bitter cumin, bitter leaf, Indian chickweed • Hindi: जिम jima • Konkani: झरसी jharasi • Malayalam: കൈപ്പ് ജീരകം kaippujeerakam • Marathi: झरसी jharasi, कडवी भाजी kadvi bhaji • Sanskrit: कपित्थपत्रा kapitthapatra, पर्पटः parpata, उष्णसुन्दर ushnasundara • Tamil: பெருந்திராய் peru-n-tiray, திராய் tiray • Telugu: చేతరాసి కూర chetarasi kura;
Australia (Western Australia, Northern Territory, South Australia, Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria), South Africa (Transvaal, Free State, KwaZulu-Natal, Cape Prov.), Cameroon, Zimbabwe, Guinea-Bissau, Chad, Senegal, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Gabon, South Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, D.R. Congo (Zaire), Congo (Brazzaville), Angola, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Mozambique, Kenya, Tanzania, Namibia, Swaziland, Botswana, Seychelles (introduced), Comores (Mayotte, etc.), peninsular Malaysia (Kelantan, Pahang), Borneo, Sulawesi, Philippines, Moluccas, Lesser Sunda Isl., Sumatra, New Guinea, China (Hainan), Taiwan, India, Vietnam, Mauritius (introduced), Myanmar [Burma] (Sagaing, Taninthayi, Yangon), Sri Lanka, Pakistan (Sind, Pakistani Punjab), Laos, Thailand, Java as per Catalogue of Life;
This plant is used as a leafy vegetable and leaves are very bitter tasted.
As per efi thread :
Inflorescence in compound terminal cymes – Mollugo stricta L. (M. pentaphylla L.)
Inflorescence in axillary clusters – M. spergula L. (Glinus oppositifolius (L.) Aug.DC.)

Glinus oppositifolius
At Phansad WLS, Maharashtra


Glinus oppositifolius form Hooghly: 2 images.

Attaching two sets of pictures, recorded on different days at different places, maybe of the same species, Glinus oppositifolius.
Species : Glinus oppositifolius (L.) Aug. DC.
Habit & Habitat : wild herb, used as leafy vegetable, pondside, also in damp areas around villages
Date : 9/6/12 (set1) & 30/4/12 (set2)
ID helpefi thread 1 and efi thread 2

very nice, … but in the market we see only white buds … your picture seems to show pink ones?

the truth is – i thought pink buds belong to some other species, but the post by … confirmed that they were from same plant.

that thread only shows pink buds… not convinced visually… .// scientifically though taxonomists seem to have made the diagnosis, so i have to agree… but this url shows pink buds and white flowers in the same branch… convincingly:

I fail to remember exactly how big my flowers are, but small surely, used macro, think a bit smaller than Scoparia dulcis.


It appears to me now that the two sets of pictures, uploaded previously (also attached herewith) are of different species. While the second set, prefixed by “set2” and includes two pics, is Glinus oppositifolius, as can be seen at, the first set (prefixed by set1) is definitely some other species.

Please note the difference in leaves and also in carpels. Moreover, the flowers and leaves of Glinus oppositifolius appears to be bigger than the other plant with pink buds.

Attaching two more pics of this yet unknown species, recorded today (06/07/2012). It is not Glinus oppositifolius.

I think both the sets are of Glinus oppositifolius (L.) Aug.DC. as per images herein.

Yes Sir, thank you for the update, the minor differences is possibly due to soil condition.


Glinus sp. ? ID from Hooghly 16/7/12 SK: 7 images.

This is my second post of what i think is a Glinus sp. I collected this plant yesterday from local bazaar. They sell this as DIMESHAK or GIMESHAK. This plant is used as a leafy vegetable and leaves are very bitter tasted.
I searched the net for Glinus species and found a few members –
  • Glinus species – Zimbabwe flora
  • G. lotoides L. var. lotoides = “…. Flowers in clusters at the nodes, greenish-white, sometimes tinged pink, stamens numerous..” = Zimbabwe flora
  • G. lotoides L. var. virens = Zimbabwe flora
  • G. oppositifolius (L.) DC. var. lanatus = “… distinguished by the woolly crisped hairs in the axils, shorter pedicels, up to 5 mm long and the often smaller, petiolate leaves which are more obovate spathulate…” = Zimbabwe flora
  • G. oppositifolius (L.) DC. var. opoositifolius = “…. Flowers creamy-white, often with a green or brownish line down the petals, in 1-8-flowered axillary clusters on pecicels 6-14 mm long…” = Zimbabwe flora
So, i think that the plant attached here maybe Glinus oppositifolius (L.) DC. var. opoositifolius.
Species : Glinus oppositifolius (L.) DC. var. opoositifolius ???
Bengali name : DIMESHAK or GIMESHAK
Habit & Habitat : wild herb, collected from local market
Date : 15/7/12, 11.34 A.M.
Place : Hooghly

yes, gime-shak

One interesting aspect of this Glinus taxa is –
But in Flora of Pakistan and Flora of North America it is “Sepals” (and obviously there will be petals !!!) –
  1. http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=5&taxon_id=220005631
  2. http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=220005631
  3. http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=242415821
  4. also in Flora of Zimbabwe


The Plant List doesn’t recognise Pharnaceum mollugo L. – http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl/record/kew-2547911. But, it is GHIMI SHAK in Hortus Suburbanus Calcuttensis, and GHIMA SHAK in Flora Indica.

Bengal Plants equates it with Mollugo spergula L. and M. verticillata F. I. i. 360.
Last year i spent a lot of time over this SHAAK / SHAG / SHAK –
  1. efi thread 1
  2. efi thread 2
A herbarium – Europeana or Bgbm

BRS 487 23072013 : Attachments (2). 8 posts by 5 authors.
Pl. find the attached file contain photos for id. confirmation.
Date: 23.07.2013
Location: Chennai, Adyar
Habitat: Urban
Habit: Herb

This is Mollugo sp.

Mollugo or Glinus ?

Can it be Glinus oppositifolius?

Yes, it is Glinus oppositifolia (L.) DC.

It is Glinus oppositifolius

For me Glinus oppositifolius, as identified by …


Hooghly : cf. Polycarpon prostratum (Forssk.) Asch. & Schweinf. : 2 posts by 1 author. Attachments (4).

I was wrong, this is Glinus oppositifolius (L.) Aug.DC.


Unknown herb from Assam : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (7).
Attached images are unknown herb from Assam. Please ID the plant.  
Date :Images 1-6 taken in 14.05.2014 & image 7(H-30) taken in May 06, 2005
Location: Assam
Family : ?
Genus & species : ??
Habitat: Grows wild on sandy soil, sometimes as mural plant..
Habit :Prostrate, spreading herb   

Glinus oppositifolius syn. Mollugo oppositifolia

Requesting to please ID this herb captured near Devgad, Maharashtra in May 2014.
Is it some Glinus species?

Glinus oppositifolius (L.) Aug.DC. (= Mollugo oppositifolia L)


Herb for ID xi : 7 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (3).

Found in Bannerghatta, Bangalore
15th June

I think that this can be Mollugo pentaphylla.

Hope it is Glinus oppositifolius (L.) Aug.DC.

efi page on Glinus oppositifolius & Mollugo pentaphylla

Glinus oppositifolius

Thank you all. Plant has been identified as Glinus oppositifolius.


Nagamalai 090714 TBN 1 Mollugo for id / TBN July 4 : 5 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (3).

Please identify this plant details of which are as follows:
Date :15.05.14                                                           
Location :Plains near Nagamalai hills
Altitude :< 500 ft

Habitat :?weed
Habit :prostrate herb
Height :prostrate
Leaves :whorled; 5 at each node
Flowers :white

Mollugo pentaphylla?

Thanks … Glinus oppositifolia and Mollugo pentaphylla look very similar. I am confused. Hoping for clarity.

efi page on Glinus oppositifolius & Mollugo pentaphylla 

Inflorescence in compound terminal cymes – Mollugo stricta L. (M. pentaphylla L.)
Inflorescence in axillary clusters – M. spergula L. (Glinus oppositifolius (L.) Aug.DC.)


Caryophyllaceae Week: Stellaria media (L.) Villars from Guwahati:
Attached image is Stellaria media (L.) Villars.

thanks … for nice depiction

Does not matches with images at Stellaria media (L.) Vill.

It is not Stellaria media;
It looks like Glinus oppositifolius of Molluginaceae


Glinus oppositifolius/Mollugo oppositifolia—-I think .Please confirm : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (6)
Pics taken at Aambyvalley Rd., Lonavala, Pune in Dec.16.

I think matches with images in threads at Glinus oppositifolius

id please : 7 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (1) – 2 MB.
one of my friend send it to me.
location: kolkata, WB  5/6/17

Mullago (Pl. Check the spelling) or related genera?

Thank you sir. I have forgotten that name. Yes close similarity to Mollugo pentaphyla

correction: More close similarity with Glinus oppositifolius from molluginaceae. Leaf not matching with mollugo

It is Glinus oppositifolius

I agree with Glinus oppositifolius


Plant for ID 11/06/2012 SMP1:
On looking at … latest post I thought about sharing my possibly unidentified plant captured near Pen Maharashtra.
Is it also Trianthema portulacastrum?
A small prostrate herb Flower size 5mm or so

plant shape is different esp the distal end…

This is Glinus latoides of Molluginaceae. Flowers open only at 4 pm.

Yes it is Glinus lotoides

Can it be Glinus oppositifolius? The leaves don’t look right for Glinus lotoides, and I’m not sure but I think the flowers in the pictures have 5 stamens.

efi pages on Glinus oppositifolius & Glinus lotoides


PLANT FOR ID 41 SMP 22APRIL 09 : Attachments (2). 6 posts by 4 authors.

I spotted this creeper which was spreading like lawn in parking area in Pali Konkan.
On looking at the photographs in magnified version I could enjoy its beauty.
Along with this there were some Heliotropium herbs nearby.

… a wild and vague guess … some ¿ Glinus species ?

Its a species of Mollugo

Thanks, …
Links for pix of Mollugo
As per Wikipedia link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mollugo
It comprises a few dozen species of herbaceous plants, including Mollugo verticillata, carpetweed or green carpetweed.

Thanks … Any idea whether it is native or weed?

I think should be Glinus oppositifolius (L.) Aug.DC. as per images herein and as per another thread on the same plant at Plant for ID 11/06/2012 SMP1

Mollugo pentaphylla :  1 post by 1 author. Attachments (2).
Mollugo pentaphylla
2014 june
yeoor hills

Does not match with images of the stated species at
Appears close to images at Glinus oppositifolius (L.) Aug.DC. as inflorescence is axiliary.


on 2/8/09 in Pocharam, Distt. Medak, AP.; at Nagaon, Alibag– Jan’10?;  Id Plz – indiantreepix | Google Groups

Re: 29062019MR1 : 5 posts by 4 authors. 1 image.
This was spotted in Hyderabad, urban area.
Any suggestions please?

Looks like Portulacaceae member. Please send a closeup of the flowers for ID.

Mollugo oppositifolia

You are fantastic for identifying this so promptly! Our gratitude to you all. We will now update the player who has submitted this sighting.


Re: 15082019MR1 : 7 posts by 4 authors. 1 png image.
This was spotted in Hyderabad, urban area.
Any suggestions please? Sorry for the terrible picture!

Mollugo oppositifolia Syn. is Glinus oppositifolius.
Picture is good enough for ID purpose.

I too agreed with …,

Thanks, …, We are unable to see png files in the group. So pl. send jpg files only in future.

22022013 BRS 459:
Pl. find the attached file contain photos for id. confirmation.
Location: Chennai.
Date: 05,02.2013
Habitat: Garden
Habit: Herb.

… looks like Oldenlandia corymbosa (family: Rubiaceae).

I suspect a mixing up of two plants..

Now me too think the same …
OR may be my guess is misleading – perhaps the plant with flower is Glinus oppositifolius.
But these are my guesses.

There are two plants here, the flower belongs to Glinus sp and the prostrate plant is Hedyotis sp.

Thanks …, I will try to upload new images for id.

Glinus oppositifolius (L.) Aug. DC. looks close ! Glinus oppositifolius !


Need help with tiny white flower ID: 3 images.
Found along Kuno river banks that were inundated this year.
Kuno NP

I think Glinus oppositifolius (L.) Aug.DC.
Some petals have fallen.


Need id of tiny white flower: 3 images.
Found in a recently inundated place in Kuno National Park

I think Glinus oppositifolius (L.) Aug.DC.
Some petals have fallen.


Need help with tiny white flower ID: 3 images.
Found along Kuno river banks that were inundated this year.
Kuno NP

I think Glinus oppositifolius (L.) Aug.DC.
Some petals have fallen.


Request for id: 2 images- 1 high res.
Request for I’d of a herb from Bilaspur. Photographed in January 2022.
It seems like Rubia.

Another image of habit of the plant.

Glinus oppositifolius


Prostrate Herb for ID, Hyderabad NAW-MAR22-01: 2 images.
Kindly identify this prostrate herb with minute pale flowers, found growing as a weed in a potted plant in Hyderabad, Telangana, photographed in March 2022.

It looks like a species of Mollugo

Could not find a match as per comparative images at Mollugo.
Also tried Oldenlandia, but no match.- from me

check for Mollugo oppositifolia

The specimen looks like Glinus oppositifolius (L.) Aug.DC. Family. Molluginaceae Bartl.


Request for id: 1 image.
Request for identification of a plant from Bilaspur. Photographed in April 2022.

Pl. check

I think it is close to images at Glinus oppositifolius (L.) Aug.DC.


Photo 3: 1 high res. images.

Difficult to ID with this image !

I concur with …

Image is not clear in detail.
Pl. check

Yes, It is close to Glinus oppositifolius.


Molluginaceae: Glinus lotoides L.: 1 high res. image.
synonyms: Mollugo hirta Thunb., Glinus dahomensis A.Chev.
location/date: Chotannahalli, Tumkur Dist., Karnataka, July 1997






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