Haplanthodes verticillatus (Roxb.) R.B.Majumdar, Bull. Bot. Soc. Bengal 25: 76 1971. (Syn: Barleria acanthophora (Roem. & Schult.) Nees; Bremekampia spinosa (Lour.) M. R. Almeida; Bremekampia verticillata (Roxb.) Sreemadh.; Eranthemum acanthophorum Roem. & Schult.; Eranthemum spinosum Lour. (ambiguous synonym); Eranthemum verticillatum (Roxb.) Spreng.; Haplanthus verticillatus (Roxb.) Nees; Justicia verticillata Roxb. (ambiguous synonym));
India (E- & peninsular India, Upper Gangetic Plains) as per Catalogue of Life;
As per efi thread:
H. verticillatus has cladodes 2.5cm or longer, stiff, very sharp pointed bifid or rarely trifid …accidental prick is very painful, stinging. Plant about a meter tall or less, stout. Flowers light to deep shade of violet.
In H. tentaculatus cladodes are up to 1.5cm, soft, hairy, tip inconspicuously bifid, non-prickly.
Three varieties can be recognised by cladodes…
In var. plumosa cladodes are covered in dense soft white hairs, inflorescence which is actually terminal part of stem and branches, looking like plume.
In var. neilgherryensis  terminal spike of cladodes and flowers is densely packed, meaning by, internodes are very small. And of course cladodes not plumose.
Var. tentaculatus  seen in suitable habitat in Surat, is having cladodes sparsely hairy, nodes widely spaced.
Cladodes are pointed upwards in Haplanthodes tentaculatus (Nees) Majumdar or its two other varieties, while these are pointed either straight or downwards in Haplanthodes verticillatus (Roxb.) R.B.Majumdar  
Spiny Bottle Brush • Hindi: Kastula • Marathi: झंकारा Jhankara, Kateri; 


Haplanthus verticillaris Nees:
Attached here – Haplanthus verticillaris Nees
Small Herb.
Location: Duke’s Nose, Khandala.


Spiny Bottle-brush Fruiting:
Was at my farm at Shahapur on Sunday. Haplanthodes verticillatus was fruiting. Sending a few photographs – the first 2 are from a previous year.

Haplanthodes verticillatus: Haplanthodes verticillatus
Observed in Karnala forest 6Feb 2011
Cladodes more than 2cm long
Pl. validate.

… yes .., Haplanthodes verticillatusthe leaves have two spinous teeth at the tip … the Spiny Bottle
<http://www.flowersofindia.Spiny%20Bottle%20Brush.html> at Flowers of India.

Agree with …. My photographs of this plant are available at this link:

Spiny Bottle Brush” .. which literature code this name.. Please inform..

… this is a name coined to suit the nature of the plant … alludes to the general appearance and form of the crowded leaves occurring in whorls at the plant top … the leaves have two spinous teeth at the tip and are covered with long spreading hair.

Bottle brush look altogether different structure from this one… Just wanted to know from where this common name is taken..

There is an adjective spiny added to bottle brush, thus spiny bottle brush, … certainly different from the popularly known bottle brush. This common name is coined by Flowers of India, otherwise this plant would have no name to know with.
Most of the endemic plants of Konkan are not known by any name … perhaps because the regional folks have not found (or discovered) any good use.
For this particular plant, the botanical names themselves are unresolved for some reason(s).

Haplanthodes verticillatus (Roxb.) R. B. Majumdar
[image: Haplanthodes verticillatus] <http://www.flickr.com/photos/dinesh_valke/5363645471/>
[image: Flowers of India] http://www.flowersofindia.Spiny%20Bottle%20Brush.html

[image: Discussions at efloraofindia] <https://groups.google.com/indiantreepix/Hapl…>
[image: more views on Google Earth] <http://api.flickr.com/services/&tags=Haplanthodesvert…>
commonly known as: spiny bottle brush • Hindi: kastula • Marathi: जकारा jakara 
botanical names: Haplanthodes verticillatus (Roxb.) R.B.Majumdar … synonyms: Bremekampia verticillata (Roxb.) Sreem. • Haplanthus verticillatus (Roxb.) Nees • Justicia verticillata Roxb. (basionym)
note: most of the names are unresolved; an erroneous name Haplanthodes verticillata is also found on internet

Who says its scientific name is unresolved…
making new common name or local name is always confusing.. i dont go with such concept ..

    none of flora work ask to make new common name.. if there are some can be reported… because its always benefecial for the local people to know about the plants…
There are many new common name made purposely instead of plant having some or the other common name…
There are many examples… will not quote them… as it will hurt to many of photographer on the site itself..

There is name Kala-ankara or Kala-kiraita for Haplanthodes

Apologies for not putting references in earlier post.
At The Plants List:
1) Haplanthodes verticillatus (Roxb.) R.B.Majumdar is an unresolved name
2) Bremekampia verticillata (Roxb.) Sreem. is an unresolved name …
It is alright if one does not agree to the concept of making new name for a nameless plant. Floras do not restrict giving new names to plants for common parlance.
Indeed there is a name kala kirayaat put in C P Khare’s Indian Medicinal Plants for Haplanthus verticillatus (Roxb). Nees Many thanks .. for pointing to this name.
… this name also shared by Haplanthus tentaculatus Nees.

Acanthaceae week: Haplanthodes verticillatus: Haplanthodes verticillatus
[image: Haplanthodes verticillatus] <http://www.flickr.com/photos/dinesh_valke/5363645471/>
[image: Discussions at efloraofindia] <https://groups.google.com/indiantreepix/Hapl…>
[image: more views on Google Earth] <http://api.flickr.com/india/&tags=Haplanthodesvert…>
commonly known as: spiny bottle brush • Hindi: kastula • Marathi: जकारा jakara 
botanical names: Haplanthodes verticillatus (Roxb.) R.B.Majumdar … synonyms: Bremekampia verticillata (Roxb.) Sreem. • Haplanthus verticillatus (Roxb.) Nees • Justicia verticillata Roxb. (basionym)

Acanthaceae Week : Spiny Bottle Brush Haplanthodes verticillatus Acanthaceae
Note the leaves have two spinous teeth at the tip
Sinhagad, Pune, Maharashtra,
Native, Herb
Habitat: Hill slopes,
Flower – 2-3cms

05 Feb 2011


identification no060211sn1:
plant habit:herb possibly
height: tiny
other info:along the stream

To me the posted plant looks like Haplanthodes verticillatus.
My belief: corolla of H. tentaculata is (off-) white with shades of pale to dark brown in the centre.
Will stand corrected.


Haplanthodes verticillata:
Haplanthodes verticillata
Marathi name: Jakara
At Kalasubai, Maharashtra


haplanthodes verticillatus : Attachments (3). 3 posts by 3 authors.
haplanthodes verticillatus, this sunday (last week of Feb.’13) karnala

This is really very beautiful …


identification no 200514sn1 :  4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (3).

Your help for Id. Haplanthodes verticillata?

date/time: jan13
location : ambyvalley rd., lonavala, pune
habitat: wild
plant habit: herb
height: about 2-3 ft.

Yes … it is Haplanthodes verticillata

Haplanthodes verticillatus (Roxb.) R.B.Majumdar 


Acanthaceae Fortnight::Haplanthodes verticillatus::NSJ-MAR 27 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)
Haplanthodes verticillatus (MarathiJhankara), Spiny Bottle Brush 


Acanthaceae Fortnight :: Haplanthodes verticillatus :: near Koraigad :: DVMAR48/59 : 1 post by 1 author. 2 images.
Haplanthodes verticillatus (Roxb.) R.B.Majumdar
at Koraigad on January 16, 2011 

Acanthaceae Fortnight :: Haplanthodes verticillatus :: Rajgad :: ARKMAR-06/18 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (3)
Attached are pictures of Haplanthodes verticillatus captured at Rajgad in December 2014.
Requested to validate the ID. 

Acanthaceae Fortnight ::Haplanthodes verticillatus ?? :: Vasota Fort :: PKA-MAR37/37 : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)
Could this be Haplanthodes verticillatus ??.

Yes …, Haplanthodes verticillatus, no doubts.

Haplanthodes verticillatus : For Validation : Way to Nasik : 05DEC16 : AK-14 : 5 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (2)
Seen growing wild on 16th Nov.
Experts kindly validate.

Affirmative. This is Haplanthodes vericillatus. Please check these links

Thanks a lot for validation. I was seeing this plant for the first time.

Thanks, …, But I think it should be Haplanthodes plumosa (T.Anderson) Panigrahi & G.C.Das as per comparative images at Haplanthodes

I think it matches with images at Haplanthodes verticillatus (Roxb.) R.B.Majumdar

First image, I think closer to images at Haplanthodes plumosa (T.Anderson) Panigrahi & G.C.Das
2nd one is some Asteraceae member.

first images is Haplanthodes verticallatus. second image may beof some Blumea apecies.
may i kindly Request you to upload one species per post for identification. individual post  help us to maintain the identification trail.

To me as per comparative images at Haplanthodes, images of Haplanthodes verticillatus (Roxb.) R.B.Majumdar look different.
Pl. have a re-look.

i observed the four images at our page Haplanthodes verticillatus (Roxb.) R.B.Majumdar
according to me the the first two and last images on our page is of Haplanthodes plumosa. only the third image is of Haplanthodes verticallatus. I have observe both the species at SGNP, Borivali
others may please put some light on this.

Thanks, …. I agree with you that it is Haplanthodes verticillatus (Roxb.) R.B.Majumdar as per images herein.

at karnala in December 2008; Mhow, Indore, Madhya Pradesh- Jan’10?;  Haplanthodes sp? 020410-PKA1 – Part 2 – efloraofindia | Google Groups

Mhow, Indore, Madhya Pradesh
Request for Species Id 03022010 DKV 1
Photographs clicked in the Mhow cemetry while clicking old British
graves. The first pic has a ball pen lying near the plant to help gauge relative size.

… the spiny bottle brush, Haplanthodes verticillatushttp://www.flowersofindia.Spiny%20Bottle%20Brush.html

Remember to photograph it, when next time you go to SGNP or Karnala.

I do have some in my photostream at http://www.flickr.com/search/neilgherryensis&m=text

This link from Flowersofindia says Haplanthodes neilgherryensis may actually be of Haplanthodes tentaculatus (Haplanthodes neilgherryensis could be an outdated name of Haplanthodes tentaculatus): http://www.flowersofindia.net/misc/errata.html
Further links for Haplanthodes neilgherryensis Tentacled Haplanthodes, Niligiri HaplanthodesMarathi: निळा जकारा nila jakaraKonkani: वाढलें कालें किरायतें vhadlem kalem kiraytem): http://www.flowersofindia.TentacledHaplanthodes.html (flowersofindia link with desc.), http://www.flickr.com/photos/dinesh_valke/2059695119/ (with some ver. names),


Is … photograph shot at Karnala, Haplanthodes verticillataus or Haplanthodes neilgheryensis ??? What are the major, easy to recognize differences ???
The attached pic was shot at karnala in December 2008 (not a very good one though…) and I identified it to be Haplanthodes verticillatus.
Please confirm if i.d is correct?

Yes, i shot it at karnala just ten days back on the fort trail.

I am unable to differentiate between both of them, can Dinesh put some light on matter?


… will attempt to put a couple of visual differences that I perceive:
Bloom colour:
H. neilgherryensis:
cream (dull white with tone of blue), chocolate striated
H. verticillatus:
brillant blue, with the throat having colours blending from white – yellowish green – purple to the brilant blue on the lobes; fine purplish red venation gets pronounced when the flower is on the verge of loosing its glory.

¡¡ Tentacles !!
H. neilgherryensis:
the “tentacles” are branches (stem), hairy … along with hairy creatures camouflaged
note that “tentacles” are curved towards the central stout stem, and each may further show branching.
H. verticillatus:

the “tentacles” are hairy leaves, and they bear a pair of spines at end (see them on your macro)
these “tentacles” look reflexed … curved towards ground
the whole look reminds bottle brush.
H. neilgherryensis is not much discussed on web … and it could be synonym of H. tentaculatus.

Other recipients:
Haplanthodes verticillatus (Roxb.) R.B.Majumdar as per images herein.

Haplanthodes verticillatus :: Yeoor Hills, part of SGNP :: 29 DEC 19 : 3 posts by 2 authors. 6 images.
Yeoor Hills  … part of Sanjay Gandhi National Park
Date: December 29, 2019 … Altitude range: about 100 ft (30 m) to 1575 ft (480 m) asl
Haplanthodes verticillatus  (Roxb.) R.B.Majumdar


Tamil name of Haplanthodes verticillata (Roxb.) R.B.Majumdar:
Please help me with the Tamil name ottu mudi kurinji of Haplanthodes verticillata (Roxb.) R.B.Majumdar
Ref: Flowering Plants of Tamil Nadu: A Compendium
My incomplete attempt: ஒட்டு mudi குறிஞ்சி

The Tamil name is ஒட்டு முடி குறிஞ்சி (“mudi” refers to the trichomes, or hairs, of the plant)


Names of Plants in India :: Haplanthodes verticillata (Roxb.) R.B.Majumdar: 1 image.
Haplanthodes verticillata (Roxb.) R.B.Majumdar

¿ hap-LANTH-oh-deez ? — Greek: haplos (single); anthos (flower)
ver-ti-si-LAH-tuh — referring to a whorl … Dave’s Botanary

commonly known as: spiny bottle brush • Gujarati: કાળું કરિયાતું kalu kariyatu • Hindi: काला किरियात kala kiriyat, कस्तुला kastula • Konkani: काळें किरायतें kalem kiraytem • Marathi: जकारा jakara • Tamil: ஒட்டு முடி குறிஞ்சி ottu mudi kurinji

botanical namesHaplanthodes verticillata (Roxb.) R.B.Majumdar … homotypic synonymsBremekampia verticillata (Roxb.) Sreem. • Eranthemum verticillatum (Roxb.) Spreng. • Justicia verticillata Roxb. … heterotypic synonymsDianthera verticillaris (Nees) Stehlé & M.Stehlé • Haplanthus verticillaris Nees … POWO … and, Haplanthus verticillatus (Roxb.) Duthie … Botanical Survey of India

distribution in India: Assam, Bihar, Goa, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, endemic to India … Botanical Survey of India

Bibliography / etymology

~~~~~ ENGLISH ~~~~~
spiny bottle brush
  • name coined by Flowers of India; the spike of spiny cladodes alluding to a bottle-brush
~~~~~ ASSAMESE ~~~~~
no given name / no name found
~~~~~ BENGALI ~~~~~
no given name / no name found
~~~~~ GUJARATI ~~~~~
કાળું કરિયાતું kalu kariyatu
~~~~~ HINDI ~~~~~
काला किरियात kala kiriyat, कस्तुला kastula
~~~~~ KANNADA ~~~~~
no given name / no name found
~~~~~ KONKANI ~~~~~
काळें किरायतें kalem kiraytem
  • Enumeration of plants from Gomantak India with a note on botanical excursions to the Castlerock area by V D Vartak
  • काळें kalem = black; किरायतें kiraytem = generic name given to small medicinal herbs
~~~~~ MALAYALAM ~~~~~
no given name / no name found
~~~~~ MARATHI ~~~~~
जकारा jakara
~~~~~ ODIA ~~~~~
no given name / no name found
~~~~~ RAJASTHANI ~~~~~
no given name / no name found
~~~~~ TAMIL ~~~~~
ஒட்டு முடி குறிஞ்சி ottu mudi kurinji
~~~~~ TELUGU ~~~~~
no given name / no name found
~~~~~ x ~~~~~



Flora of Eastern Karnataka, Volume 2 By N. P. Singh (1988- Details)