Gymnosporia senegalensis (Lam.) Loes., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 17: 541 1893. (syn. Catha decolor Webb; Catha montana (Roth) G. Don; Catha senegalensis (Lam.) G. Don; Celastrus coriaceus Guillemin & Perrotet; Celastrus crenatus Roth; Celastrus decolor Delile; Celastrus glaucus R.Br.; Celastrus montanus Roth; Celastrus obovatus Hochst. ex Oliv.; Celastrus pallidus Wall.; Celastrus phyllacanthus L’Herit.; Celastrus saharae Batt.; Celastrus senegalensis Lam.; Gymnosporia baumii Loes.; Gymnosporia benguelensis Loes.; Gymnosporia crenulata Engl.; Gymnosporia eminiana Loes.; Gymnosporia eremoecusa Loes.; Gymnosporia europaea Masf.; Gymnosporia intermedia Chiov.; Gymnosporia montana (Roth) Benth.; Gymnosporia saharae (Battand.) Loes. ex Engl.; Gymnosporia senegalensis var. angustifolia Engl. & Loes.; Gymnosporia senegalensis var. inermis (A. Rich.) Loes.; Gymnosporia senegalensis var. spinosa Engl. ex Loes.; Maytenus baumii (Loes.) Exell & Mendonca; Maytenus senegalensis (Lam.) Exell) as per Catalogue of Life.
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Mauritania, Morocco, Sahara (Tadmayt, Tefedest, Tassili n’Ajjer, Tibesti, Adrar des Iforhas, Erg Djemel), Spanish Sahara, Mauritania, Mali, Niger, Burkina Faso, Sudan, South Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, Somalia, Senegal, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Benin, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Uganda, D.R. Congo (Zaire), Rwanda, Burundi, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Angola, South Africa (Transvaal, KwaZulu-Natal), Namibia, Swaziland, Botswana, N-Madagascar, Seychelles (Aldabra), Egypt (Jbel Elba), Iran (E-Iran), Saudi Arabia (C-Saudi Arabia, NE-Saudi Arabia, NW-Saudi Arabia: Hejaz, SW-Saudi Arabia: Asir), Yemen (Aden Desert, SE-Yemen: coastal Hadhramaut, Tihama, W-Yemen), Afghanistan, Oman, Pakistan (Karachi, Sind, Baluchistan, Waziristan), India (Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu), Bangladesh as per Catalogue of Life;
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Red Spike Thorn, Maytenus • Marathi: Henkal;
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Gymnosporia emarginata is now considered an endemic species to southern India and Sri Lanka, and have relatively small leaves with usually a small notch in the leaf apex or is acute. The base of leaves are cordate and almost sessile or very short petioles.
Gymnosporia montana is closely related to Gymnosporia senegalensis but has larger and broader leaves. This grows in the southern India. Gymnosporia senegalensis is a widespread species from South Africa, whole of Africa to Pakistan and North Western India. This has usually narrower leaves. 
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Maytenus emarginata (Willd.) : Attachments (3). 12 posts by 5 authors.
There is one more tree of desert or dry area.

Botanical Name: Maytenus emarginata (Willd.)

Local Name: Kankera

A small, compact tree, 3-5 Mt. high; young branches purple, often spiny, with leaves and flowers on the spines. common in open field in semi arid area. Very hardy plant.


Thanks, …, Lovely capture!!! Trees of Delhi states Maytenus emarginata to be an invalid synonym of Maytenus senegalensis. Links for Maytenus senegalensis: (illustration with medicinal uses),  (Desc. from FOP).


But flora of indian desert by Mr. Bhandari it is Maytenus emarginata (Willd.)


This Plant Species Known as vikdo in Entire Gujarat ( kachchh) region and is highly use as the medicinal purpose in local people. mainly use in Jondis (Gujarati-Kamro).


Where was this taken? I would like to think of this as Gymnosporia senegalensis. Look at the leaves on the tip of a very long thorn.


I think it’s from Rajasthan state (desert or dry area) in the North West of India. 


Thank you very much! Then I would be happy to call this Gymnosporia senegalensis.



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Maytenus senegalensis : Attachments (2). 5 posts by 3 authors.
Maytenus senegalensis syn M.emarginata
This shrub has already been discussed earlier. Flowers are hermaphrodite. Five sepals and petals. Plant armed with thorn like branches on which leaves and flowers grow.
Will wait for study of fruits when they develope.
Has started flowering on Vetal Tekdi (29.10.09). Earlier I had to search the plant but since I have known it I could spot it at number of places on Vetal Tekdi Pune Shot today 29thOct 2009.
Very few shrubs were in full flowers; rest are having buds at present

As per GRIN, Maytenus senegalensis is a synonym of Gymnosporia senegalensis. The base name is Celastrus senegalensis.



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efloraindia: 261111 BRS201:  Pl. find the attached file conatin photos for id. request.
Location: NBNP Garden, Anaikatti, Coimbatore Dist., (640 MSL)
Date: 25.11.2011
Habitat: Garden
Habit: Tree

This is a species of Maytenus possibly M.senegalensis.


Yes Maytenus senegalensis.


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Flowering Tree for ID (29/09/2012-NSJ01): Attached herewith photos of a profusely flowering tree.
Location – Satara
The tree resembles with Ziziphus (Marathi-Bor) 
Leaves – Normal thick
Tree – 15 feet tall

Flowers – small 6- 10 mm

Time- Nov-2008

This looks like Celastraceae sp. Check for Maytenus senegalensis.


Yes it is Maytenus senegalensis
Celastraceae


 


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Celastraceae fortnight :: Maytenus senegalensis. Pune SMP2 : 1 post by 1 author. 3 images.

Maytenus senegalensis. Vetal Tekdi Pune


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ID23022014PHK1 : Attachments (3). 2 posts by 2 authors.

ID Please
A tree at Lonar sarovar,Buldhana
23 Feb,2014


Looks like Maytenus senegalensis
Celastraceae


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Elaeodendron glaucum : Attachments (7). 14 posts by 5 authors.

This one is for …
Link from Forest Flora of A.P.

Affirmative.

Certainly a great specimen of Elaeodendron glaucum from Celastraceae family !
Very nice flowers.
Serrated margins of the leaves also seen


Sorry to differ, I don’t think it is Elaeodendron (= Cassine) glaucum. For me it looks like a species of Gymnosporia (= Maytenus).

Let’s wait for experts comments.


With experts like you (we are privileged), mistakes of a layman like me can’t go unnoticed.
This appears to be Maytenus senegalensis as per earlier Indiantreepix thread:
& Forest Flora of A.P.:
Pl. confirm.

Both the plants are from family Celastraceae so the flowers are bound to be similar looking.

Were the branches terminating into flower and leaf bearing spines?
I may be wrong and open for discussion. I still feel it to be Elaeodendron glaucum.
The points in its favour.
The picture appears to be of a small tree rather than a shrub. The calyx lobes are deeply divided. We might get some opinions…..


These photos are from Elaeodendron. In Elaeodendron the ovary and disk are continuous and with the stamens arising from the top of the disk, never from the outside (much like Salacia etc.). You can see that clearly from the flower in front. In Gymnosporia the disk is separate and the stamens are from outside the disk.


In continuation with this interesting thread…………..
I again visited the area and could find some of these Maytenus senegalensis shrubs in full bloom. On rethinking the plant posted by … appears to be Maytenus (Gymnosporia) senegalensis only. The pictures I posted in the thread are of Elaeodendron glaucum plant which is also near these plants.
Attaching new pictures of Maytenus senegalensis flowers clicked 2 hrs back.
The features I observed from both.
Maytenus senegalensis : Inflorescences too many….almost full plant in most. Thorny branches but not always. Leaves comparatively smaller. Size of the plant in my observation not more than 10 feet.
Elaeodendron glaucum : Inflorescence occasional at one time(Total 3 big sized were present on full plant. Leaves comparatively larger and often folded to some extent on the midvein. Size of the plant 15 feet or more.
… has already given the very distinct differentiating feature.
Will try to observe the fruits which are characteristic in both.


What possibly I ignored most in the first instance was the white colour of my plant compared to the light green of the petals of Elaeodendron glaucum, which were also thinner compared to those of Elaeodendron glaucum.


Based on … observation, I again revisited all the threads on Maytenus senegalensis in Indiantreepix database.
My further identification as Maytenus senegalensis based on the thread is not correct (as the identification in the thread itself is now doubtful as there are no spines as also in my post):
I am also ruling out Celastrus paniculata as it’s a woody climber as per link of Forest Flora of A.P.
These are the only species of Maytenus/  Celastrus/  Gymnosporia mentioned in Forest Flora of A.P.

May Dr. Archer sort out the things now.


Sorry to come in so late. Was at a Marine Bio-diversity Camp in the Gulf of Kutch.

It is definitely not Cassine glauca [Elaeodendron glaucum]. It is a Meytenus sp.- most likely M.senegalensis.


What would you like to say of no spines seen on the branches/ tree etc. in my plant?


On some smaller shrubs spines are not always present. You have consider the larger picture.


I check all my original pictures (around 12) of two different trees, one of them a large one. I didn’t get any hint of spines in these.


Coming back with computer problems… I sent the pictures to Marie Jordaan, who is currently revising the genus Gymnosporia. She feels the name Gymnosporia montana should be applied to these. It is often that thorns are absent from tree.
As we are currently using Gymnosporia senegalensis is a African species that occur up to Pakistan and possibly in India. The other species of Gymnosporia occurring in Southern India and Sri Lanka is Gymnosporia emarginata, a species that extend to Australia.



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Plant for ID : (mixed thread)- 2 correct images.
Attached herewith photographs of a flowering tree for ID. Photo taken at Satara in November.


Calycopteris floribunda, paper-flower climber … ( झाल jhaal, उक्षी ukshi in Marathi )

in Flickr


The leaves of this specimen are unlike the leaves of Calycopteris sp. This one looks more like a Rhamnaceae member.


… flowers too !! Thanks … I think I jumped awkwardly !!!!!! Please disregard Calycopteris floribunda


It is a Cassine spp. possibly C. paniculata. Haven’t got photographs of C.paniculata but am sending you photographs of C.glauca [locally called Bhutuxia] for comparison. The photographs were taken at Shahapur.


it seems to be Henkal – Maytenus senegalensis – if it was a shrub. Flowers & leaves seem to be of henkal. What about thorns ?


for me it looks like a species of Gymnosporia (= Maytenus), most probably G. ovata.


Spent a morning with Dr.Almeida.
It’s Maytenus senegalensis. Kudos to Ketaki / Manasi for getting this right.


In view of the following reply from Dr. Archer in thread, we should now take it as Gymnosporia montana:

  “Coming back with computer problems… I sent the pictures to Marie Jordaan, who is currently revising the genus Gymnosporia. She feels the name Gymnosporia montana should be applied to these. It is often that thorns are absent from tree.
As we are currently using Gymnosporia senegalensis is a African species that occur up to Pakistan and possibly in India. The other species of Gymnosporia occurring in Southern India and Sri Lanka is Gymnosporia emarginata, a species that extend to Australia.

According to Dr.Almeida’s ‘Flora of Mahareashtra’ Vol 1, page 243 – Maytenus senegalensisis the new name for Gymnosporia montana/ Gymnosporia emarginata.


The genus Gymnosporia has been very problematic in the past and it is unfortunately very confusing. I hope somebody will put up photos of proper G. senegalensis  and G. emarginata from the North West and South India respectively.


 


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Flaucourtia montana: Attachments (5). 2 posts by 2 authors.

Flaucourtia montana
Please validate


Slip on the genus, it is Gymnosporia montana, of Celastraceae, syn of Maytenus senegalensis. Henkal in marathi.



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Meytenus emarginata (Willd) Ding. SN Feb 13 : Attachments (2). 1 post by 1 author.

Meytenus emarginata (Willd) Ding (= Gymnosporia montana (Roth ) Benth.) Fam: Celastraceae, wild shrub, south Chennai, near zoo.
Fruiting


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ANAUG50 Please identify this tree : 5 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (3).

Farmlands adjoining Bannerghatta National Park
August 2014
Bangalore


Gymnosporia wallichiana M.A.Lawson (= Maytenus wallichiana (Spreng.) D.C.S. Raju & Babu), Celastraceae


Gymnosporia montana, perhaps.


Gymnosporia montana. The plant is common in the shrub jungles of the Mysore city outskirts.



Images of tspkumar

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It is my pleasure to share few images of Gymnosporia montana (Celastraceae)

http://florakarnataka.ces.iisc.ernet.in/hjcb2/herbsheet.php?id=1075&cat=1 

Habit: Shrub 

Habitat: Scrub forests 

Sighting: Chikmagalur, Karnataka, about 900 msl 

Date: 24-11-2014, 15-12-2014, 02-02-2015, 22-02-2015 and 09-11-2015


Thank you …,

For showing the images. As per the link provided by you, this is Gymnosporia montana (Roth ex Roemer & Schultes) Benth. Do you have access to the Flora of Karnataka Volume 2 by C. J. Saldanha (1996) wherein they have treated the species of Gymnosporia under Celastrus and there is an entry for Celastrus emarginatus.  I want to know how they have treated and differentiated the species montanus and emarginatus. The confusion that has centered over the identities are certainly in need of clarification.  M. A. Lawson in The Flora of British India, vol. 1, p. 621. 1875, treated both the species as distinct entities. However, in Flora of India Volume 5, published in 2000, they have treated the genus as Maytenus, they have maintained the species M. emarginata. but to my surprise there is no mention of Maytenus montana or Gymnosporia montana at all.
I am requesting all to kindly enlighten me in this regard.

Thanks … for your feed back. I am afraid that I may not be of any help but for supplying you the field images…! Kindly do not hesitate… and seek field info…I am very much willing to go around and collect the same.


Thanks, …, If you pursue earlier discussions at Gymnosporia emarginata & Gymnosporia montana, you may get some clues.


Thanks …, The question remains to be solved, especially because the treatment for Flora of India does not cite the name ‘montana’ even as a synonym.  A thorough search preferably by an expert is necessary.


May I request … to pl. clarify in this matter, if possible.

The first point to clarify is Celastrus and Maytenus are very distinct genera from Gymnosporia. Gymnosporia always have thorns. (While it is possible to find a herbarium specimen without thorns). Maytenus is a genus endemic, ie. it occurs only in South and Central America. This has been demonstrated with several independent DNA studies and there can be no doubt about this. All the species of Maytenus in Australia and the Austalasian region (there were only one or two) have been transferred to the genus Denhamia. All the species of Maytenus in South Africa with one or two occurring to North Africa are to be transferred to new genera. Soon. There should not be any confusion about Celastrus and Maytenus in India.
Gymnosporia emarginata is now considered an endemic species to southern India and Sri Lanka, and have relatively small leaves with usually a small notch in the leaf apex or is acute. The base of leaves are cordate and almost sessile or very short petioles.
Gymnosporia montana is closely related to Gymnosporia senegalensis but has larger and broader leaves. This grows in the southern India. Gymnosporia senegalensis is a widespread species from South Africa, whole of Africa to Pakistan and North Western India. This has usually narrower leaves.
I hope this help,

I am grateful to you … for the clarification. I think now we have to change and apply the correct nomenclature for the Indian species.



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Request for ID 301108 VR : Attachments (3). 10 posts by 6 authors.

Request for plant Id


it looks like Maytenus emarginata (Willd.)

There seems to be two plants in your post, as per the order of picture arrangement
1. Maytenus heyneana
2. Canthium coromendalicum
3. Maytenus heyneana

I could say this by looking at the leaf margin. Thank you.


I am having trouble to see the locality. Unless this is from the S of India  Without flowers I would say it is Gymnosporia montana. The leaves are fairly broad and somewhat glaucous with red petiole. Gymnosporia heyneana is related to G. emarginata, also from the S of India. 

Maytenus are plants without thorns and is currently only applied to the plants of South America.


As per my knowledge, the third photo should be of Gymnosporia montana, though the leaves are emarginate at apex but they appear to be be more than 4 cm in length and clearly petiolate. G. emarginata has smaller, subsessile leaves.  … had already clarified the differences between the closely related South Indian species and that the genus Meytenus does not occur in India.



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Plant for validation :: Lonar, Buldana, MH :: ARKJAN09 : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (12)

Saw this plant flowering on the rim of the Lonar lake, Buldana MH in December 2016.
Many plants were profusely flowering. These match the images posted by Pravin ji from the same location and posted on eFI.
Please validate it as Gymnosporia senegalensis


Thanks, …,  for superb images with complete set.


maytenus emarginata


Thanks, … To me it appears more closer to Gymnosporia senegalensis (Lam.) Loes. as per images & details herein.



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Identification, please. Gymnosporia spinosa?
Date/Time- November 4, 2017; 12:23 hrs.
Location- Place, Altitude, GPS- Eastern Melghat; 21°17.483′ N, 77°22.530′ E

Habitat- Garden/ Urban/ Wild/ Type- Wild
Plant Habit- Tree/ Shrub/ Climber/ Herb-  Shrub/Tree
Height/Length- 6-7’ Height


Thanks, …, There are five different species with this name as per Catalogue of Life.

Your appears close to images and details at Gymnosporia senegalensis (Lam.) Loes. (syn. Gymnosporia senegalensis var. spinosa Engl. ex Loes.) as per comparative images at ‎Gymnosporia



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Plant from Jhalana Forest Jaipur: Attachments (1). 2 posts by 2 authors.

Plant from Jhalana Forest Jaipur

कन्कॆडा Maytenus senegalensis Celastraceae सरल पर्ण

Photo Taken on-12.11.2009


Maytenus emarginata (Willd.) Ding Hou


Some relevant extracts from Dr. Archer another thread on Gymnosporia montana: (efi thread#):

“…………………………………

As we are currently using Gymnosporia senegalensis is a African species that occur up to Pakistan and possibly in India. The other species of Gymnosporia occurring in Southern India and Sri Lanka is Gymnosporia emarginata, a species that extend to Australia. “


I am sending image of full grown tree and fruiting stage of Maytenus senegalensis. It is entirely different.


Thanks, …,
What about Gymnosporia montana as per discussion in the thread (efi thread# if it is different from Maytenus senegalensis (as the other species of Gymnosporia occurring in Southern India and Sri Lanka is Gymnosporia emarginata, a species that extend to Australia) ?


Gymnosporia senegalensis (Lam.) Loes. only as per images and details herein.



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Maytenus emarginata (Willd.) Ding Hou SN Jan35 : 6 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (3)
Maytenus emarginata (Willd.) Ding Hou, (= Gymnosporia emarginata (Willd.) Thwaites.), wild shrub from Manmad area of Nashik dt, Maharashtra


I feel it may be Gymnosporia senegalensis (Lam.) Loes. as per images herein & as per As per efi thread (Gymnosporia emarginata is now considered an endemic species to southern India and Sri Lanka, and have relatively small leaves with usually a small notch in the leaf apex or is acute. The base of leaves are cordate and almost sessile or very short petioles. Gymnosporia montana is closely related to Gymnosporia senegalensis but has larger and broader leaves. This grows in the southern India. Gymnosporia senegalensis is a widespread species from South Africa, whole of Africa to Pakistan and North Western India. This has usually narrower leaves.) 


This is unlikely to be Gymnosporia senegalensis. It is a little too far South for it. and the fruit and leaves are diagnostic enough to rule this out.
This is not G. emarginata either as it is well outside its distribution.  I am not sure which it may be. Perhaps to look out for flowers?


Yes …, You are correct


This is Gymnosporia senegalensis (Lam.) Loes. only.


.


ID please?: 3 images.

Please help me to identify tthis plant
Yesterday saw this plant at Mhatoba tekadi.
I think this may Gymnosporia senegalensis or Gymnosporia montana, but not sure, ??

Gymnosporia senegalensis (Lam.) Loes.


On Mhotaba Tekadi we have seen saplings, are these saplings of  Gymnosporia senegalensis ?
4 high resolution images.


Yes, appears so as per images and details at Gymnosporia senegalensis (Lam.) Loes.


.


Shrub for ID : Nasik : 23MAR21 : AK-05: 3 images.
Shrub seen in a field in Nasik a few days ago (23.3.21)


Is Pyracantha crenulata (D.Don) M.Roem. recorded in Maharashtra ?


This does not look like Pyracantha to me.


Pl. post high resolution of the1st image. Maybe Gymnosporia senegalensis (Lam.) Loes.


Adding the images. 3 high resolution images.


Yes, Gymnosporia senegalensis (Lam.) Loes.


,


Malhargad near Pune, MH :: Gymnosporia senegalensis for validation :: ARK2021-052: 5 images.
Saw this large shrub/tree at Malhargad near Pune in July 2021 on a small hillock.
Identified as Gymnosporia senegalensis.
Requested to please validate.


I guess ID is correct !


 


.

References for Gymnosporia montana (Roth) Benth.

Catalogue of Life  The Plant List  GRIN  

Flora of Pakistan (Maytenus senegalensis (Lam.) Exell with Catha montana (Roth) G.Don, Celastrus montanus Roth, Roem. & Schult., Celastrus senegalensis Lam., Gymnosporia montana (Roth) Benth. & Gymnosporia senegalensis (Lam.) Loes. as synonyms)  

Flora Zambesiaca (Maytenus senegalensis (Lam.) Exell with Catha montana (Roth) G. Don, Celastrus montanus Roth apud Roem. & Schult., Celastrus senegalensis Lam., Gymnosporia montana (Roth) Benth., Gymnosporia senegalensis (Lam.) Loes. etc. as syn. among others) 

Flora of Davanagere District: Karnataka, India By B. K. Manjunatha, V. Krishna, T. Pullaiah (Keys- Maytenus emarginata & rothiana & Description) (Maytenus emarginata (Willd.) Ding Hou with Celastrus emarginatus Willd., Celastrus montanus Roth, Gymnosporia montana (Roth) Bentham & Gymnosporia emarginata (Willd.) Thwaites as syn.) 

Flora of Madhya Pradesh: Chhatarpur and Damoh  By G. P. Roy, B. K. Shukla, Bhaskar Datt (Maytenus emarginata (Willd.) Ding Hou with Gymnosporia montana (Roth) Benth. as syn.)
 

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