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Images by Anurag N Sharma (Validation by D S Rawat & Id by Nidhan Singh & J.M.Garg), Ashwini Bhatia, Nidhan Singh (Validation by Gurcharan Singh), Gurcharan Singh, Prashant Awale, Karuna Kanta Das (Id by Nidhan Singh & Prashant Awale) & Alka Khare (Id by Nidhan Singh) (Inserted by J.M.Garg) (For more images & complete details, click on the links) 

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Geranium species- Ladakh (Different species)

 

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An Assessment of Diversity of Genus Geranium L. (Geraniaceae) in India with Special Emphasis on Indian Himalayan Region by Vijay V Wagh1*, Bhaskar Datt1 and Tariq Husain1- J Biodivers Manage Forestry 2015, 4:2
Abstract: An account of all the species of Geranium L. (Geraniaceae) available in India is presented. Based on all available information 26 species are reported falling under 2 subgenera and 8 sections following Aedo et al.’s classification. The maximum number of the species (18) belongs to subgenus Geranium. Each species is provided with correct nomenclature with first citation followed by selected references, if any, synonym(s), if any, habit, growth form, altitude and flowering- fruiting time and distribution in India as well as in world. Maximum diversity in Indian Geranium is exhibited in W. Himalaya where as many as 20 species out of total 26 are found, followed by E. Himalaya (14 species). Nine species are common in both flanks of the Himalaya.
Geranium clarkei Yeo- India (Endemic to Kashmir).
Geranium collinum Stephan ex Willd.- India  (Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh) Soviet Russia, W. Siberia, Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan
Geranium donianum Sweet-  India (Sikkim) Nepal, Bhutan, S. Tibet, S.W. China
Geranium himalayense Klotzsch- India (Himachal Pradesh) Afghanistan
Geranium lambertii Sweet- India (Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, Kashmir) Nepal, Bhutan, Tibet 
Geranium nepalense Sweet- India (Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, Kashmir, Tamil Nadu (Nilgiris)) Afghanistan, China, Japan, Sri Lanka 
Geranium pamiricum Ikonn.- India (Kashmir) Pakistan 
Geranium pratense L.- India (Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, Kashmir) Pakistan, Nepal, temperate Eurasia
Geranium procurrens Yeo- India (Assam, Sikkim) Nepal, Bhutan
Geranium rectum Trautv.- India (Himachal Pradesh) Asia, USSR.
Geranium refractum Edgew. & Hook. f. in Hook. f.- India (Sikkim) Nepal, Bhutan, S. Tibet, N. Myanmar 
Geranium rotundifolium L.- India (Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, Kashmir) Western & Central Europe, Siberia, Turkey, Iran, W.& E.
Mediterranean region, Africa, Afghanistan
Geranium rubifolium Lindley- India (Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, Kashmir) Pakistan. 
Geranium sibiricum L.- India (Himachal Pradesh, Kashmir) Europe, USSR, China, Japan, N. America
Geranium swatense Schonb.- India (Kashmir) Pakistan, Afghanistan
Geranium wallichianum D. Don ex Sweet- India (Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, Kashmir) Nepal, China 
Geranium kotschyi subsp. charlesii (Aitch. & Hem.) P. H. Davis- India (Kashmir), Afghanistan, Pakistan
Geranium tuberaria Cambess. in Jacquem.- India (Himachal Pradesh, Kashmir), Pakistan   
Geranium molle L.-  India (Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, Kashmir) Asia, Europe 
Geranium pusillum L.-  India (Himachal Pradesh, Kashmir) W. & C. Asia, Europe, Africa and Syria   
Geranium divaricatum Ehrh.- India (Kashmir) Europe, Iran
Geranium lucidum L.-  India (Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, Kashmir) W. Asia, Europe 
Geranium nakaoanum H. Hara-  India (Assam, Sikkim) Nepal, Bhutan 
Geranium polyanthes Edgew. & Hook.f. in Hook. f.-  India (Sikkim) Bhutan, S. Tibet
Geranium robertianum L.- India (Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, Kashmir) N. America, The canary Islands, C.&S. Europe, Turkey, Iran,
Siberia, C. Asia 
Geranium mascatense Boiss.- India (Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, Kashmir) Eastern Africa, Afghanistan, China

My attention has been drawn to this article which appeared in the Journal of Biodiversity Management & Forestry.
The authors rightly state in ‘Conclusions’ that their study was a prelude to a revisionary study of the genus, not a revision. Unfortunately, too great a confidence is being put in their findings.
I feel I am obliged to comment that this assessment has serious flaws. Sorry to have to do this but such flaws are common-place in articles I read about the flora of the Indian Himalaya.  This “nettle” needs to be grasped with the necessary improvements made.
I have looked through the long list of 51 References which include a number of light-weight publications riddled with errors but the most important check-lists and floras covering the Himalaya in the late twentieth century.
Without reference to such volumes it is impossible to meaningfully assess Geranium in the Indian Himalaya…
For ‘Eastern’ districts there is ‘Flora of Bhutan’ Vol 1 Part 3 published in 1987 which covers Sikkim whilst the information on Bhutanese species is of relevance to those found in AP.
Then, for the ‘Central’ parts of the Himalaya there is ‘An Enumeration of the Flowering Plants of Nepal’ Vol Two (1979).
Moving to NW Himalaya, there is ‘An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Pakistan and Kashmir’ (1972) which covers Indian-controlled Kashmir and Ladakh.
Finally, we have ‘Geraniaceae’ (Flora of Pakistan No. 149) which also covers geraniums in Kashmir & Ladakh.
To have not consulted these ESSENTIAL references means the assessment is fundamentally flawed.
Furthermore, in their ‘Conclusions’ the authors state that a review of the existing collection in herbaria is required in light of current taxonomic researches. Yes but ALSO specimens in FOREIGN herbaria and MOST IMPORTANTLY fresh field-studies, otherwise the findings will be inadequate.
Hopefully, WHEN and IF such a revision is undertaken by an Indian botanist in the future, they check with eFI and Western botanists and plant enthusiasts.  Unfortunately, Peter Yeo has passed away but individuals such as myself have knowledge and expertise which should be taken advantage of.
The present situation, where it seems to me, international collaboration has been actively discouraged, needs  to change.  Otherwise, the quality and standard of too many assessments and revisions will leave a lot to be desired.
Let me (I have not fully scrutinised the article yet) point out some examples:
I cannot spot Geranium kashmirianum Sapru & Raina (as the authors appear to be Indian botanists this is a particularly inappropriate omission) – I do not know what this is and have requested members send me a description so cannot comment further at this stage but this species should surely have been covered!
Nor Geranium kishtvariense R.Knuth – Stewart recorded this in Kashmir temperate forests; close to G.rectum. Nasir gave it as s synonym of G.rubifolium which is in the assessment but no synonyms are given.
Nor Geranium regelii Nevskii – I know this from Ladakh & Lahoul in the Indian TransHimalaya.
Nor Geranium pinetophilum R.Knuth – I need to check this out further but GRIN apparently records this from India
Clearly, an unsatisfactory situation and I have not checked the assessment/article fully.
Thus I advise that others are cautious about its content.  I am not suggesting everything is wrong but some glaring omissions and one thus wonders about the accuracy/reliability of the rest…..   This is a recent publication (2015).  So why have the authors on-line with Flora of China?  There is an eflora of Pakistan, so they did not require a printed copy of Geraniaceae for Pakistan (though I find the printed version much better with much more information and clearer line drawings).
Next, I shall be reviewing ‘The Genus Primula in India (A Taxonomic Revision)……

 

Genus Geranium and Erodium are easily recognised by former having palmately lobed leaves and latter pinnate compound or pinnately lobed leaves.


 

indian species of Geraniaceae : I feel we have good representation of this family in our database. In an effort to update this in our database and preparing a simple key for identification, I am enclosing the list of species with latest name. Kindly suggest additions or corrections with suitable reference:

Geranium

  1. Geranium aconitifolium L.Her.
  2. G. bicolor Royle
  3. G. collinum M. Bieb.?
  4. G. donianum Sweet (G. collinum FBI; G. multifidum D. Don)
  5. G. lambertii Sweet (G. grevilleanum Wall.)
  6. G. heterotrichon Sm.
  7. G. himalayense Kl. (G. meeboldii Briquet.; G. grandiflorum Edgew.)
  8. G. lucidum L.
  9. G. molle L.
  10. G. nepalense Sw.
  11. G. mascatense Boiss.?
  12. G. nakaoanum Hara
  13. G. ocellatum Camb.
  14. G. palustre L.
  15. G. pedunculatum Royle
  16. G. polanthes Edgew.
  17. G. pratense L.
  18. G. procurrense Yeo
  19. G. pusillum L.
  20. G. rectum Tratv.
  21. G. refractum Edgew.
  22. G. robertianum L.
  23. G. rubifolium Lind. (G. kishtvariense Knuth)
  24. G. rotundifolium L.
  25. G. sibiricum L.
  26. G. tuberaria Camb.
  27. G. wallichianum Sw.

…………………….

 


In addition to the list, GRIN shows the following species as recorded from India: (I hope there is no clash of synonyms!)

Geranium clarkei Yeo
Geranium divaricatum Ehrh.
Geranium kashmirianum Sapru & Raina
Geranium kishtvariense R. Knuth
Geranium pinetophilum R. Knuth
Geranium regelii Nevski
Geranium swatense Schonb.-Tem.

……………………..

Please see below for minor spelling corrections…


I checked Flora of India vol-4 by BSI which described following additional species in Geranium:

1. G. charlesii (Aitch. & Hemsley) Vved. Ex Nevski (=G.tuberosum L. var. charlesii)
2. G. clarkei Yeo (accepted by Plant List)
3. G. divaricatum Ehrh. (accepted by Plant List)
4. G. lambertii Sweet (accepted by Plant List)
5. G. pamiricum Ikonn. (accepted by Plant List)
6. G. regelii Nevski (synonym of G.collinum as per Plant List)
7. G. swatense Schonb. (accepted by Plant List) 

 


 

   
Fwd: Photographing Geraniums : 1 post by 1 author.
I have started (with the species I am most familiar with) to inspect postings of Geranium on eFI.
Although some species are quite distinctive, others can be complicated with several species little known and the possibility existing of new species to be described.
The collinum-pratense-himalayense alliance is certainly confusing.
As I will continue to repeat, members must always be mindful that plant identification has traditionally been based upon the examination of dried, pressed specimens in herbaria by comparison with reference specimens which have been reliably identified (determined).  A specimen is assigned to a family, genus and then, if the specimen is adequate, on the basis of characteristics which can be observed from the specimens – at times @x10, x20 or sometimes higher magnification.
In the past, photos, even with the best lenses available often did little more than show the habit of the plant and some floral and foliage information. It was far too expensive to take lots of photos of each plant.  Very occasionally you will find black & white prints of photos taken in the field which accompany the specimens – these are a considerable help when this was done.
With the advent of digital cameras, especially during the past few years, even compact models with good macro lenses can, if quality, in-focus shots are taken, provide a remarkable level of detail.
Nevertheless, which parts of the plant should be focussed upon, vary from genus-to-genus. These need to be learnt. The standard photo showing the “pretty bits” (if this is a description which applies to the species you are photographing) only, often fails to reveal essential characteristics for reliable identification – and make the task of attempting to identify from one or two non-close-up images often challenging.
I thus consider it will be helpful for keen photographers, willing to make an additional effort, to know which parts of Geranium to photograph.  Having images of such parts of each geranium will greatly aid identification and enhance our understanding of the genus in the Himalaya – and perhaps you can help with the locating and identification of a species new-to-science!
Decades ago I was provided with some tips on collecting pressed specimens of Geranium for herbaria by the late Peter Yeo (a much-missed
Geranium specialist who worked at Cambridge University Botanic Garden, UK).  I shall reproduce these below as they give a good indication of what to photograph and any field notes which can be made to accompany the images you may subsequently post.
As with field notes to accompany specimens to be deposited in herbaria, one should record anything which cannot be seen in the specimen(s) or may change e.g. colours during the drying process. The better the photos, the better the results – just as the better the pressed specimens (and field-notes) the better the results.  Taking additional time and effort makes a big difference.
IF only the first one or two flowers have come out don’t bother to collect as the form of inflorescence will not be evident.
The rootstock is important; get enough to show whether compact or creeping, or annual. You can photograph the base of the plant which should provide this information. Clearly, one requires permission from the authorities to uproot a plant. There is still a need and indeed role for the collection of pressed specimens for herbaria in India but that is primarily the domain of staff of botanic gardens/ institutions.
In the early stages of flowering look out for the best-developed unripe fruits available.
If fruit is ripe try to include both dehisced and undehisced states.
If the fruits are falling with the seeds inside them, collect some (many geraniums disperse their seed explosively but some seed is often retained).
Include some loose petals when pressing (detach if necessary).  Expose stamens to show filament shape and hairs by taking 2 or 3 sepals off a flower from which petals have recently dropped.
Smoothing out one or two leaves and flowers as you close the press may be helpful; a few separately pressed basal and lower/middle stem leaves are often useful.
Wilted specimens can be very misleading.
Notes should be taken as to flower posture, colour and patterning of petals, colour of stigmas, anthers and distal parts of filaments (not necessary if your photos show these).
And don’t forget to ensure the stipules are clearly shown – something that would have been obviously in pressed specimens, so

not mentioned above.


 

I have just posted my latest thoughts on various postings of images of geraniums thought to be Geranium collinum, G.himalayense and G.pratense. On two occasions it appears that two species of geranium were actually growing together – in both cases it seems the presence of Geranium wallichianum was missed.
I have been trying to explain that some geraniums are difficult to tell apart especially those belonging to the Geranium collinium-himalayense-pratense alliance (complex).
Clearly, if one photographs flowers from one species (or both) and then foliage from another, things are liable to be even more confusing!
I think this situation illustrates how important it is for those photographing geraniums to examine them closely – checking the stipules is especially important.  I am giving tips on which characteristics to look out for in geraniums but now need to emphasise, particularly in thicker vegetation, where it is harder to tell plants apart that photographers should always check that only one species of geranium
is present.  IF markedly different stipules are found, then this is clear-cut evidence (which can be seen with the naked eye).
Nevertheless, I would encourage all keen photographers to take their time and ideally examine plants with a hand lens (which should indispensable equipment for all trips to look at flowers).

Nobody has responded to my queries about the use of/availability of hand lenses in India?


 

I have just posted my latest thoughts on various postings of images of geraniums thought to be Geranium collinum, G.himalayense and G.pratense.  On two occasions it appears that two species of geranium were actually growing together – in both cases it seems the presence of Geranium wallichianum was missed.
I have been trying to explain that some geraniums are difficult to tell apart especially those belonging to the Geranium collinium-himalayense-pratense alliance (complex).
Clearly, if one photographs flowers from one species (or both) and then foliage from another, things are liable to be even more confusing!
I think this situation illustrates how important it is for those photographing geraniums to examine them closely – checking the stipules is especially important.  I am giving tips on which characteristics to look out for in geraniums but now need to emphasise, particularly in thicker vegetation, where it
is harder to tell plants apart that photographers should always check that only one species of geranium is present.  IF markedly different stipules are found, then this is clear-cut evidence (which can be seen with the naked eye).
Nevertheless, I would encourage all keen photographers to take their time and ideally examine plants with a hand lens (which should indispensable equipment for all trips to look at flowers).

Nobody has responded to my queries about the use of/availability of hand lenses in India?


 

Thanks a lot for these alerts … I have already procured holotype and original description, Hardy Geranium by Yeo I have already purchased and is on its Way.

I am planning visit to Kashmir in coming summers, where my primary focus would be this group only.

In the meantime I have this observation. Before publishing G. kashmirianum authors sent material to Dr. Yeo in I think 1983 or 1984, and got his observations and I hope nod for this new species. He published his own species in 1985 (and could not have mentioned about G. kashmirianum, which was published in 1986), and I can’t think of him as publishing the same under his own name. Perhaps air will clear, once I get the book.


 

Since joining this group, I have not noticed any suggestions that hybridisation MIGHT be a complicating factor in any genus IN THE WILD?  The only mention of hybrids I can quickly locate is for cultivated plants.
There are quite a number of Geraniums in the Himalaya. Distinguishing between them is often no easy matter.
But what about hybridisation, where populations overlap?   Could this be a complicating factor?
Geraniums cross readily in cultivation both with unintentional and deliberate crosses due to breeding.

In correspondence with Peter Yeo, he recognised two “separate” species which were similar growing less than 50m apart at a location in Lahaul. Pollinating bees could easily travel such short distances.


 

Pl. go through Geranium (Geraniaceae) page with images of species in efloraofindia.

If you find any incorrect identification, pl. let us know. If anybody can send images of other species of this genera (for incorporation in the website), if any, or can identify unidentified images, it will be really nice.

 


 

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