Ixora brachiata Roxb., Fl. Ind. 1: 381 1820. (Syn: Ixora arnottiana Miq. ex Hook.f.; Ixora obtusata Miq. ex Hook.f.);
W. India as per WCSP;.
commonly known as: torchwood ixora • Gujarati: ગરબલે garbale • Konkani: कुरटी kurati • Marathi: गोरबाळे gorbale, खुरी khuri, लोखंडी lokhandi, रायकुरा raikura • Telugu: కొరివి korivi ;
Endemic to: Western Ghats (India)
iks-OR-uh — named after Iswara Malabar deity
brak-ee-AY-tuh — branched at right angles, arm-like
From my records – flowering generally occurs between Jan. to March & fruiting lasts from Feb. to April; spreading its delightful though gentle perfume;
After deeply studying all posts in efi site along with Biotik and Pitchandikulam, I found the following key differences to separate the two based on photographs:
Most important is buds are globose in Ixora brachiata and not so in Ixora pavetta.
Leaf base is attenuate to cuneate or acute, in Ixora brachiata and rounded in Ixora pavetta.
Leaf apex is obtuse to subacute in Ixora brachiata and is acute to apiculate in Ixora pavetta.
Fruits are reddish when ripe in Ixora brachiata and black-coloured when ripe in Ixora pavetta.
Ixora brachiata is endemic to Western Ghats while Ixora pavetta is native to India, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh and is also cultivated.


Rubiaceae Week :: Ixora brachiata in Matheran Hills:
Bot. name:Ixora brachiata
Family: Rubiaceae
Date/Time: 19-02-2011 / 10:30AM
Location: Matheran Hills
Habitat: Wild
Plant habit: Tree


Ixora brachiata flowering:
… had recently posted photographs of this. Mine are also flowering. Sending a few photographs.

I was observing (flowering) it from Nov-Jan, but no more now..when were these clicked?

These photographs were taken on 26th Jan.’12. From my records – flowering generally occurs between Jan. to March & fruiting lasts from Feb. to April.
This year first noticed the tree in bud on 15th Jan.[Photographs 1 & 2]. The latest photographs were taken on 29th Jan.[Photographs 3 to 6].


Ixora brachiata – Matheran : 1 image. 1 post by 1 author.
Ixora brachiata of Rubiaceae family
Matheran, Maharashtra
March, 13


Ixora brachiata : Confirm ID : Lalbagh,Bangalore : 010713 : AK-1 : Attachments (2). 2 posts by 1 author.
Pictures taken at Lalbagh, Bangalore on 18/3/2013.
Kindly confirm if Ixora brachiata.

Yes it is

Ixora brachiata—-for sharing : Attachments (1)
Pic taken at Aambyvalley rd., Lonavala, Pune in Feb.15


Requesting to please ID this medium sized tree captured near Devgad, Konkan coast, Maharashtra in May 2015.
I was on the lookout for a flower/s called ‘kara’ in Marathi, white in colour and having a very nice fragrance which can be identified even from a great distance. My mother was very fond of these flower/s (she is vague in remembering whether it was a single flower or a bunch of small flowers) when she was a child and stayed in her village in coastal Konkan. But she has not seen it in many years since.
I had been to my native place this summer and was shown what might be thought the ‘kara’ tree. The flowering was over. I could only get the leaves. The tree is currently completely surrounded by the Peepal.
Any idea on the ID?

looks like Morinda Sp…..

to me it looks like it could be Ixora pavetta or else Ixora brachiata – one of the two. Both have highly fragrant small white flowers which you can smell from a long distance. Can your mother remember the month of flowering?

Thank you … for the possible IDs…
My mother faintly recollects that this may be flowering after the rains, probably in November-December…
Does this help?

Ixora brachiata often flowers in December, and I. pavetta mostly blooms in early hot season.

That is the reason I asked.
It is difficult to be certain with the available photos.
You will need to return!

Thanks … I will try to get photographs of the flowers….I will keep in contact with some people there….


Attached are some more pics. Attachments (4)
The flowers were clicked in Jan 2016 (by my friend) and the fruits in March 2016.
Requested to validate that it is indeed Ixora bracheata.

Ixora brachiata, Rubiaceae

Attaching the flowering pics of the same tree.
These were clicked in the last week of December 2020.
4 images.

Ixora sp,

Yes …, this is identified as I. brachiata.



id plz: mixed thread: 1 correct image as above.

type; wild
flowers; fragrant
habit; shrub to medicum size
habitat; kanakumbi forest area near belgaum karnataka

Ixora brachiata Rubiaceae 🙂


Plz id this tree: pa51 – 12dec2012:
Plz id this tree from Yeoor region. It is flowering right now and photo are attached.

This is Lokhandi [Ixora brachiata].

iks-OR-uh — named after Iswara Malabar deity
brak-ee-AY-tuh — branched at right angles, arm-like
Dec 15, 2008 … at Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary, Maharashtra
commonly known as: torchwood ixora • Gujarati: ગરબલે garbale • Konkani: कुरटी kurati • Marathi: गोरबाळे gorbale, खुरी khuri, लोखंडी lokhandi, रायकुरा raikura • Telugu: కొరివి korivi
Endemic to: Western Ghats (India)
References: Flowers of IndiaForest Flora of Andhra Pradesh
more views: Dec 15, 2008 … at Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary, Maharashtra
Feb 7, 2009 … at Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary, Maharashtra

Nice Ixora … never seen here in our area (Panipat). Is this a small size tree.

Ixora brachiata at Kali Tiger Reserve : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (4)
Ixora brachiata Tree at Kali Tiger Reserve.
Family: Rubiaceae


ID Kannur 02/19 : 3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (1)
Please identify this small tree from Kannur District of Kerala photographed on 15/3/19

Ixora brachiata

Ixora ¿ pavetta / brachiata ? :  Attachments (4). 3 posts by 3 authors.
Place: Karnala Bird Sanctuary
Date: 29 DEC 09
Small tree with trunk almost a foot in diameter.
Many such trees growing next to each other in heart of forest … profuse flowering now .. a single flower could be mildly fragrant … however, the fragrance was strong and pervaded the air for few metres around the cluster of trees.
The local guiding me said the name of this plant as lokhandi (Marathi: लोखंडी) … in literature we find this common name applied for both Ixora plants and the creeper Ventilago maderaspatana.
Literal meaning – ironwood, (wood to be of dense nature).
Other common names are not known to the local folks at Karnala / Tungar Hills.
I. pavetta: गोरवीकटगी goravikatagi, माकडी maakadi, रायकुरा raikura
I. brachiata: गोरबाळे gorbale, खुरी khuri, रायकुरा raikura
Shrikant ji’s book, Further Flowers of Sahyadri illustrates I. pavetta (synonyms: I. arborea, I. parviflora).
In the chapter Allied Species, I. brachiata is described to have about 5 mm of corolla tube, while I. pavetta has 12 mm.
My memory is faint on this aspect, yet can recollect the tube to be more than 5 mm.
My queries:
– are both these species distributed in the northern Western Ghats (like these area: Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary, Sanjay Gandhi National Park, Karnala Bird Sanctuary) ?
– any clear differences easy for eye … especially in leaves, flowers and fruits ?
– any additional information regarding similarities and differences ?

I too had come across similar trees on the way to Rajmachi Fort from Lonavala during my visit in Dec-08. I too had seen many such trees with profuse flowering & as indicated by you, the fragrance was strong and pervaded the air for few metres around the cluster of trees. Locals told me that they call it Lokhandi. Subsequently it was identified as Ixora brachiata.

I. brachiata is relatively a smaller tree, less common, with a smaller inflorescence and a laxly flowering plant. Corolla tube (shorter) is the distintive character with I. pavetta. Buds globose and ellipsoid is another difference. Resemblance of inflorescence of the latter with Pavetta is obvious. Your plant is I. pavetta. I shall post the pics of I. brachiata separately.

I think it should be Ixora brachiata as per keys, details and images herein and as per discussions at Differences- Ixora pavetta and Ixora brachiata

near Mahape, Navi Mumbai Maharastra on 6th April 2008; at Karnala Bird Sanctuary, Maharashtra- Dec.’08?; at amboli hills in january’09?; in Jan ’10- Shahapur; Kanakeshwar, Alibag MS: 10 Mar,2010  5.00 pm; at Sagargad; 27-01-2010 / 07:00 AM- Gothane , Above Marleshwar, 3000 ft;
help to id this this plant plzzz – indiantreepix | Google Groups


Olea dioica—validation please : 5 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (4)
i need your confirmation of the validity of the name suggested. Initially I thought it was correct but after I uploaded to Flickr
ecosystem/flora/Parjamb(Olea dioica)??
and enlarged it i am doubtful. I have attached the photos of leaves

Ixora brachiata

Yes from me also. Check this link:

Thanks … Noted.

ANAPR33 Please identify this tree : 5 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (8)
Family: Rubiaceae
Date: March 2015
Place: Aralam WLS, Kerala
Habit: Tree (up to 20m tall)
Habitat: Evergreen forest

Psychotria sp. ??

Thanks, …, for suggesting Psychotria, but I could not find a match with existing species herein as per comparative images.

Ixora brachiate


id. please :

your help to identify this plant.
location:Aambyvalley Rd.,Off Lonavala,Pune
date:April 19
habit:looks to be climber to me

Seems its tree only, Check with Ixora sp.

If so than it must be Ixora brachiata which I have recorded here.

Yes, You’re right …


268 ID tree Tarenna/Pavetta/Ixora: 9 high res. images.
Please ID tree infront of a house, blooming once in a year, with an image of a visitor,
Location: near Vannappuram Thodupuzha Idukki Dist. Kerala PIN:685607
Altitude: 1500fsl
Flower date: 11.02.2022, 04.10pm
Habitat: moisture, house garden
Plant habit: tree, erect, branches, hard woody flaked stem 30 inches base circumference, long lasting
Height: 06 meters
Leaves: opposite, ovate, oblong, apex, glossy, size:14×7cm or less
Flower: pyramidal inflorescence clustered, diameter: 02mm, white, good fragrance
Camera: CANON EOS1500D

Check Ixora brachiata

Yes, it is Ixora brachiata, dear …, thank you very much for ID my plant,


Ixora species for identification: 4 images.

Please help me identify this beautiful tree.
I met this tree at Karnala forest.
Which species is this Ixora pavetta or Ixora brachiata?
Habitat- Wild
Tree height- 15 Feet
Location- Karnala forest, Raigadh

Pl. check Keys at

Looks like Ixora brachiata only.


identification no070712sn2:

plant habit:Tree?
height:6-7 ft.about
other info: I think I saw reddish-black fruits later though I cant be sure

Species of Ixora.
Please check Ixora arborea

This appears to be Ixora brachiata commonly called lokhandi in Marathi.

Ixora brachiata is also a possible id

yes ixora bracteata

is Ixora bracteata and Ixora brachiata the same?

Yes, appears to be Ixora brachiata Roxb.



ID confirmation required Litsea josephii ?:
Photographed at Matheran (last week) and two weeks ago at Bhimashankar WLS.

It looks like Ixora arborea (Rubiaceae) to me.

I guess Ixora brachiata..

Ixora bracteata

Thanks sir..it clears the confusion now….


XORA BRACHIATA : Attachments (3). 3 posts by 3 authors.

Seems to be I. brachiata ? or I. arborea?


Ixora brachiata on trek to Matheran: 12 images- 6 high res.
On trek to Matheran (around 2500 ft.) from foothills, Maharashtra on 4.2.23.
Seen only at one point on the way at around 700 ft. 


Ixora brachiata Roxb. :: Matheran :: May 22, 2023: 4 images.
Ixora brachiata Roxb.
Matheran, Raigad, Maharashtra :: May 22, 2023 :: about 800 m (2,625 feet) asl


Ixora brachiata Roxb. :: Matheran :: Apr 1, 2023 · JUN23 DV226: 3 images.

Ixora brachiata Roxb.
Matheran :: Apr 1, 2023 · 2:41 PM IST :: about 800 m (2,625 ft) asl
Many thanks to Radha Veach for validating the ID at iNaturalist


Ixora brachiata Roxb. :: Shirgaon, Palghar :: Feb 26, 2023 · JUN23 DV391: 4 images.

Ixora brachiata Roxb.
Shirgaon, Palghar :: Feb 26, 2023 · 3:04 PM IST :: about 14 m (46 ft) asl
Many thanks to Radha Veach, Shiwalee Samant and Bharat Godambe for validating the ID at iNaturalist


Ixora brachiata Roxb. :: Shirgaon, Palghar :: Feb 26, 2023 · JUN23 DV393: 5 images.

Ixora brachiata Roxb.
Shirgaon, Palghar :: Feb 26, 2023 · 2:53 PM IST :: about 14 m (46 ft) asl
Many thanks to Shiwalee Samant for validating the ID at iNaturalist




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