Flacourtia indica (Burm. f.) Merr., Interpr. Herb. amboin. 377. 1917 (Syn. Flacourtia afra Pichi-Serm.; Flacourtia balansae Gagnep.; Flacourtia cordifolia Roxb.; Flacourtia edulis Schum. & Thonn. (ambiguous synonym); Flacourtia elliptica (Tul.) Warb.; Flacourtia flavescens Willd.; Flacourtia gambecola Clos; Flacourtia hirtiuscula Oliv.; Flacourtia kirkii Burtt Davy; Flacourtia lenis Craib; Flacourtia lucida Salisb.; Flacourtia obcordata Roxb.; Flacourtia parvifolia Merrill; Flacourtia perrottetiana Clos.; (=) Flacourtia ramontchi L’Hér.; Flacourtia ramontchi var. renvoizei Fosberg; Flacourtia rotundifolia Roxb.; Flacourtia sapida Roxb. (ambiguous synonym); (=) Flacourtia sepiaria Roxb.; Flacourtia thorelii Gagnep.; (≡) Gmelina indica Burm. f.; Gmelina javanica Christm.; Mespilus silvestris Burm.; Myroxylon dicline Blanco; Rhamnopsis sepiaria Rchb.; Sideroxylon spinosum Willd. (ambiguous synonym); Stigmarota africana Lour.; Stigmarota edulis Blanco);
.
Governor’s Plum, Batoka Plum, flacourtia, Indian plum, Madagascar plum, Mauritius plum, Rhodesia plum • Hindi: बिलाङ्गड़ा bilangada • Marathi: अठरुन athruna, तांबूट tambut • Tamil: சொத்தைக்களா cottai-k-kala • Malayalam: കരിമുള്ളി karimulli • Telugu: నక్కనేరేడు nakka-neredu • Konkani: बाभुळी तांबट babhuli tambat • Sanskrit: श्रृववृक्ष shruvavrikksha;
.
India: Throughout in dry thickets, scrub jungles, dry deciduous and mixed forests, up to 1200 m. Common; Widespread in S.E. Asia and tropical Africa as per BSI Flora of India (1993);
.
China (Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan), Cambodia, India (widespread), Pakistan (Pakistani Punjab, Murree), Pakistani Kashmir (Mirpur), Jammu & Kashmir (Jammu, Poonch), Andamans, Myanmar [Burma], Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Laos, peninsular Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, Java (incl. Madura Isl.), Philippines (Luzon, Mindoro), Sumatra (Bangka Isl.), Lesser Sunda Isl. (Bali, Leti Isl.), Sulawesi, Lakshadweep Isl. (Laccadives), Senegal, Mali, Burkina Faso, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Bioko Isl. (Fernando Poo), Sao Tome, S-Chad, Equatorial Guinea, Central African Republic, Congo (Brazzaville), D.R.Congo (Zaire), Angola, Gabon, South Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, S-Somalia, Rwanda, ?Burundi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa (Limpopo, North-West Prov., Mpulamanga, KwaZulu-Natal, E-Cape Prov.), Namibia, Botswana, Madagascar, Comoros, Puerto Rico (I), Bahamas (I), Hispaniola (I), Jamaica (I), Virgin Isl. (I), Colombia (I), Society Isl. (I) (Tahiti (I), Moorea (I)), Cook Isl. (I) (Rarotonga (I)), Mauritius (I), Runion (I), Seychelles (I), USA (I) (Florida (I)), Trinidad & Tobago (I), Honduras (I) as per Catalogue of Life;
.

As stated by K.M. Matthew in his Excursion Flora of Central TN: The phenology of this tree (Flacourtia ramontchii) changes with altitude gradient; i.e., smallest in deciduous zone (lower), Medium at ca. 750msl, and exceptionally larger ones in sholas.

Some authors like Matthew accept this species (Flacourtia ramontchii) as distinct while some others consider it a form of Flacourtia indica. This is a high altitude replacement of the latter species, and quite distinct and its a tree with no spines on branchlets (only trunk spiny). F. indica is always a shrub of scrub jungles with prominent spines on branchlets.
.
Keys as per efloras of China:
F.indica: Pistillate flowers: ovary globose, placentas 5 or 6; styles 5 or 6, united only at base, radiating, 1-2 mm, slender. Fruit dull to blackish red, globose, 8-10 mm in diam
F.jangomas : Pistillate flowers: ovary bottle-shaped to globose, 2-3 mm; styles 4-6, united into a distinct column ca. 1 mm, not or slightly free at their apices; … Fruit brownish red or purple,….1.5-2.5 cm in diam.,
.
Acc. Flora of BSI Mah (As per efi thread):
Styles absent (stigma sessile)… F. latifolia
Styles distinct and conspicuous:
Tomentose young twigs; leaves turning brown on drying  …. F. montana
Glabrous young twigs; Leaves not turning brown             …. F. indica.
.
From Cooke’s flora. the size of flower is a good additional differentiating character.
Drupe size of a cherry; scarlet when ripe ……………………….F. Montana
Drupe size of a plum; purple when ripe………………………..F.cataphracta (now syn. of Flacourtia jangomas (Lour.) Raeusch.):
Drupe size of a pea;
Stigmas 5-11…………………………………………………………F.Ramontchii (syn. of Flacourtia indica as per GRIN)
Stigmas 3-4…………………………………………………………..F.latifolia
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Spiny plant, dioecious – Pls ID GE-28Nov2012-b:   Another spinous plant , growing in the wild, outskirts of bangalore:
Shrubs 4 to 6 ft height, fruiting and flowering in November.
The 1st and 2nd images are of two different plants, very similar, bearing separately male and female flowers
but there might have been one male plant also having fruit.
The fruit turns black on ripening; it has 3 or 4 seeds.
Thanks in advance for any help in identification.

Please check Flacourtia jangomas. Nice capture.


Flacourtia jangomas or F. indica ??
After checking as per … pointer to Flacourtia jangomas, I think this may be Flacourtia indica, not jangomas. It also matches with the Wiki image, for indica
  1. The leaves are mostly oblong/elliptic, with obtuse not acute or acuminate apex, seem more stiffly coriaceous compared to the shiny leaves of jangomas.
  2. The immature fruit size was only 3.5 mm long.,
  3. The style branches are about one-third as long as the globose base ( ovary ?),

As per efloras of China: F.jangomas : Pistillate flowers: ovary bottle-shaped to globose, 2-3 mm; styles 4-6, united into a distinct column ca. 1 mm, not or slightly free at their apices; … Fruit brownish red or purple,….1.5-2.5 cm in diam.,                                                                  F.indica: Pistillate flowers: ovary globose, placentas 5 or 6; styles 5 or 6, united only at base, radiating, 1-2 mm, slender. Fruit dull to blackish red, globose, 8-10 mm in diam                                                                                                                                                                   Experts may please validate and if a key to Indian species can be shared that would be very helpful.



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Request for ID : 10 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (5). Please identify the attached files of a thorn shrub from Telangana.


Flueggea leucopyrus comes to my mind.


Flacourtia indica (Burm.f.) Merr.


Yes Sir, You are right. This is Flacourtia indica.



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Flacourtia sp. for ID_AS_April’18_P311 : 6 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (4)
Which species of Flacourtia this could be?
Location: Datyar, Solan District, Himachal Pradesh (elevation: 517m )

Date: March 2018.


Pl. check species available with images at /species/m—z/s/salicaceae/flacourtia


I think it is Flacourtia indica as per images herein and as per distribution and other details at Flacourtia 



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Place: Sholur (about 3118 ft asl), off Ooty – Mudumalai road
Time: November 16, 2011 at 4.56pm
Habit: small-sized tree
Habitat: planted (not sure, may be wild grown) in a forest resort garden
Plant: about 5 – 6 m high, and as wide, well-armed branches, branched spikes
Flower size: about 1 cm across

Flaucortia indica
Family : Flacourtiaceae


Yes to me also it look like Flacourtia indica



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Tree for id 210510MK3:

please help to id this tree.

Date/Time-

04-05-2010 / 03:00 PM

Location- Place, Altitude, GPS-

Mudumalai WLS; 600 msl; TN

Habitat- Garden/ Urban/ Wild/ Type-

Riverine

Plant Habit-

Tree

Height/Length-

Up to 6 metre

Leaves Type/ Shape/ Size-

10 x 6cm; serrate margin

Inflorescence Type/ Size-

Faciscle

Flowers Size/ Colour/ Calyx/ Bracts-

Fruits Type/ Shape/ Size Seeds-

Other Information like Fragrance, Pollinator, Uses etc.

Mature trunk armed


It looks like a Flacourtia sp.


Yes …, it looks like Flacourtia ramontchii. I have seen only male flowers of this sp so far.


The tree is Flacourtia ramontchi L’ Hér of Flacourtiaceae. Is there any recent nomenclature change for this?
As stated by K.M. Matthew in his Excursion Flora of Central TN: The phenology of this tree changes with altitude gradient; i.e., smallest in deciduous zone (lower), Medium at ca. 750msl, and exceptionally larger ones in sholas

Girth of the tree I shot was about 90 – 100cm.


Yes …, some authors like Matthew accept this species as distinct while some others consider it a form of Flacourtia indica. This is a high altitude replacement of the latter species, and quite distinct and its a tree with no spines on branchlets (only trunk spiny). F. indica is always a shrub of scrub jungles with prominent spines on branchlets.



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Help for identification :  Attachments (2). 4 posts by 4 authors.
Please help me to identify this deciduous tree, we have traced only few trees that too with male flowers, flowers 5-8mm across, petals 5 yellow, looks like croton flower but Croton bears androgynous racemes or panicles, but the character is missing.

Photographed at Velugonda hills, Eastern ghats, Nellore-Kadapa borders.


This is a species of Flacourtia.


I agree with … It is a male plant of Flacourtia ramontchi (often treated synonymous to F. indica) of Flacourtiaceae.

We have also previously discussed about this plant here. It is a higher altitude replacement of F. indica.


Earlier discussion in our group regarding Flacourtia ramontchii is in the link


 


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spiny shrub2 Hooghly 22-01-13 sk3:

Found this shrub in a village thicket.
Species : UNKNOWN
H & H : about 3.5 ft high; leaves alternate
Date : 20/1/13

Place : Hooghly


This may be Flacourtia indica.


Since my childhood i have heard of BOINCHI (বৈঁচি), of its very tasty fruits. We have Bengali songs on its flowers.

T H A N K Y O U V E R Y M U C H for introducing to it.



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Hooghly : Flacourtia in Bengal Plants : Attachments (11).  5 posts by 2 authors.

This one may be the same species. It is common in rural shrubberies, roadside. The one in this thread was recorded yesterday (24.5.13), beside rail-tracks, about 4 to 5 ft. high, shrub. Leaves glabrous, i think.
Bengal Plants describes 4 plants :-
i) F. cataphracta Roxb. (now syn. of Flacourtia jangomas (Lour.) Raeusch.): Leaves oblong to oblong-lanceolate with acuminate apices, spines compound = A small tree; N. Bengal, E. Bengal, Tippera, Chittagong.
What is compound spine?
ii) F. ramontchi L’Herit var. sapida = F. sapida F. I. iii. 835 = Thorns scattered, naked; Leaves ovate, obovate, oblong or elliptic with blunt apices, glabrous above or only hairy on the midrib beneath = A rambling shrub; W. Bengal, Behar, Chota Nagpur…. Orissa
iii) F. ramontchi var. occidentalis Hook. f. & Thomas = No. F. I. connection = same as ii) above, except leaves often hairy above, always hairy, sometimes velvety beneath = A rambling shrub in Western Behar, W. Chota Nagpur
  • nothing found
iv) F. sepiaria Roxb. (now synonym of Flacourtia indica (Burm. f.) Merr.) = Thorns numerous, almost always bearing leaves and flowers;…. berry when ripe 3 to 4 angled = A low rather compact spiny shrub; C. & E. Bengal, common; also in Sundribuns
Please note the entry at the end of –
  1. http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=220005300
  2. http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200014454
  3. also entry in http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=5&taxon_id=200014454
  4. illustrations – http://plantillustrations.org/species.php?id_species=441668

Which species is my plant?


I’ve fished!
The problem is sometimes i have been told to follow FoC, other times GRIN, yet some other times The Plant List, and if not satisfied or found in those sources i have been directed to other efloras, also other sources! And finally there is our own eFI !
This plant is Flacourtia ramontchi L’Hérit var. sapida.
Now, if our authentic sources can’t help what a lesser mortal like me can do!!!


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This common shrub with beautiful “miniature apples” was shot from near Yamunanagar city in Haryana, common otherwise too…

I hope this is rightly identified as Flacourtia indica..


Well okay the commonest Flacourtia in India.




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Shrub for ID from Karnaprayag, Uttarakhand_DSR : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (4)
I photographed this shrub/ small tree in a pine forest in Karnaprayag, Uttarakhand at about 900m elevation.

Have no idea of identity.

Please suggest the ID.


Looks like Flacourtia indica, but I don’t know whether its distributed in that area ……………

I agree with …, Flacourtia indica, the elevation of around 900 m either way is not unusual for its distribution.


Thank you … for quick ID. Taking it as F. indica (Salicaceae).


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Shrub for ID :: Devgad, Konkan, May 2017 :: ARKMAY02 : 7 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (3)

Saw this thorny shrub at Devgad, Konkan, MH in May 2017. No flowering or fruiting seen.
Is this Flacourtia sp.


Flowers and fruits will help.

I thought of Flueggea leucopyrus but the leaves are serrulate here!  Any suggestion is welcome. If the genus turns out to be Flueggea, then it will warrant treating an a distinct new variety on the character of the leaf margins.  Very interesting case.


Flacourtia?


F. Indica!


Thank you … for validating. I thought as much.




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24102017BHAR1 – SHRUB WITH WHITE COLOR FLOWERS : 9 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (3)
Found in Vandalur.

This may be from Flacourtiaceae


Looks like Flacourtia sp.


It is Flacourtia indica male plant



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Salicaceae (including Flacourtiaceae) Fortnight: Flacourtia indica Pune SMP2 : 3 posts by 3 authors.
Flowering in Feb in Pune Vetal Tekdi Pune. Mah


Excellent pictures …



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Salicaceae (including Flacourtiaceae) fortnight :: Flacourtia indica at Burondi :: DVFEB08 : 1 post by 1 author. 3 images.

Flacourtia indica (Burm. f.) Merr. … also placed in Flacourtiaceae

at Burondi on 12 APR 09  



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Flacourtia indica (Burm. f.) Merr. … also placed in Flacourtiaceae

at Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary on 20 APR 13


Very good pictures.

It is flowering on Vetal Tekdi presently. Feb is the flowering time here in Pune.


Thank you very much … It flowers around same time in Tungareshwar WLS.



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Flacourtia indica (Burm. f.) Merr. … also placed in Flacourtiaceae

at Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary on 07 FEB 09


Well okay the commonest Flacourtia in India.



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This flower laden large shrub was shot from near my place in Kaithal district of Haryana..

please verify if this is Flacourtia indica…


What a profusion of flowers! I have only once seen this many flowers at a time.
To me it is Flacourtia indica.

Excellent photos.



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Alagarkoil flora 270814 TBN 1 for id : TBN Aug 1 : 5 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (6).

Please identify this plant details of which are as follows:
Date           :  17.08.14                                                            
Location     :Peria aruvi valley, Alagarkoil Rf, Natham Taluk, Dindigul dt, Tamilnadu
Altitude      :approx 900 ft

Habitat        :wild,
Habit           :shrub, small tree ; ; not thorny
Height         :less than 10 ft
Leaves         😕 obovate
Flowers       :as shown, yellow

Fruits           :not seen

As shown, magnet for Common Crow and Blue Tiger butterflies
Can it be of the Capparidaceae family?


Looks like Flacourtia, cf. Flacourtia indica (N. L. Burman) Merrill


efi page on Flacourtia indica & keys at Flacourtia  


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Flacourtia indica (Burm.f.) Merr. SN Sep 60 : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (3).
Flacourtia indica (Burm.f.) Merr. (= Flacourtia ramontchi L’Hér),

wild shrub /small tree from the out skirts of Bangalore,


One of the commonest Indian species.


Sharing some photographs of the male flowers, the unripe fruit, and the spines of the dioecious Flacourtia indica. The first two photographs are from separate male and female trees respectively.

Photographed on Madh Hill (North Mumbai) in March 2015.


The first picture is simply superb!


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Need id assistance of JNU Campus Plant 08.04.15SP1/2 : 4 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (4)
I need id assistance of following four images of Flacourtia?
Date of Collection: 11.04.2015 (flower) & 28.04.2015 (fruiting)
Locality: JNU New Campus forest

Please check with Flacourtia indica (Burm.f.) Merr.


It looks like Flacourtia indica



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ID KANNUR 49- 2 : 4 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)
Please identify this shrub from Kannur District of Kerala. Is it canthium or Randia?

It is Flacourtia indica, fruit edible

Flacourtia indica



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Jan 17, 2009, at Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary; 05 Mar, 2010- 8.30 am- Kanakeshwar, Alibag MS; Flacourtia montana . – efloraofindia | Google Groups

 
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Flacourtia sepiaria ? : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)
Flacourtia sepiaria ?

Yes Flacourtia indica syn. F. sepiaria….


 

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Flacourtia species for ID.: I think this is Flacourtia latifolia T.Cooke. Please validate.
A small tree flowering presently (23 Jan 2010) on Vetal Tekdi Pune.
Armed with sharp spines. Leaves ovate, obovate alternate with serrate margins red petiole.
Flowers yellow with many stamens. No styles or stigmas visible. Size 0.5 cm or so. in small racemes.


After reading a lot from older posts and literature I understood some important points about Flacourtia genus…………
1) It now belongs to Salicaceae and previously to Flacourtiaceae.
2) The flowers are without petals. Only sepals
3) Flowers are unisexual. Fruit is a berry rather than a capsule as in Casearia
(My pictures are probably showing only male flowers)
4) If one sees female flowers one has to look carefully for the stigma and style to differentiate between the species.
5) There is a lot of confusion between F.indica and F. latifolia.
6) Acc. Flora of BSI Mah ;
Styles absent(stigma sessile)… F. latifolia
Styles distinct and conspicuous:
Tomentose young twigs; leaves turning brown on drying  ….
F. montana
Glabrous young twigs; Leaves not turning brown             ….
F. indica.
7)Cooke’s Flora doesn’t mention F.indica.
8) From Cooke’s flora. the size of flower is a good additional differentiating character.

Drupe size of a cherry; scarlet when ripe ………………………………………………………………….F. Montana
Drupe size of a plum; purple when ripe…………………………………………………………………F. cataphracta
Drupe size of a pea;
Stigmas  5-11………………………………………………………………………………………………………….F. ramontchii
Stigmas   3-4……………………………………………………………………………………………………………F. latifolia

9) In all the above species the thorns do not bear flowers and fruits. Cooke mentions about one species
which bears flowers and fruits on thorns as F.sepiaria
Now I have to go to the species and check for female flowers; check for the young twigs to see whether they are glabrous ortomentose…..hmmmmm
and also take some leaves for drying to see whether they turn brown. I think I had kept some twigs for 2 days which dried but did not turn brown.


I would like to share some more information………………….
The botanical name is of particular historical and geographical interest in South Africa. ‘Flacourtia’ honours E. de Flacourt (1607-60), a governor of Madagascar, who knew the Cape before van Riebeeck, and indica indicates that the east is equally the home of this little tree of the Transvaal bushveld.(REF>
http://www.worldagroforestrycentre.org/sea/products/AFDbases/AF/asp/S… )
Secondly Flacourtia is a host plant for the butterfly Common Leopard.


This could be a male plant of Flacourtia ramontchi.
We have discussed this earlier also, I think. Again there is difference of opinion about its synonymy with F. indica.


I think its F. indica


I think it is difficult to tell apart male plants of F. indica and F. latifolia. From the leaves and fruits on female plants found around Pune it can be said that … plant can be F. latifolia. It is unlikely that male plants of F. indica also grow in Pune along with female plants of F. latifolia. Irrespective of the locality these pix can be treated (and post closed) as F. latifolia/indica.



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Though these are distant shots, yet they appear to me like any Flacourtia species the most probable one can be F. indica… please give your suggestions.. was shot from … area in Himachal Pradesh…



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080719AB1 ID : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)

Identification, please. I understand this could be inadequate to identify. A sapling; could be of a shrub or a tree, and no flower or fruit for assistance in identification.
Date/Time- November 7, 2017; 09:28 hrs.
Location- Place, Altitude, GPS- Eastern Melghat
Habitat- Garden/ Urban/ Wild/ Type- Wild
Plant Habit- Tree/ Shrub/ Climber/ Herb-  Not sure
Height/Length- 1-2′ Height


May be Flacourtia indica


Thank you, … I checked the page of F. indica here: /species/m—z/s/salicaceae/flacourtia/flacourtia-indica. I have only leaves to go by, and going by the size and shape of the leaf, especially the margins, seems like you are right


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110719AB2 ID : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (2)
Identification, please.
Date/Time- November 7, 2017; 13:17 hrs.
Location- Place, Altitude, GPS- Eastern Melghat

Habitat- Garden/ Urban/ Wild/ Type- Wild
Plant Habit- Tree/ Shrub/ Climber/ Herb-  Shrub/Sapling of a tree
Height/Length- 2-3′

Elevation- 700m

Flacourtia indica. Salicaceae.



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id requested : Attachments (4). 13 posts by 9 authors.
photos of a large bush, reaching an height of 4 mtr, near mysore city
outskirts is forwarded for identification.

may be some Flacortia sp.


May be Cassine glauca also


Want to go with Cassine glauca studing the leaf morphology and arrangment. please see the attached photo of a twig of this plant and I have hilighted the areas of match and try to resemble with the original photos.


Was the tree trunk thorny? and are the leaves in opposite (or sub opposite) or alternate phyllotaxy.
Please send us details when you request for Id please. Also, I suggest you to collect informations from local people such as whether the fruit is edible or not (because the fruit of Flacaurtia spp. is edible and people use the fruit to make pickle). This would enhance the data base and the enthusiasm of different people as well, I guess.


This does looks like Flacourtia indica. Definitely not Celastraceae.


I also think it is not from Celastraceae.


It should be either Flacourtia or Scolopia. Not Cassine.


Please provide a bigger, more detailed picture(s) of a couple of leaves and a branch with possible thorn. Otherwise the suggestions below will remain suggestions only.


Flacourtia indica



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References:

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