Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, Methodus 290 1794. (syn. Fagopyrum cereale Raf.; Fagopyrum dryandrii Fenzl; Fagopyrum emarginatum Moench; Fagopyrum emarginatum (Roth) Meisn.  ..; Fagopyrum fagopyrum (L.) H.Karst. [Invalid]; Fagopyrum polygonum Macloskie [Illegitimate]; Fagopyrum sagittatum Gilib. [Invalid]; Fagopyrum sarracenicum Dumort.; Fagopyrum vulgare T.Nees; Fagopyrum vulgare Hill ex Druce [Invalid]; Polygonum emarginatum Roth; Polygonum fagopyrum L.);
E. Tibet to China (Sichuan, Yunnan): China South-Central, Tibet; Introduced into: Alabama, Alaska, Albania, Alberta, Altay, Amur, Arizona, Assam, Austria, Bahamas, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Bermuda, Bolivia, Botswana, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, California, Cape Provinces, Central European Rus, China North-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colorado, Connecticut, Corse, Costa Rica, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, District of Columbia, East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ethiopia, Finland, Florida, France, Free State, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Hungary, Iceland, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Iraq, Irkutsk, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kamchatka, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Krym, KwaZulu-Natal, Louisiana, Magadan, Maine, Manchuria, Manitoba, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Mongolia, Montana, Mozambique, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, Northern Provinces, Northwest European R, Norway, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Pennsylvania, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Sicilia, South Carolina, South Dakota, South European Russi, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Transcaucasus, Turkey, Tuva, Uganda, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Vermont, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Yakutskiya, Yugoslavia, Yukon, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe as per POWO;
Common name: Buckwheat, common buckwheat,Japanese buckwheat • Adi: Lompuk • Assamese: Doron, ফাপর Phapar • Garo: phapar • Hindi: कोटू Kotu, कुटू Kuktu, फाफरा Phaphra • Kannada: ಕಾಡುಗೋಧಿ Kaadu godhi • Malayalam: Kaadu godhi • Manipuri: Wakha Yendem • Nepali: फापर Phapar • Tangkhul: Harenhan • Angami: Garei
Cultivated annual herb with triangular to sagittate leaves, lower on longer petioles, upper nearly sessile, ochrea 2-5 mm long; flowers pink to red in condensed axillary and terminal corymbose cymes; nuts 3-angled with acute angles, brown, smooth, 4-8 mm long.   
Can grow up to height of 5 feet (as reported by …) and white flowers, and narrow infl. branches, it should be Fagopyrum dibotrys (D. Don) Hara (syn: F. cymosum (Trev) Meisn.). F. esculentum is a much smaller plant, cultivated in fields, mostly at higher altitides, has pinkish tinge in flowers. In F. esculentum the ochrea is hardly 2-4 mm long whereas it is 8-12 mm long in F. dibotrys.

Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) is a plant cultivated for its grain-like seeds, and also used as a cover crop. Despite the name, buckwheat is not related to wheat, as it is not a grass; instead, buckwheat is related to sorrel, knotweed, and rhubarb.

The cultivation of buckwheat grain declined sharply in the 20th century with the adoption of nitrogen fertilizer that increased the productivity of other staples. A related species, Fagopyrum tataricum (Tartary buckwheat) is also cultivated as a grain in the Himalayas.
Buckwheat is raised for grain where a short season is available, either because it is used as a second crop in the season, or because the climate is limiting. Buckwheat can be a reliable cover crop in summer to fit a small slot of warm season for establishment. It establishes quickly, which suppresses summer weeds.[4] Buckwheat plants grow quickly, beginning to produce seed in about 6 weeks and ripening at 10 to 11 weeks. They grow 30 to 50 inches (75 to 125 cm) tall.[4]
(From  Wikipedia on 22.9.13)

Leaves – raw or cooked like spinach[4, 183, K]. Not that wonderful raw, they improve somewhat with cooking[K]. The leaves are rich in rutin[171] (see below for more details) and so are a very healthy addition to the diet[K]. Seed – raw or cooked. A nutty flavour, though it has a somewhat gritty texture[K]. The seed can be soaked overnight in warm water then sprouted for a few days and added to salads[183]. It can also be ground into a powder and used as a cereal[2, 4, 9] when it can be made into pancakes, noodles, breads etc or be used as a thickening agent in soups etc[46, 183]. Rich in vitamin B6[160]. An excellent beer can be brewed from the grain[244].
Buckwheat is a bitter but pleasant tasting herb that is frequently used medicinally because the leaves are a good source of rutin[238]. Rutin is useful in the treatment of a wide range of circulatory problems, it dilates the blood vessels, reduces capillary permeability and lowers blood pressure[238, 254]. The leaves and shoots of flowering plants are acrid, astringent and vasodilator[4, 141, 165]. It is used internally in the treatment of high blood pressure, gout, varicose veins, chilblains, radiation damage etc[4, 141, 165]. It is best used in conjunction with vitamin C since this aids absorption[254]. Often combined with lime flowers (Tilia species), it is a specific treatment for haemorrhage into the retina[254]. The leaves and flowering stems are harvested as the plant begins to flower and are dried for later use[238]. They should be stored in the dark because the active ingredients rapidly degrade in the light[238]. Some caution should be exercised in the use of this herb because it has been known to cause light-sensitive dermatitis[238]. A poultice made from the seeds has been used for restoring the flow of milk in nursing mothers[4]. An infusion of the herb has been used in the treatment of erysipelas (an acute infectious skin disease)[4, 244]. A homeopathic remedy has been made from the leaves[9]. It is used in the treatment of eczema and liver disorders[9].
A very good green manure plant, it can be used to reclaim badly degraded soils and subsoils[1, 18, 20, 201]. A blue dye is obtained from the stems[57, 106]. A brown dye is obtained from the flowers[4].
(From PFAF )


Ooty: weed for identification 130913MK02 : Attachments (4). 4 posts by 4 authors.

Please help me to identify this small climbing herb found along roadsides as weeds. Sorry I cannot take good pictures.
The leaf is not more than 10 cm long.
Place: Ooty town, Nilgiris, TN
Alt.: 2200 m asl
Date: 16 August 2013

I would have suggested this to be a Fagopyrum sp…but don’t know if there is any climber in the Genus..

i think it belongs to genus Fagopyrum.

I think Fagopyrum dibotrys (D.Don) H. Hara
Family: Polygonaceae.

Thank you for the identification. This plant is Fagopyrum esculentum of Polygonaceae.


Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, Meth. 290. 1794
syn: Polygonum fagopyrum L.
Common buckwheat
Cultivated annual herb with triangular to sagittate leaves, lower on longer petioles, upper nearly sessile, ochrea 2-5 mm long; flowers pink to red in condensed axillary and terminal corymbose cymes; nuts 3-angled with acute angles, brown, smooth, 4-8 mm long.
Photographed from California

Polygonaceae Fortnight Fagopyrum esculenta from Sangla in Kinnaur Distt of HP : Attachments (1). 4 posts by 4 authors.
shot from Sangla at 3200 mt

Very nice picture … Happy to see you active on eflora. Would be grateful if you post multiple images of the plant including habit, leaf etc.

Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, Meth. 290. 1794
syn: Polygonum fagopyrum L.
Common buckwheat
Cultivated annual herb with triangular to sagittate leaves, lower on longer petioles, upper nearly sessile, ochrea 2-5 mm long; flowers pink to red in condensed axillary and terminal corymbose cymes; nuts 3-angled with acute angles, brown, smooth, 4-8 mm long.
Photographed from California

Ladakh flora 16.up. id pl : 8 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (2)
Id of the plant pl.
location -Hemis sanctuary, on the way to Shang-sumdo from Kongmarula. on 7th August 16.

Looks like some Fagopyrum sp..?

Thanks a lot … It looks like it, checked on net, sp seems to be esculentum, so Fagopyrum esculentum it seems to be

I am in agreement that this is a buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) – widely cultivated in the Himalaya, especially in the higher inner valleys above 1800m the lowest part of Ladakh is some 2700m).
There are 3 buckwheats recorded from Ladakh. F.tartaricum (which has less conspicuous flower-clusters usually greenish flowers and nultes with rough faces & toothed wavy angles) is even hardier than the above species but of poorer quality; it may be cultivated up to 4000m.
Klimes found it often escapes from cultivation, a weed in fields, gardens, ditches and irrigation channels, spreading along roads and trails.
There is also F.kashmirianum – which was not known to Stewart published by Munshi. It is not in Polygoanceae of ‘Flora of Pakistan’ with records from Kashmir & now Ladakh: is very close to F. tataricum but differs in having much pubescent petioles; hastate deltoid lamina; tubular, partite, much pubescent(at base) ochrea; more or less equal perianth segments and keeled (at base) achenes – so clearly not the plant photographed on the way to Shang-sumdo.

Thanks, because of you I rechecked the location.
This plant was seen much before Kong marula, near Marakha village on 5th august 16.
I wil have to be more particular about the location, thanks again.

Good and providing an approx. altitude is also a big help.

FAGOPYRUM ESCULENTUM : 4 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (3)
Attaching three images of Fagopyrum esculentum. The plant is cultivated here and consumed as a vegetable at this time of the year.
Here it is known as DHEMSI SHAK.

Was it a cultivated plant or wild as it also appears similar to Fagopyrum dibotrys ?

The plant is cultivated.

Appears to be Fagopyrum dibotrys as per images and references herein and as per keys in Flora of Pakistan.

For the time being, taking it as Fagopyrum esculentum Moench only being cultivated as the details are not clear.

F. esculentum is the correct ID !


Attaching a collage of Fagopyrum esculentum (COMMON BUCKWHEAT/ DHEMSI).

Fagopyrum esculentum Moench (accepted name) : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (7)
Sharing some pictures of Fagopyrum esculentum Moench (accepted name) shot at Pharping, Nepal on 25 October 2016 at 4500 ft. 
Nepali Name: मिठो फापर Mitho Phaapar / फाफर Phaaphar

These images help illustrate well the differences between what is now F.acutatum (F.dibotrys) and this species.
The ‘Enumeration’ gives as altitudinal range of 1800-4100m.
‘Flora of Kathmandu Valley’ had collections from Nagarjun (1525m) and Sheopuri (2350m).


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