Lindernia crustacea (L.) F.Muell. (Syn. Antirrhinum hexandrum Forssk.; Antirrhinum hexandrum G.Forst.; Buchnera capillaris Desv. ex Ham.; Capraria crustacea L. (Unresolved); Gratiola aspera Roth; Gratiola lucida Willd.; Gratiola lucida Vahl.; Hornemannia ovata Link & Otto (Unresolved); Linaria hexandra F.Dietr. (Unresolved); Mimulus javanicus Blume (Unresolved); Morgania aspera Spreng. (Unresolved); Morgania lucida Spreng.; Pentsteira paniculata Griff. (Unresolved); Pyxidaria crustacea (L.) Kuntze; Tittmannia ovata Rchb. (Unresolved); Tittmannia scabra (R. Br.) Spreng.; Torenia crustacea (L.) Cham. & Schltdl.; Torenia flaccida R. Br.; Torenia lucida Buch.-Ham. ex Wall. (unresolved); Torenia ovata Sweet (unresolved); Torenia rubella Buch.-Ham. (unresolved); Torenia scabra R. Br.; Torenia varians Roxb. (unresolved); Ucnopsolen cordatum Raf. (unresolved); Vandellia alba Benth.; Vandellia bodinieri H. Lév.; Vandellia crustacea (L.) Benth.);
Brittle False Pimpernel, Malaysian false pimpernel; Malayalam — katu-pee-tsjanga-puspam; 
Scrophulariaceae of the Western Himalayas By Francis . Pennell (1943- Description & Keys- L. pyxidaria (syn. of Lindernia procumbens (Krock.) Philcox as per The Plant List), parviflora, crustacea, hookeri, cordifolia (syn. of Lindernia anagallis (Burm. f.) Pennell as per The Plant List), nummularifolia, angustifolia (syn. of Lindernia micrantha D. Don as per The Plant List), verbenaefolia, anagalisciliata)

Prostrate, diffusely branched herbs, rooting at nodes; stem 4-angled, slightly winged on angles. Leaves 0.8-1.5 x 0.7-1.2 cm, ovate, base truncate, margin serrate, apex subacute, penninerved; petiole c. 5 mm long. Flowers axillary, solitary or 2-per node on terminal racemes; pedicel 1-1.2 cm long. Calyx c. 4 mm long, divided to 1/3, 5-ribbed, lobes elliptic-lanceolate, ciliate on margins. Corolla rose to purple, tube c. 5 mm long. Stamens 4, didynamous; lower pair of stamens with a subulate appendage at the middle of filament. Ovary globose. Capsule c. 5 mm long, 2-3 mm across, ovoid. Seeds minute, many.  

Flowering and fruiting: August-November
Moist deciduous forests and waste lands
Africa, America and Tropical and Subtropical Asia

The species occurs from India, Sri Lanka, Nepal and Bangladesh east to China and Japan, and south through Indochina, the Philippines and the Malay Peninsula to Indonesia, Micronesia, Polynesia and Australia (Yamazaki 1990, Cook 1996, Kress et al. 2003, Nguyen et al. 2005, Newman et al. 2007, Ahmed 2009, Kwek et al. 2009, Maxwell 2009).
The species grows in a wide range of wet and dry habitats, with var. crustacea occurring in predominantly dry habitats and var. godefroyi in wetlands. It can occur in dry roadsides, lawns, rice fields, riversides, swamps, sandy river banks, low-lying pastures and drying-out tanks, sometimes near the sea-shore. 0-1,100 m alt.

According to “Plant Groups” (H. Mukherji), Lindernia crustacea F.Muell. = Vandellia crustacea Benth., a common weed (under Scrophulariaceae). I hope my pictures are of the same species.
Habit & Habitat : wild herb under shade in my front yard, a moist place; about 12 cm tall
Date : 15/8/12, 11.52 A.M.
Place : Nalikul (Hooghly)
Links visited :

Yes, Lindernia crustacea (L.) F.v. Muell. Syn: Capraria crustacea L.; Vandellia crustacea (L.) Benth.

Yes this plant is Lindernia crustacea


Lindernia sp. (2) from Hooghly 15/8/12 SK-2:
Is it also Lindernia crustacea (L.) F.Muell. ?

Habit & Habitat : wild herb on pond steps; about 10 cm tall
Date : 8/6/12, 09.06 A.M.
Place : Nalikul (Hooghly)
Links visited :

Attached are pictures of Lindernia crustacea captured in my pot garden growing as a weed in Mumbai in September 2012.
Requested to please confirm ID.

Yes, these pics belong to Lindernia crustacea….

Herb for identification : 220912 RV 1:
Please help to identify this herb found on Khapoli/Pali road about 100 km away from Mumbai.

Hopefully Torenia cordifolia

It is Lindernia crustacea (L.) F.v. Muell.

Yes you are right … this should be Lindernia crustacea

Yes Lindernia crustacea of Linderniaceae family.


Lindernia crustacea (L.) F.Muel collected from Kamrup district (Metro), Assam : Attachments (10). 1 post by 1 author.

Attached images are Lindernia crustacea (L.) F.Muel collected from Kamrup district (Metro), Assam. 
Date :22.07.2013
Location: At my residence, Kamrup district(Metro), Assam
Family : Linderniaceae
Genus & species : Lindernia crustacea (L.) F.Muel
Habitat: Grows wild on damp places
Habit : Herbs 


Scrophulariaceae Fortnight: Lindernia crustacea from Kaithal- NS 29 :  Attachments (6). 1 post by 1 author.
This  winter annual was shot from Kaithal and Panipat..
I hope this is Lindernia crustacea (L.) F. Muell. Linderniaceae


Scrophulariaceae fortnight :: Lindernia crustacea at Andheri :: DV06 : 2 images. 1 post by 1 author.
Lindernia crustacea (L.) F. Muell. also placed in: Linderniaceae Plantaginaceae Veronicaceae at MIDC Andheri on 24 AUG 07

This plant, with distinctly winged calyx, should be Torenia lindernioides which is endemic to Western Ghats. Please have a look at the attached paper. It is closely similar to Torenia crustacea (Syn: Lindernia crustacea) which has unwinged calyx.

 According to the paper:

Torenia lindernioides has a distinctly winged calyx which completely encloses the mature capsule. The capsule is elongated, lelliptic in outline and narrowed at the top. Lindernia crustacea, however, has sepals that are, at most, slightly thickened in the middle and never invest the capsule completely.”

I think … may finally resolve this issue being an author of ‘Re-establishment of the overlooked species Torenia godefroyi (Linderniaceae), and notes on the identity of T. lindernioides‘ (I am unable to get a hand on it from the net)

Many thanks … for scrutinizing the species – Torenia lindernioides and Torenia crustacea.

Thanks Garg ji; I am revising IDs of my observations of Torenia crustacea (synonym: Lindernia crustacea) accordingly.

Attached is the paper you were looking for.

1 attachment

Just to point out that POWO treats Torenia godefroyi and Torenia lindernioides as distinct species, with Torenia godefroyi confined to Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam, and Torenia lindernioides confined to the Western Ghats.

So let us keep it as Torenia lindernioides

Wait for some more time.

However, I am not satisfied with the id as Torenia godefroyi or Torenia lindernioides (with restricted range in Western Ghats and Cambodia).

In view of the above observations, I feel, we follow the broader circumspection with all these observations as Lindernia crustacea (as we are following now).

In view … plant and other similar observations from Western Ghats may also be retained as Lindernia crustacea only.

By now, I have made changes to my notes in flickr.

As far as the characteristic of “distinctly winged calyx” goes, I can see it in my posted plants.
In the first photo, we do see a capsule in the centre; however the sepals are not completely enclosing the mature capsule.

In … listed posts, the sepals seem to be more blunt than distinctly winged … as such would resolve to Lindernia crustacea. I am not good at this assertion. So I hope that … will provide his comments soon and help resolve the ID.

At iNaturalist, I suggested ID of Torenia lindernioides C.J.Saldanha for two of my observations: 1) of MIDC Andheri, and 2) of Nagla forest.
Aaratrik Pal, M.Sc., University of North Bengal, Department of Botany disagrees with the ID, and asserts on Torenia crustacea (L.) Cham. & Schltdl.
He says:
“POWO is updating daily, and the above information about T. godefroyi have not been updated yet. Both are synonymous and is also distributed in West Bengal.”

Aaratrik Pal has written many articles related to Torenia spp.

Torenia crustacea (Syn: Lindernia crustacea) is a species different from Torenia lindernioides, and has a wider distribution. It is found in the Himalayas, East India, and probably also in Western Ghats. The key involving these species is listed in Saldanha’s paper that I sent.

My personal feeling after going through all the observations in our site is that keys given in both publications are very sketchy (publications only based on specimens from Western Ghats) and if wider studies are conducted based on all India specimens and those from SE Asia, it may come out to be one species only (may be with a few varieties as it was widely accepted earlier).
Just to give an example, pl. see the post from Saroj ji from Nepal: SK 3258 24 December 2021 (Nepal does not show any distribution of Torenia lindernioides).
In view of the above, I feel we follow the broader look with all these observations as Lindernia crustacea (as we are following now).

I think there is some confusion here. T. godefroyi is separated from T. crustacea one some characteristics, one of which is the distinctly winged calyx. I am only saying that this plant should not be T. crustacea as it shows winged calyx. If T. lindernioides is synonymous with T. godefroy, it may be so, I don’t know – I don’t have any description, pics, herbarium pics of  T. godefroy to compare with.

But Saldanha’s article clearly says Torenia lindernioides is distributed in Western Ghats, and is often confused with the wider distributed Lindernia crustacea.

As such Torenia lindernioides is not distributed in Nepal.

I am saying this as I am unable to distinguish Dinesh ji’s plant from western ghats from those from East India, Himalayas and North India. All of these have winged calyxes like that of Dinesh ji’s plant.

Pl. see

So it has to be Lindernia crustacea only.

It is true that Saldanha’s article clearly says Torenia lindernioides is distributed in Western Ghats. But what M. G. Prasad, R. K. Roy and P. Sunojkumar­ (Nordic Journal of Botany 35: 45–47, 2017) published says that Torenia lindernioides is the same as Torenia godefroyi. So, now Torenia godefroyi (according to these authors) is distributed in Cambodia and Western Ghats. So, the Indian distribution of this plant is still restricted to Western Ghats. Whether you call it Torenia lindernioides or Torenia godefroyi is a different matter.

 I agree with you on the distinctly winged calyx, and therefore rushed to upload my observation in iNaturalist.
But there the suggested ID is not agreed upon. I have given the link to this discussion.
All of the other observations at eFI related to Lindernia crustacea do not have distinctly winged calyx and therefore will remain as Lindernia crustacea.

I have sent a personal mail to …, requesting him to give his views regarding this discussion.

How do you say “All of the other observations at eFI related to Lindernia crustacea do not have distinctly winged calyx” ?
I feel otherwise that most of the observations at eFI related to Lindernia crustacea also have distinctly winged calyx.
Pl. see one e.g. SK 3258 24 December 2021

Torenia godefroyi and T. lindernoides are synonymous. This species differs from T. crustacea by having prominent ribbed calyx and the calyx is enclosing the capsule when mature. T. godefroyi mostly show axillary flowers and the flowers are more whitish with tint of magenta. I’m attaching a paper related to T. godefroyi. The image in the paper hopefully can help.
1 attachment

If you see … plant, the fruiting calyx does not cover the capsule completely.

So it has to be Lindernia crustacea only, as you confirmed earlier to Dinesh ji.

Can any of the following be Torenia godefroyi:

Or are the fruits still immature to say anything?

No, both represent T. crustacea. I don’t remember any photograph of T. godefroyi from Southern India.

… when I go through photographs posted in  SK 3258 24 December 2021 that show calyx, they do not seem to me as “distinctly winged” or ribbed. They look to me rather as separated sepals. That is how I perceive.

As all has now been identified as Lindernia crustacea, it has to be the same i.e. with the winged calyx.

Let me summarize my view here:
  •   Saldanha (1966) named Torenia lindernioides which, according to his paper, is endemic to the Western Ghats, and differs from Torenia crustacea in having a prominently winged calyx.
  •  Prasad, Roy, Sunojkumar (2017) re-established Torenia godefroyi, and put Torenia lindernioides as its synonym. Torenia godefroyi was separated from Torenia crustacea in having a prominently winged calyx, among other characters. Torenia godefroyi was earlier known only from Indo-China region (SE Asia). So, according to this paper, the revised distribution of Torenia godefroyi is Indo-China region and Western Ghats.
  • So my question is, where is this Torenia godefroyi from Western Ghats with prominently winged calyx? Don’t we have any image of it? Or are we misidentifying some of its images as Torenia crustacea?
I think some thinking is required on it, instead of this rapid discussion.

There should be good populations of T. godefroyi in Western Ghats, but some how being overlooked. I’m attaching an article link, where T. godefroyi is reported from Telangana state with photographs.

Additions to the Flora of Telangana state of India, with notes on the phytogeographical importance – Gollamandala – 2022 – Feddes Repertorium – Wiley Online Library

I feel along with calyx, fruiting calyx completely covering the capsule in Torenia godefroyi is very important. It is very very difficult to judge only based on winged calyx.

Now let us hope someone get photo(s) of Torenia godefroyi.

It can be seen in two publications. But I have doubts, if this will stand scrutiny of time. If somebody does the revision of Torenia, these will at most be treated as a variety of T.crustacea.

Here is a photograph of T. godefroyi with fruits and flowers.

This is Torenia crustacia

plz help in id confirmation a small prostrate herb, leaves with serrate margins
found growing in a grassland
i found it matched with Lindernia crustacea of scrophulariaceae but i am not sure


Species identification:
Can anyone identify the species of this Lindernia it is quite common in and around Mumbai and appears around the monsoon

I think this is Lindernia crustacea

The size of the leaves and the colour of the flower doesnot match in the Flora of Maharashtra Vol.II page 538

Please provide a picture of flower from front and side that shows the calyx lobes, preferably a close up. I am interested in knowing whether the calyx lobe’s cleft reaches the base of the calyx or not. The close
up can be a cropped one from a bigger sized picture to confirm the species.

The following are the size of the leaves and flower.
Flower entire 1.2 cm
Petal 0.3 to 0.4 cm
Sepal 0.4 cm
Fruit capsule 0.3 to 0.4 cm
Leaf L = 1.4 cm + with petiole = 1.9 cm
B = 1.2 cm

Yes it is
Lindernia crustacea (L.) Mueller., Syst. Cens. Gen. Austral. Pl. 97, 1882; Almeida, Fl. Mah. 3: 402, 2001; Singh et al, Fl. Mah. St. 2: 538, 2001.
Synonyms: Capraria crustacea L., Mant. 87, 1767. Vandelia crustacean Bth., Scroph. Ind. 35, 1835; Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 4: 279, 1884; Cooke, Fl. Pres. Bombay 2: 366, 1958 (Repr.). Torenia crustacea Cham. & Schlecht. in Linnaea 2: 370,1827.
Status: Common, endemic to Asia.


NA01/07 Id required : 4 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (2)- 3 Mb each.

Id required for the plant usually seen growing in flower pots
Location: Thane, Maharashtra
Date: 27th August 2014

Please check probability of Lindernia crustacea (L.) F.Muell., which is common wild species here (West Bengal) in damp places.

Thank you, Sir! I have seen it more during monsoon months.

Yes, Ma’am, my records are also in August!

Torenia thouarsii (Cham. & Schltdl.) Kuntze (accepted name) ?? : 9 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (8)
Sharing some pictures I guess is Torenia thouarsii (Cham. & Schltdl.) Kuntze (accepted name) syn: Torenia parviflora Buch.-Ham. ex Wall. (synonym) shot at Pashupati Forest Kathmandu on 16 October 2016 at 4400 ft. 

Pl. see with comparative images at Torenia

This is not torenia.
It is Lindernia crustacea (L.) F.v. Muell., 

Thank you for correcting ID.
Torenia crustacea (L.) Cham. & Schltdl. (accepted name)
Lindernia crustacea (L.) F. Muell. (synonym)

ID pending.

It is Lindernia crustacea as per complete thread.


for id. request. BRS 522 : Attachments (3). 3 posts by 3 authors.
Pl. find the attached file contain photo for id. confirmation.

Location: Adyar, Chennai
Date: 11.11.2013
Habitat: Garden
Habit: Herb.

It is Lindernia crustacea ( L. ) F.Muell.


lobeliaceae/campanulaceae : Attachments (1). 3 posts by 3 authors.
Is it lobelia trigona..?

It is Scrophulariaceae. Seems Lindernia procumbens.

Lindernia crustacea (L.) F.v. Muell.

Herb of Java for ID : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)
My friend would like to know the name of the following procumbent herb please.  Location Purwokerto 75 m alt.

… most probably Lindernia crustacea (L.) F.Muell. of Linderniaceae.

Lindernia crustacea——for validation : 7 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (3)
Kindly validate if this is Lindernia crustacea or not. Photos taken at Aambyvalley Rd, Off Lonavala, Pune in Nov.16. Unfortunately I could not get a closeup shot of the flower.

Looks different. Pl. check other species at

can’t say which species is this.

Yes it is Lindernia crustacea for sure.

On rechecking, I agree with …, for id as Lindernia crustacea

Kokan :: Lindernia crustacea (?) :: ARK2019-54 : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (3)
Requesting to please ID these flowers. A cropped pic is also attached.
They were growing in a field post harvest. The pics were captured near Devgad, coastal Kokan, MH in Apr 2019.
… has suggested Lindernia crustacea, requested to please validate.

From another thread:
I agree with … for Lindernia crustacea (L.) F.Muell.


SYMBIOSIS : 1387 : 6 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (1)
Attaching a collage of Common Grass Yellow visiting flowers of Asystasia species.

Not Asystasia as per comparative images herein.
May be some Lindernia (as per comparative images herein) species like Lindernia crustacea (L.) F.Muell.

I agree. Lindernia crustacea

Torenia crustacea (L.) Cham. & Schltdl. : 6 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (3)-1, 2 & 3 mb.
Location:  Harthok, Palpa
Date: 25 September 2019
Elevation:1400 m.
Habit : Wild
Syn : Lindernia crustacea (L.) F.Muell.

Attachments (2)- 2 & 4 mb.

face of the flower picture?

I missed that …!

I forgot to tell you I loved the last habit picture a lot

SYMBIOSIS : 1402 : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)
Attaching a collage of Wasp species visiting flowers of Lindernia crustacea.

Lindernia Species for ID : Zarwani Forest, Gujarat : 03JAN20 : AK-2 : 11 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (2)
A very tiny plant seen in the forest during my visit in November,19.
Seems to be Lindernia Species.

Torenia crustacea (L.) Cham. & Schltdl.
Syn : Lindernia crustacea (L.) F.Muell.

Other recipients:
I agree .
I agree

Images are too small to see any details.
Pl. post min. 1000 pixel by 800 pixel or larger images for this and in future. 

Attaching a original image.
Attachments (1)- 6 mb. 

Lindernia crustacea

Thanks for the id. You had suggested the same earlier.

Validation of Lindernia : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)
Request to validate Lindernia crustacea from Mahe.
Photographed in July 2020

Other recipients:
I guess correct ID ! Thank you. Saroj Kasaju

I guess correct ID !

Id’ing tiny purplish-white flower : 5 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (2)
Bhopal. Sandstone derived soil. 25/8/2020

Torenia sp.

looks like Torenia cordifolia

I think Lindernia crustacea (L.) F.Muell. as per comparative images at Lindernia
Looks different from Torenia as per comparative images herein.

Yes, Lindernia looks more like it. Thank you.


SK 3258 24 December 2021: 9 very high res. images.

Location: Surkhet, West Nepal
Date: 27 August 2021 
Habit : Wild
Torenia crustacea (L.) Cham. & Schltdl. ??

Yes, it appears close to images at Lindernia crustacea (L.) F.Muell.

Thank you … !


Herb for ID from Jim-Corbett Uttarakhand-GS10032022-2: 4 very high res. images.
Please help with the ID of small herb photographed from Jim-Corbett, Nainital District, Uttarakhand, 5-10-2013

Lindernia crustacea (L.) F.Muell.



Jawhar, MH :: Torenia godefroyi Bonati :: August 29, 2021: 4 images.
Jawhar Maharashtra

Date: August 29, 2021 … Altitude: about 447 m (1467 feet) asl
Torenia godefroyi  Bonati

Many thanks to … for help with the ID … iNaturalist.
below are cropped versions
the ribbed cup calyx covering almost entirely the capsule
the ribbed cup calyx holding the flower

These are only T. crustacea.

I am referring to my observation uploaded in iNaturalist …
where you have suggested the ID of Torenia godefroyi.
Are you sure you want to change the ID back to T. crustacea ?

Fruit is not completely enclosed by fruiting calyx in your images.

Let us wait for … comment; he had suggested the ID at iNaturalist …

I am correcting my notes at flickr. … inadvertently suggested the ID of T. godefroyi.

Thanks to all for correcting me regarding my identification. I’ve added an observation of T. godefroyi on iNaturalist, hoping it will clarify the characteristics.
Torenia godefroyi on February 14, 2022 at 07:24 PM by Aaratrik Pal · iNaturalist

Thanks very very much … for the link to observation of T. godefroyi.


I’d of a Scrophulariaceae plant: 2 high res. images.
Request for I’d of a possible Scrophulariaceae plant from Bilaspur.
Photographed in October, 2022.

Isn’t Torenia crustacea (L.) Cham. & Schltdl. is the accepted name ?

Yes, appears close to images at Lindernia crustacea

Which one is the correct accepted name since POWO, CoL, GBIF and WFO says T. crustaceae !

Yes, better to keep under Torenia


Torenia crustacea (L.) Cham. & Schltdl. :: Waghbil, Thane, Maharashtra :: Sep 21, 2008 · JUN23 DV122: 1 image.

Torenia crustacea (L.) Cham. & Schltdl.
Waghbil, Thane, Maharashtra :: Sep 21, 2008 · 1:23 PM IST :: about 3 m (10 ft) asl
popular synonym: Lindernia crustacea (L.) F.Muell.
Many thanks to galanhsnu for validating the ID at iNaturalist


Torenia crustacea (L.) Cham. & Schltdl. :: Waghbil, Thane, Maharashtra :: Aug 2, 2008 · JUN23 DV149: 1 image.

Torenia crustacea (L.) Cham. & Schltdl.
Waghbil, Thane, Maharashtra :: Aug 2, 2008 · 2:59 PM IST :: about 3 m (10 ft) asl
popular synonym: Lindernia crustacea (L.) F.Muell.


Torenia crustacea (L.) Cham. & Schltdl. :: Waghbil, Thane, Maharashtra :: Aug 2, 2008 · JUN23 DV157: 2 images.

Torenia crustacea (L.) Cham. & Schltdl.
Waghbil, Thane, Maharashtra :: Aug 2, 2008 · 2:05 PM IST :: about 3 m (10 ft) asl
popular synonym: Lindernia crustacea (L.) F.Muell.


Torenia crustacea (L.) Cham. & Schltdl. :: Waghbil, Thane, Maharashtra :: Aug 2, 2008 · JUN23 DV159: 1 image.

Torenia crustacea (L.) Cham. & Schltdl.
Waghbil, Thane, Maharashtra :: Aug 2, 2008 · 1:48 PM IST :: about 3 m (10 ft) asl
popular synonym: Lindernia crustacea (L.) F.Muell.


Linderniaceae: Torenia crustacea (L.) Cham. & Schltdl.: 1 high res. image.
synonyms: Lindernia crustacea (L.) F.Muell.; Vandellia crustacea (L.) Benth.
location/date: Barha, Jabalpur Distr., Madhya Pradesh, October 1994

POWO (Torenia crustacea (L.) Cham. & Schltdl.) Catalogue of Life (Torenia crustacea (L.) Cham. & Schltdl.)
The Plant List  Scrophulariaceae of the Western Himalayas By Francis . Pennell (1943)