor. Pl. 1: 36, t. 46, 1795..as
it could be Diospyros melanoxylon. The bark is typically black peeling off in rectangular scales
Thanks … I had labelled them as D. melanoxylon; have corrected them now.
Diospyros species ABMAY01/02 : 4 posts by 2 authors.
I found two trees near a Buddhist temple a couple of days ago that appear to me to belong to Diospyros genus (two different species). These are perhaps cultivars. I suspect the first to be D. montana female and the second D. malabarica perhaps. I could be completely off the mark too. Please advise.
Mcleodganj, Dharamshala, HP
29-30 April 2016
Diospyros montana? 6 images.
Flowers without scent;
A few days back I saw one of these trees (D. montana in my email) fruiting. I am attaching photos here. The other tree which I had thought to be D. malabarica may have been the male of the same (or another) species as it had no fruit visible anywhere. 2 images.
Diospyros montana—-for sharing : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)
photos taken at Aambyvalley Rd., Lonavala, Pune in Mar.15
VALMIKI : OBSERVER OF NATURE 45:
Attaching the image of 45 th member of the series. This is TAMALA as per Valmiki. Scintifically it is known as Garcinia morella.
The tree is associated with Krishna. There are many KIRTANS (devotional songs) in Bangla, where Tamala is mentioned along with Krishna. The picture is taken in the campus of MADAN-MOHAN temple at Cooch Behar.
The image is of Diospyros montana. As a non botanist I depended on botanical literature for identity.
There were three candidates for TAMALA ,namely,
(a) Cinnamomum tamala
(b) Garcinia morella
(c) Garcinia xanthochymus
I know the plants at (a) and (c), so I thought Garcinia morella will be the correct name. But a conservator of forest from Assam brought it to my notice that it was not Garcinia morella. Now I know for certain that the image is of Diospyros Montana. As per The Useful Plants of India the Sanskrit name of Diospyros Montana is TUMALA.
(150409SCS4-5) Botanical name of this plant (locally known as Kendu), Sonepat, Haryana : 4 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (2)
I tried in the books and on the net, but no luck so far, to id this largish shrub from Sonepat, Haryana.
Local name : Kendu.
This is also growing (4-5 shrubs) between the North Block and Rail Bhawan (New Delhi) near the Maulshree trees and the water fountain.
Shall be grateful for any help.
It is bistendu (diospyros cordifolia)
BTW,it should be flowering in the month of april. So look for it
Thank you …, You have saved me lot of troubles. So, Pradeep Krishen’s opinion in his Trees of Delhi is right,”One of Delhi’s least known native trees..”
Diopyros montenavar cordifolia : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (3)
This is Diopyros montena var cordifolia. Small shrub I have taken this photo Near Virat nagar, Jaipur. Hindi name- Vish tendu. Flowring in april fruiting May-June.
Plant 2 : 5 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (3)
Plant posted here for id was photographed at Tiwai Hill plateau, near Chas-kaman dam. Request id.
Is it not some Diospyros species from Ebenaceae?
thank you will check it out and get back.
Appears close to the images at Diospyros montana Roxb.
VZT3-24/1/17- 1 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (8)
Location- Daouli, Dapoli, MH
Plant Habit- Tree
… most probably, some species of Diospyros.
Diospyros montana Roxb. [Ebenaceae]. The enlarged calyx lobes stretching out behind the fruit can be seen in all the images. The bark is also distinctive.
Diospyros melanoxylon :: near Lion’s Point :: 07 APR 08 : 7 posts by 4 authors. 3 images.
Near Lion’s Point , off Lonavala
Date: April 7, 2008 … Altitude: about 760 m (2500 feet) asl
Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb. … (family: Ebenaceae)
Dear friends, now when I look again at the posted plant – the large calyx lobes, leaf base, colour of the bark, tree habit, I get a feeling that the species must be D. montana.
Yes to me also appear close to images at Diospyros montana Roxb.
ANNOV24/24 Diospyros sp. for identification : 16 posts by 8 authors. Attachments (6)
Diospyros species in eFloraofindia (with details/ keys from published papers/ regional floras/ FRLHT/ FOI/ Biotik/ efloras/ books etc., where ever available on net)
Please check with Diospyros cordifolia.
Diospyros melanoxylon– female plant
Is it not Diospyros montana? Vide Wight, Icon. Pl. Ind. Orient. 4: t. 1225. 1848. Please also see C.J.Saldanha & Ramesh, Fl. Karnataka 1: 339. 1984.
I feel this is D. melanoxylon
The best point of reference for Diospyros melanoxylon is the protologue, i. e. Roxb., Pl. Coromandel 1: 36, t. 46. 1795. The tome 46 is a wonderful coloured drawing and the present images do not match with it.
The phyllotaxy, shape, size, texture and indumentum of leaves, infructescences and the 8-loculed fruits (as available in the images) indicate D. montana instead.
O think it is Diospyros montana
very much like Diospyros montana
Thank you very much everybody. I will try and locate its flowers in the coming seasons in order to confirm.
Stem bark proves its identity as Diospyros montana
I agree … Thank you for confirming …
identification no 120416sn1 : 9 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (6)
Kindly help in Id.My guess is Diospyros montana.
height:upto 8 ft.
To me it is Diospyros montana
Thanks, … Are the images at Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb. correct ?
I don’t think the last 2 images belong to D. melanoxylon. They look like D. montana to me. All the Diospyros melanoxylon trees I know have distinctive black bark like this:
Bark in the image looks similar to D. montana
please refer – http://www.ifoundbutterflies.org/larval-host-plants/329/Diospyros-montana
The leaves in the photo you mention seem to have very cordate bases so I am not sure.
Earlier D. montana was identified here., though just the flower buds and leaves. So i take it this is D. montana. Thanks …
Definitely not Diospyros montana. May be Diospyros melanoxylon.
it is Diospyros melanoxylon. I earlier collected this from SGNP, Mumbai. please find attached Attachments (3)
Agree with … This is Maskudal / Govindu [D. montana]. This is definitely not Tendu / Temburni [D. melanoxylon]. Have 4 species of Diospyros on my property at Shahapur. My photographs of Tendu for comparison are available at these links : Google Groups
Good to hear from you, …, after a long time!
For id of Diospyros sp. from Morni hills .. : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (4)
Is it Diospyros montana?? Please validate…
Taken on April 2018 from Morni hills..!!
This does appear to be the male tree of Diospyros montana Roxb. [Ebenaceae].
ID request17032016PC1 : 12 posts by 6 authors. Attachments (2)
Melia azedarach? Just a guess from the few leaves visible.
No, the berries are much bigger and yellow like those of ber (Ziziphus) with the round type fruits. Melia azedarach has just started flowering in Delhi.
Perhaps a close up of a fallen fruit will help?
I agree with your ID. It is Melia azedirach.
Diospyros montana. Bistendu in Hindi.
I have attached some more photos. The fruit has only one black seed inside surrounded by translucent fleshy pulp (aril?) which seems to turn black on injury. Leaves appear to be simple. Could it be Diospyros montana? Attachments (4)
It looks more like Diospyros cordifolia.
Thank you. In flowersofindia site, D. cordifolia is given as synonym of D. montana. Which is the correct name?
Please refer to Pradip Krishen’s ‘Jungle Trees of Central India’
As per WCSP, Diospyros cordifolia Roxb. is a syn. of Diospyros montana Roxb., Pl. Coromandel 1: 37 (1795).
Diospyros montana – efloraofindia | Google Groups : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (5)
Diospyros montana (ID Confirmation required)
Kannada: Jagala ganti
Chandagal village, Mysore district
Date02 Feb 2010
Height of the tree: 50 -60 feet approx, huge tree
Leaves elliptic, alternate, 6-9 cms,
No fruits observed,
Habitat : Areca Farm
fruits used in fish poisoning
Yes Raghu ji this seems to be
Flora of Jamwa ramgarh Sanctury,Jaipur,Rajastan-6: Hindi name बिसतॆंदु
Scientific Name Diospyros Cordifolia
Photo taken 9.4.2009
At- Jamwa ramgarh Sanctury, Jaipur, Rajastan, India
Description very much dense crown
Flora of Haryana- Diospyros montana from Karnal DWR Fields Boundary:
It is an indigenous tree of Aravali range. And grows wildly in Delhi ridge
tree id – Ludhiana:
location ludhiana Punjab
growth habit Medium tree
flowering time March
This tree should be Diospyros montana from Ebenaceae, this is always better if you send individual pics by reducing their size..
You may use easythumbnail software for that (free available on net)
Just for convenience above zip file images are uploaded
tree id- Ludhiana:
I believe this one is Diospyros montana Clarke Syn. D. cordifolia Roxb. from Ebenaceae…locally known as Tendu or Kendu
Presume you mean Diospyros cordifolia Roxb. [syn. D. montana var. cordifolia Hiern.]. The leaves here are too elongated and pointed to be D. montana Roxb.
Definitely I wanted to convey D. cordifolia Roxb. for this plant, thanks for pointing out the issue in synonymy….
i am very much thank ful for the id provided by u all
really this group helps me to identify new plants time to time as number of trees are planted
in our university by our esteemed teachers have [planted but thier identity lost with time} but i am trying to re identify these and label thsese which we are having only one or two specimens.
This is a species of Diospyros.
it is Diospyros montana. i had seen it at SGNP, Silionda trail.
Id please : Attachments (1). 6 posts by 5 authors.
Looks like Diospyros sps. (D. kaki ?)
efi page on Diospyros kaki
Yes. It looks like Diospyros montana -( टेंबुर्णी in Marathi I think)
ID help needed. Is it Dysoxylum sp? : 6 posts by 4 authors. 4 images.
I feel its a Dysoxylum species… Dysoxylum malabaricum?
The leaves are not compound but are simple ones and hence no chance of this being Dysoxylum. Tetracarpellary (!) , no clue from the available pictures! But the leaves seems to be familiar. Could you please upload more leaf pictures! and please tell us information regarding flowers if available.
It may be Diospyros montana.
Agree with …
I dont have the pics of flowers and also these are the only pics i have.
Many thanks to … for responding. I too now feel its a Diospyros montana. After … mail, I tried correlating this tree with the Malabar hornbill and came upon an interesting thesis paper on malabar hornbill in dandeli region. In that its clearly mentioned –
“In this study, the hornbills were observed feeding on Styrchnos nux-vomica, Ficus glomerata, F. asperrima, F. mysorensis and Diospyros montana; the main food plants found fruiting between December and March.”
Forgot paste the link of the thesis paper
Ex-situ Silviculture : might be Diospyros montana Roxb. (var.cordifolia): 4 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (8).
Diospyros montana is often treated as a synonym of Diospyros cordifolia, which seems to be the reason why the name Diospyros montana var. cordifolia came about.
Yes, Sir David Prain also thinks so.
SYMBIOSIS :568 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1).
Attaching an image of a bee on the flower of Diospyros Montana.
Tree For ID : Nasik : 050514 : AK-12 : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (4).
Medium size cultivated tree with smooth leaves, lighter in color underneath.
No flowers or fruits.
identification no241014sn1: 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (5).
Kindly help in identification.
location: ambyvalley rd., lonavala, pune
height:about 7-8 ft.
It seems Diospyros montana
FLOWERS/PLANTS MENTIONED BY TAGORE IN HIS SONGS ( TAMAL -2 ) : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)
Attaching translated version of a song by Tagore, in which TAMAL has been mentioned.
FLOWERS/PLANTS MENTIONED BY TAGORE IN HIS SONGS ( TAMAL -1 ) : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)
Garcinia xanthochymus is also called Tamal in Bangla. Pl. confirm whether it is Garcinia xanthochymus or otherwise.
What Tagore meant by Tamal is Diospyros montana and not Garcinia xanthochymus. I have seen both these trees.
ANAPR55 Phyllanthaceae(?) tree for ID : 9 posts by 5 authors. Attachments (11)
Date: 19th January 2015
Diospyros montana? Attached is the key to various Diospyros sp.
Not a Phyllanthaceae. Must be a Diospyros.
Yes, thank you sir.
It is Diospyros sp but not Diospyros montana for certain.
Yes, it is Diospyros montana.
Tamil name: Vakkanai (வக்கனை)
ANJUN19/20 Diospyros sp. for identification (Churdhar Trip 19) : 6 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (4)
Date: 24th May 2015
Place: Renuka Ji lake, Himachal Pradesh
Habit: Short tree
This could be D. peregryna
what a delightful fruit
Five species of Diospyros are reported by Chowdhery & Wadhwa (1984) in Flora of Himachal Pradesh. These are D.cordifolia, D.lotus, D.malabarica, D.montana and D.tomentosa.
Thank you …
Please identify Diospyros sp? : 12 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (3)
Please identify Diospyros sp?
Sir please check Diospyros montana
No sir, it is not Diospyros montana.
Pl. check comparative images at https://sites.google.com/site/efloraofindia/species/a–-l/e/ebenaceae/diospyros
please show us the entire shrub…. habit and its stem bark
oh forgot to ask: size of the fruit
1-2 cm in diam.
In continuation with previous email, I am sending other photographs of Diospros sp. as asked by …
Habtat: Waste places
Also check comparative images at /species/a—l/e/ebenaceae/diospyros
Need id assistance of JNU Campus plant 090415SP1-3 : 7 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (4)
I need id assistance of following 4 images belonging to Diospyros? collected from JNU Campus
Diospyros species in eFloraofindia (with details/ keys from published papers/ regional floras/ FRLHT/ FOI/ Biotik/ efloras/ books etc., where ever available on net)
Yes Diospyros montana
Seems to be Diospyros Montana.
Tree for ID Northwest Tamil Nadu NAW-MAY20-02 : 18 posts by 8 authors. Attachments (5)
Kindly identify this tree photographed in a farm in northwest Tamil Nadu, near Hosur in May 2020. The leaves are velvety. Not my photographs.
Diospyros sylvatica, Ebenaceae,
Are the leaves of Diospyros sylvatica ever velvety?
My friend another photograph of fruits she found under the tree. Maybe this will provide some more information.
Im sorry that the photograph is not very clear.
YES IT SEEMS TO DIOSPYROUS SYLVATICA
It is quite possible as this species has been reported from Tamil Nadu in Excursion flora of Tamil Nadu and flora of Eastern Ghats. Nevertheless, I am unable to decide or pin point the ID due to insufficient knowledge on various species of Diospyros.
the leaf doesn’t look like that of D.sylvatica
Fruits photo has similarity to sylvatica. Leaves may slightly vary due to edaphic and climatic factors.
It is Diospyros montana
It must be D. montana looking at bark, leaves and habit. But I’ve never seen fruits of this shape in this species or any other Diospyros! regards Radha . >
It must be D. montana looking at bark, leaves and habit. But I’ve never seen fruits of this shape in this species or any other Diospyros!
Can fruits be of some other species?
Im sorry about the confusion. Since the photographs are not mine im confused myself. Could the last photograph be of flower buds rather than fruits?
Ill tell my friend to send some better photographs with a scale reference which might reduce the confusion. Are there any other suggestions on how to photograph the species better?
Id please : 8 posts by 6 authors. Attachments (4)
It looks like Diospyros montana, but I’m not used to seeing it in fruiting condition at this time of year.
efi page on Diospyros montana
The photograph particularly the fruits resemble the Diospyros brasiliensis
yes, looks more like Diospyros montana.
To me it seems to be Diospyros melanoxylon
efi page on Diospyros melanoxylon. No efi page on Diospyros brasiliensis as yet.
If the fruits are more than 3 cm across, it could be Diospyros melanoxylon. In D. montana, the fruits are usually less than 2 cm across.
As per threads: Diospyros for ID : 060111 : AK-1 & 12082015KSB1 for identification, leaves look similar to Diospyros malabarica (Desr.) Kostel.
Yes, I think so. Diospyros montana Roxb. [Ebenaceae].
I don’t think it to be Diospyros montana.
Request for ID – 271010RA1:
Request ID of this tree with persistent calyx fruits. The leaves have wavy
margins, oblong, acute, glaucous texture, prominent middle venation.
Seen at Matheran, Mah., on 24 Oct ’10.
Diospyros for sure…. may be as simple as malabarica.
This is Diospyros condolleana locally called Kalino.
It cannot be D. candolleana where the leaves are more or less oblong (elongated) and is an evergreen tree.
Thanks for your comments. Have studied the flora of Matheran with Mr.B.G.Gavade [Dr.Almeida’s student]. Don’t think this is D.cordifolia which has strong often branched thorns scattered over the trunk and larger branches. Also don’t think it is Govindu / Maskudal [D.montana]. Have it on my farm. Also have not figured out how you deduced this is a deciduous tree ?
Thanks to all for the leads. … I think this is not D. candolleana– having recently seen and posted the pics of the tree ided by Dr. Almeida at Amboli. Thanks … for the possible alternatives Shall await further inputs.
It could be Diospyros sylvetica. Ref:- Flora of Maharashtra- Vol 3-page 177.
Thanks … Just checked, I find D. sylvatica description of the bark as coloured, thin, smooth, leaves elliptic and paler beneath not quite matching. I find D. montana slightly more matching. Hope to get more expert opinions.
Yes, this appears to be Diospyros montana Roxb. [Ebenaceae].
big gap of field exposure, rarely going to forest these days.
01052015 BRS 002 for id. request from Chennai : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (4)
Pl. find the attached file contain photos for id. request.
Location: Adyar, Chennai
Appears close to images at Diospyros montana Roxb.
To me it seems to be some species of Diospyros. Leaf tip of Diospyros montana is slightly pointed and the tree trunk is black in colour. Diospyros montana is famous TAMAL associated with lord Krishna.
ID from Hastinapur Wildlife Sanctuary Meerut 1: 1 high res. image.
I think it appears close to images at Diospyros montana Roxb.
ID from Hastinapur Wildlife Sanctuary Meerut 3: 1 high res. image.
Please check for Diospyros species
Yes, appears close to images at Diospyros montana Roxb.
Altitude : ca.350 m.
Date : 20-01-2016
Habit : Medium-sized evergreen tree
Habitat : Wild
Diospyros montana ?
Let us know the Habit details …, either its Tree or Staggling shrub,
if it’s a shrub, seems Olax sp.
The plant is shrub type as enquired by you.
It could be Olax
This plant specimen seems to Diospyros cordifolia….. Kendu.
Dyospyros species (D.montana ???)
Yes, apepars close as per images at
Another closer species seems to be Diospyros cordifolia (but this tree is armed as per keys in FoPI) as per Flora of Peninsular India
Yes … Diospyros cordifolia
Regarding identification of the species collected from Dhenkanal Odisha 2: 7 high res. images.
Yes, appears close as per images at
Diospyros montana Roxb.
Matheran :: Apr 1, 2023 · 2:37 PM IST :: about 800 m (2,625 ft) asl
Many thanks to Radha Veach for validating the ID at iNaturalist