Keys in Flora of Peninsular India


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Limnophila aquatica (Roxb.) Alston (Sri Lanka, India, Bangladesh as per Catalogue of life)


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Limnophila aromatica (Lam.) Merr. (China (Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Jiangxi), Taiwan, India, Bhutan, Darjeeling, Japan (Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu), Ryukyu Isl., South Korea, Laos, Philippines (Luzon, Polillo, Busuanga, Mindanao), Palawan, Vietnam, Australia (Northern Territory, Queensland), Java, peninsular Malaysia (Perak, Melaka), Palau Isl. (Babeldaob, Koror), Myanmar [Burma] (Bago, Kachin, Yangon), Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Singapore (I) as per Catalogue of Life)

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Limnophila chinensis (Osbeck) Merr. (Australia (Western Australia, Northern Territory, Queensland), peninsular Malaysia (Perak, Melaka), China (Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Yunnan), Cambodia, India, Darjeeling, Sikkim, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam, Andamans (South Andamans), Nicobars (Central Nicobars), Sri Lanka, Nepal, Philippines (Mindanao), Bangladesh as per Catalogue of Life)

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Limnophila heterophylla (Roxb.) Benth. (China (Anhui, Guangdong, Jiangxi), Taiwan, Cambodia, India, Pakistan, Myanmar [Burma] (Shan), Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam, peninsular Malaysia (Perlis, Langkawi Isl., Melaka), Borneo, Philippines, Bangladesh, Sudan (I) as per Catalogue of Life)


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Limnophila indica (L.) Druce (South Africa (?Limpopo), Namibia, Botswana, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Mali, Senegal, Gabon, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Angola, Malawi, South Sudan, Madagascar, peninsular Malaysia (once from Kedah), China (Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Yunnan), Taiwan, South Korea, Japan (Honshu), Cambodia, India, Darjeeling, Sikkim, Laos, Nepal, Pakistan (Sind, Baluchistan, Pakistani Punjab), Thailand, Vietnam, Java, Southern Marianas (Guam), Iraq (SE-Iraq: Mesopotamia), Myanmar [Burma] (Bago, Yangon), Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Philippines (Luzon, Leyte, Mindanao), USA (I) (Florida (I)) as per Catalogue of Life)

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Limnophila repens (Benth.) Benth. (China (Guangxi, Hainan), Bhutan, Darjeeling, Cambodia, India, Laos, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam, peninsular Malaysia (Penang Isl.), Myanmar [Burma] (Taninthayi, Yangon), Philippines, Bangladesh as per Catalogue of life)

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Limnophila rugosa (Roth) Merr. (China (Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hunan, Yunnan), Taiwan, Bhutan, India, Darjeeling, Laos, Myanmar [Burma], Nepal, Philippines (Luzon, Panay, Negros, Mindanao), Palawan, Thailand, Vietnam, Java, Ryukyu Isl., Fiji, Western Samoa, peninsular Malaysia (Langkawi Isl., Perak), Sri Lanka, New Guinea, Malesia, Bangladesh as per Catalogue of Life)

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Image by D S Rawat


Limnophila sessiliflora (Vahl) Blume (Java, Bhutan, India, Darjeeling, Java, peninsular Malaysia (Langkawi Isl.), Singapore (I), Myanmar [Burma] (Shan), Nepal, Sikkim, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, Bangladesh, China (Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hebei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Liaoning, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang), Taiwan, Japan (Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu), Ryukyu Isl., North Korea, South Korea, Southern Marianas (Guam), USA (I) (Florida (I), Georgia (I), Texas (I)), Bolivia (I), Slovakia (I) as per Catalogue of Life)

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From Floral Database of Tamilnadu :

Binomial Habit Notes References Distribution
Limnophila
aromatica
(Lam.) Merr.
Herb Plains, Marsh
Localities
Flora of Tamil
Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Matthew 1970
Coimbatore,
Kanniyakumari, Theni, Tirunelveli
Limnophila chinensis (Osbeck) Merr. Herb Plains,
Marsh Localities
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Coimbatore,
Salem
Limnophila connata (Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don)
Handb.-Mazz.
Herb Plains,
Marsh Localities
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Dindigul,
Nilgiri
Limnophila heterophylla (Roxb.) Benth. Herb Plains,
Marsh Localities
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Tirunelveli
Limnophila indica (L.) Druce Herb Plains,
Marsh Localities
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
All
districts
Limnophila polystachya Benth. Herb Plains,
Marsh Localities
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Cuddalore,  Kancheepuram, Nilgiri, Thanjavur,
Thiruvallur, Tiruchchirappalli,
Viluppuram
Limnophila repens (Benth.) Benth. Herb Plains,
Marsh Localities
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Coimbatore
Limnophila rugosa (Roth) Merr. Herb Plains
to Mid Altitude, Marsh Localities
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Matthew 1983
Dharmapuri,
Salem, Tiruchchirappalli


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Species with description & pictures in Flowers of India as on 18.4.15:

Botanical name Synonyms Family Common name
Limnophila indica Hottonia indica, Limnophila gratioloides Scrophulariaceae Indian Marshweed
Limnophila repens Stemodia repens Scrophulariaceae Creeping Marshweed

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Limnophila chinensis (Osb.) Merr. (Nepal, E. & S. India, Ceylon, Burma, east to S. China, Malaysia, N. Australia)
Limnophila connata (Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don) Hand.-Mazz. (Himalaya (Almora to Nepal), India, Burma, Thailand, W. & C. China)
Limnophila heterophylla (Roxb.) Benth. (Nepal, India, Ceylon, Burma, east to S. China, Taiwan, Malaysia)
Limnophila indica (L.) Druce (Africa, W. Asia, Himalaya, India, east to S. China and Japan, Malaysia, N. Australia)
Limnophila repens (Benth.) Benth. (Tropical Himalaya, India, Burma, east to S. China, Malaysia)
Limnophila rugosa (Roth) Merr. (Himalaya (Punjab to Sikkim), India, Burma, east to W. & S. China, Taiwan, Malaysia, Polynesia)
Limnophila sessiliflora Blume (Himalaya (Nepal to Bhutan), India, east to China, Korea and Japan, Malaysia)

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Limnophila aromatica (Lamarck) Merrill [Bhutan, India (Darjeeling), Indonesia (Java), Japan, Korea, Laos, Philippines, Vietnam; Australia].
Limnophila chinensis (Osbeck) Merrill [Cambodia, India (Darjeeling), Indonesia, Laos, W Malaysia, Sikkim, Thailand, Vietnam; Australia].
Limnophila connata (Buchanan-Hamilton ex D. Don) Handel-Mazzetti [India, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand, Vietnam].
Limnophila heterophylla (Roxburgh) Bentham [Cambodia, India, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam].
Limnophila indica (Linnaeus) Druce  [Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, Sikkim, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam; Africa, SW Asia, Australia, Oceania].
Limnophila repens (Bentham) Bentham in A. de Candolle [Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam; Australia].
Limnophila rugosa (Roth) Merrill  [Bhutan, India, Indonesia, Japan (Ryukyu Islands), Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Sikkim, Thailand, Vietnam; Pacific Islands].
Limnophila sessiliflora (Vahl) Blume [Bhutan, India, Indonesia (Java), Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Sikkim, Sri Lanka, Vietnam].

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Scrophulariaceae of the Western Himalayas By Francis . Pennell (1943- Description & Keys)-


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Limnophila indica (syn. Limnophila racemosa Benth.)
Limnophila pulcherrima Hook.f. (syn. Limnophila diffusa Benth.)
Limnophila repens (syn. Limnophila conferta Benth.)

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An Excursion Flora of Central Tamilnadu, India By K. M. Matthew (1995)- Details with keys-

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Encyclopaedia of World Medicinal Plants, Volume 1 By T. Pullaiah (2006)- Details-
Limnophila indica (syn. Limnophila racemosa Benth.)
Limnophila rugosa

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trying to sort Limnophila: I have copied the Limnophila entries from “Bengal Plants” (Bengal Plants. ii. 762 onward) and added possible relevant links found in eFlora & The Plant List sites.
  • Leaves with nerves pinnate, arching from midrib; no whorls of pinnatifid or multifid leaves —- Sec-I.
  • Leaves with 3-5 nerves running from base to apex, or lower leaves whorled, pinnatifid or multifid; fruting calyx not striate —- Sec-II.
Sec-I. Leaves with nerves pinnate, arching from midrib; no whorls of pinnatifid or multifid leaves
 
A. Calyx-lobes not striate in fruit :-
(i) leaves opposite, petioled, elliptic or ovate, obtuse or subacute, crenualte; nerves prominent; flowers sessile, axillary in peduncled heads, rarely solitary; calyx-lobes lanceolate, finely acuminate ……. roxburghii
(ii) leaves 4-nately whorled, half-stem clasping, linear serrulate; nerves obscure; flowers very many. shortly pedicelled, small, in panicled, terminal corymbs; calyx-lobes subulate ……. polyantha
B. Calyx-lobes striate in fruit :-
[1] leaves petioled, elliptic, ovate or oblong-lanceolate, subacute, all opposite; flowers sessile or, rarely pedicelled; calyx hirsute ………. diffusa (syn. of Limnophila pulcherrima Hook.f.)
[2] leaves sessile or rarely (in L. conferta sometimes) sub-petioled :-
{a} flowers sessile; leaves all opposite; calyx glabrous or nearly so :-
(i) leaves oblong or elliptic-oblong, obtuse, crenate-serrate; erect or diffuse herb; flowers .25 in. long; calyx-lobes lanceolate-acuminate ……………. conferta (Syn. of Limnophila repens)
(ii) leaves linear, entire or sub-serrate, always sessile; small herbs; flowers .12 in. long; calyx-lobes subulate …… micrantha
{b} flowers pedicelled :-
(i) leaves elliptic-oblong, subcrenate, obtuse, always opposite; flowers always axillary, solitary; calyx hirsute; lobes subulate; pedicels shorter than calyx ……………………. pulcherrima
(ii) leaves linear-oblong, serrulate, subacute, often 3-4-nately whorled; flowers in axillary or terminal, many flowered racemes at end of stems, rarely solitary; calyx-lobes lanceolate-acuminate; pedicel usually longer than calyx :-
(iia) calyx glabrate; capsule oblong ……….. gratissima (Syn. of Limnophila aromatica (Lam.) Merr.)
(iib) calyx hirsute, rarely glabrous; capsule sub-orbicular ……… hirsuta (syn. of Limnophila chinensis (Osbeck) Merr.)
 
Sec-II. Leaves with 3-5 nerves running from base to apex, or lower leaves whorled, pinnatifid or multifid; fruiting calyx not striate
 
A. Flowers sessile or very shortly pedicelled :-
(i) stem stout, hirsute; leaves all 3-6-nately whorled, sessile, the uppermost elliptic or linear-oblong, 3-5 nerved, the lowermost pinnatifid; flowers crowded in erect close leafy spikes; calyx-lobes subulate ………… cana (syn. of aquatica as per efi thread ?)
(ii) stem slender, usually hirsute, rarely glabrate; leaves usually all 3-6-nately whorled, lobulate or pinnate, very rarely the 2 uppermost opposite, entire; flowers all axillary, solitary; calyx-lobes ovate, long acuminate …… sessiliflora
(iii) stem slender, always glabrous; leaves the 2 uppermost usually opposite, crenulate, the next below, 4-6-nately whorled, pinnate, the lowest submerged, multifid, with capillary segments; occasionally the uppermost flowers in a leafy spike; calyx-lobes ovate, shortly acuminate ……… heterophylla
B. Flowers pedicelled; pedicels as long as or longer than calyx; calyx-lobes ovate-acuminate :-
(i) stems erect, stout, 1-2 feet high; flowers large, .5-.6 in long, usually an erect terminal racemes; upper leaves always sessile, ovate or linear-oblong, serrate, entire or 3-nate; lower multifid with capillary segments ……… racemosa (syn. of Limnophila indica (L.) Druce)
(ii) stems, if erect, stout, only 4-8 in. high, often elongate, diffusely branching or suberect, slender; flowers .3 in. long, axillary, solitary, very rarely subracemose; upper leaves rarely entire and opposite, usually leaves all whorled, pinnatifid, or sometimes the upper pinnatifid, the lower multifid with capillary segments …….. gratioloides (Syn. of Limnophila indica (L.) Druce)

 


… in Limnophilla aromatica, L. repens, L.connata and L. rugosa, the leaves are undivided throughout the stem where as in L. aquatica, L.indica, L.sessiflora and L.heterophylla, leaves of lower/submerged parts of the stem are pectinate to multifid..
Similarly in L. aquatica and L. indica, flowers are pedicelled and in L.sessiflora and L. heterophylla flowers are sessile.


This is the flowers of 8 species of Limnophila i have collected from different water bodies of Odisha and preserved in herbarium,. I will share them later in the group.

Species Flowers
L. aquatica——Bluish or purple, 1-1.2 cm, short to long pedicelled, in erect terminal receme
L. aromatica—-Flowers purple, 9-15 mm long, in axillary or terminal many flowered receme, pedicels 7.5-10 mm long
L. connata—–Flowers rose purple, 1.2-1.5cm long, sessile in the axils of floral leaves/bracts
L. heterophylla—- Flowers purplish, sessile-subsessile, 1-1.2 cm long, solitary axillary
L. indica—–Flowers white or pale purple, 8-12 mm long, pedicelled, 8-8 mm long, axillary
L. repens—-Flowers purple, 7.5-12 mm long, , shortly pedicelled, solitary axillary
L. rugosa—-Flowers blue purple with yellow mouth in dens axillary heas, sessile or shortly pedicelled
L. sessiflora—-Flowers light purple, sessile, 1-1.2 cm long, solitary axillary

Limnophila : 1 post by 1 author.

I have updated eFI (efloraofindia) page on Limnophila (Pl. click).

Attempts have been made to incorporate most of the species available in India & nearby areas with details & keys directly or through links as far as possible. It’s quite possible that there may be some discrepancy in the accepted names & synonyms taken from other links.

Species discussed so far in efloraofindia are given at the bottom of the page in the form of links against Subpages. On clicking them one can see all the details.

If someone can provide complete list of Indian species with source references it will be wonderful.

Any comments/ corrections are welcome.


Pl. go throughLimnophila ‎(Plantaginaceae) page with comparative images of species in efloraofindia. On clicking the link of species, one can check the complete details.
May I request you to pl. go through & point out mistakes, if any. I hope this will aid in identifications in future. If anybody can send images of other species of this genera (for incorporation in the website), if any, or can identify unidentified images, it will be really nice.


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