Sri Lanka, India to Indo-China, Jawa as per WCSP;

Bangladesh; Cambodia; India; Jawa; Laos; Sri Lanka; Thailand; Vietnam as per Catalogue of Life;

mo-RIN-duh — from the Latin morus (mulberry) and indicus (Indian)
pew-BES-senz or pub-ess-ens — downy or short haired

commonly known as: morinda, noni, togari wood of Madras • Hindi: आल aal, औछ auch • Kannada: ಮಡ್ಡಿ maddi • Konkani: बारतोंडी bartondi • Malayalam: മഞ്ഞപ്പാവട്ട manjappaavatta • Marathi: बारतोंडी bartondi • Oriya: pindra • Sanskrit: अच्युत achyuta, अक्षिकिफल akshikiphala • Tamil: மஞ்சணாறி manchanari, நுணா nuna • Telugu: మడ్డి maddi, తొగరు togaru • Urdu: togar mughalai

Native to: India, south-east Asia

As per efi thread:

Leaves shining and glabrous on both surfaces………………………………Morinda citrifolia
Leaves tomentose on both surfaces…………………………………………..Morinda pubescens (Syn. of Morinda coreia)
 

Sharing some photographs of the buds and the flowers of Morinda coreia var. tomentosa. The flowers are usually 5-merous; have also attached some instances of variable merosity in the flowers of this tree (4-merous & 6-merous). The corolla tube is glabrous on the inside and hairy on the outer surface as seen in the last picture.
This tree is often referred to as Morinda pubescens Sm. The genus Morinda in Mumbai was revised by RR Fernandez who published a new combination – Morinda coreia Buch.-Ham. var. tomentosa (Hook.f.) R.R.Fernandez. Have attached the key by Fernandez from his book ‘Trees of Mumbai (Bombay)’, pp. 173-174, Scientific Publishers, 1999.
In Cooke’s Flora, the anthers are said to be included within the corolla tube as depicted in Navendu ji’s photographs on flowersofindia.net. But the anthers are clearly exserted in the trees that I have come across in Madh. In the eflora archives, I found some photographs of the flowers of M. pubescens bearing exserted stamens & anthers (posted by Mohina ji fr. Alibag & Dinesh ji fr. SGNP in Mumbai). The flower image of M. pubescens in ‘The Trees of Mumbai’ by M. Almeida & N. Chaturvedi (p. 20) as well as in Shrikant ji’s ‘Trees of Pune’ (p. 98) also depicts exserted anthers.

Brandis in his book Indian Trees refers to it by the old name Morinda tinctoria, Roxb. He says: “anthers exserted or included”
Talbot says the same: “Anthers exserted or included” in his Forest Flora of Bombay Presidency and Sind.

From what I’ve noticed, the style/stigma is exserted in the trees bearing flowers with included stamens/anthers and vice versa. 

I am also intrigued by the reason behind different individuals of this tree bearing separate kinds of flowers i.e. with ‘exserted anthers – included stigma’ and vice versa. I have not come across these two different flower types/morphs on a single individual.
Based on the above, would it be correct to infer that this tree is a distylous plant exhibiting heterostyly

In the description of the genus Morinda in Flora of China, the flowers are said to be “bisexual and distylous”. 
Flora of China further states that “Morinda includes a notable range of breeding systems (Johansson, Opera Bot. 122: 1-167. 1994), but most of the species are apparently distylous, with the anthers and stigmas separated and their positions reciprocal between the short-styled and long-styled form of the same species; however, this biology has been sometimes overlooked.”


As per efi thread :

This species (Morinda exserta Roxb. syn. of Morinda pubescens Sm.) is immediately known by its exsert stamens, half-concealed stigma, and broad-pointed leaves. In all other species figured and described my me, viz. citrifolia, tinctoria, bracteata, multiflora, and angustiflora the stamens are enclosed and the style exserted. 
 

-the original M.tinctoria [of Linnaeus] is not found in the Boriivali N.P. It is cultivated for its dye near Nagpur.
-the M.tinctoria [of other authors] is actually M.tinctoria var. tomentosa which is now included in M.pubescens.
M.citrifolia is a coastal species, but in Bombay 2 specimens can be seen at the Zoo and at the Prince of Wales Museum. 
These references are included in Dr.Almeida’s ‘ Flora of Maharashtra’  Vol 3.


As per efi thread (Slightly modified):

Morinda citrifolia

Morinda pubescens Syn. Morinda tinctoria var. tomentosa (Syn. of Morinda coreia)

Corolla lobes acute, glabrous;

Leaves glabrous, indistinctly transversely veined.

Bark smooth.

Syncarps of pyrenes turn more yellow; 1-2.5cm winged.

Usually cultivated, grows as an escape

Corolla lobes obtuse short, hairy in upper half;

Leaves tomentose or pubescent, distinctly transversely veined

Bark vertically fissured.

Syncarps more septate blackish than yellow; 3cm across, not winged

Common throughout in Maharashtra.



 
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Tamil Nadu – RA – Morinda tinctoria, Roxb. <=> Indian Mulberry Tree – Nuna (confirm):


Nice photos. Now it is Morinda pubescens , I think. Grows wild in Chennai .


Yes
It is Morinda pubescens.


 Morinda pubescens Sm.
mo-RIN-duh — from the Latin morus (mulberry) and indicus (Indian)
pew-BES-senz or pub-ess-ens — downy or short haired
Apr 2, 2010 … at Vaghbil, Thane, Maharashtra
commonly known as: morinda, noni, togari wood of Madras • Hindi: आल aal, औछ auch • Kannada: ಮಡ್ಡಿ maddi • Konkani: बारतोंडी bartondi • Malayalam: മഞ്ഞപ്പാവട്ട manjappaavatta • Marathi: बारतोंडी bartondi • Oriya: pindra • Sanskrit: अच्युत achyuta, अक्षिकिफल akshikiphala • Tamil: மஞ்சணாறி manchanari, நுணா nuna • Telugu: మడ్డి maddi, తొగరు togaru • Urdu: togar mughalai
Native to: India, south-east Asia
References: Flowers of IndiaM.M.P.N.D.IndFlora • The Trees of Mumbai • Flowers of Sahyadri by Shrikant Ingalhalikar
more views: Apr 2, 2010 … at Vaghbil, Thane, Maharashtra 
Jun 6, 2009 … at BNHS – CEC, adjacent to Sanjay Gandhi National Park, Mumbai 
Nov 15, 2008 … at Vaghbil, Thane, Maharashtra 
Apr 26, 2008 … at Sanjay Gandhi National Park, Mumbai
Jun 9, 2007 … at Vaghbil, Thane, Maharashtra


A clean complete set of photographs


Amazing details of the common plant


Trees of Mumbai: Trees of Mumbai was published in 1999 in which R R Fernandez on page 174 proposed the combination Morinda coreia var. tomentosa (Hook.f) R R Fernandez, ignoring the earliest basonym Heyn ex Roth. Perhaps this publication may provide clue to nomenclature of the genus in India. Any body having access may help.



Attaching a scan from said book.



That solves a lot of problems



Incidentally I have got a copy of the book, and I was really distressed to see the quality of the photos. Some rank amateur with a cheap camera has taken the photographs. The camera it seems was purchased by BNHS for this purpose only. BNHS will be well advised to change the plates in the next edition if at all there is one. They should hire the services of a professional. However the work would be for the entire year, so better that they do it now. The book is no patch on some other books like Pradeep Krishan’s book on Delhi trees and Shrikant’s on Pune trees.



Please can i know you are talking about which book,, because the work done by R.R. Fernandez is purely taxonomic work compare to others which are for the layman, the book quoted in your statement… Fernandez’s book is actually his Ph.D. work (1950)..
that time hardly any good cameras were available….. but if you see the plates they are quite good to identify the trees.. and this book is nothing to do with BNHS.



Yes Each book has its own merits and we should judge them by their respective utilities. The same is true of say the Trees of Delhi, which is good for common man and even we the botanists for identification, but if we want to use it for compiling our eFlora, it may not be of much use as compared to Flora of Delhi or other such books. Let us enjoy getting whatever information we can. Trees of Mumbai, after all solved our problem of Morinda Taxonomy in India.



I was mentioning ‘Trees of Mumbai’ by Almeida and Chaturvedi which has ben published by BNHS in 2006. I was confused by the similarity of title. I never meant Fernandez’s book. I stand by my views on Almeida’s work.


 

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Rubiaceae Week: Morinda pubescens:  Morinda pubescens  


 

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Rubiaceae Week : Morinda pubescens Pune:  Morinda pubescens growing wild on Vetal Tekdi Pune.
Bartondi


Yeoor hills visit report May 15/2013 : 1 correct image. 3 posts by 2 authors.
Visited yeoor hills Part of Sanjay gandhi national park, Mumbai, Maharashtra on May 15/2013

Indian Mulberry
Botanical name: Morinda pubescens Family: Rubiaceae (Coffee family)


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Hooghly : Morinda exserta Roxb. ? : Attachments (15). 4 posts by 2 authors.

In Flora Indica, vol.1, p.545 Roxburgh writes –

“…. a tree of rather small stature; a native of Bengal;…..”
Obs. This species is immediately known by its exserted stamens, half-concealed stigma, and broad-pointed leaves. In all other species figured and described my me, viz. citrifolia, tinctoria, bracteata, multiflora, and angustiflora the stamens are enclosed and the style exserted.”
I found this shrub beside railtracks, on 24/5/13, in Hooghly.


 

 

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Sharing some photographs of the bark textures observed in Morinda coreia var. tomentosa.
Photographed on Madh Hill (North Mumbai) in October 2014.


 
Sharing some photographs of the pubescent leaf blade of Morinda coreia var. tomentosa.
Usually, the underside is densely pubescent [3rd pic] but at times very sparsely so [4th pic]. The interpetiolar stipule is triangular.
Photographed on Madh Hill (North Mumbai) in October 2014.


nice detail


 

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Flora of Madh: Morinda coreia var. tomentosa – Fruit : VG-APR-07 : 6 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (4).  

Have attached some photographs of the fruit of Morinda coreia var. tomentosa.
Photographed on Madh Hill (North Mumbai) in March 2015.


nice

did the tree have any flowers concurrently? or just these fruits 


Is it synonymous with Morinda pubescens? Commonly observed in Pune


It is essentially the same tree; from what I understand, consensus on the accepted name & synonymy is lacking. Have related the background of the scientific name that I’ve used in my post on the flowers of this tree


It did have flowers that I’ve posted separately, also photographed in mid-March 2015.


 

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Sharing some photographs of the buds and the flowers of Morinda coreia var. tomentosa. The flowers are usually 5-merous; have also attached some instances of variable merosity in the flowers of this tree (4-merous & 6-merous). The corolla tube is glabrous on the inside and hairy on the outer surface as seen in the last picture.
This tree is often referred to as Morinda pubescens Sm. The genus Morinda in Mumbai was revised by RR Fernandez who published a new combination – Morinda coreia Buch.-Ham. var. tomentosa (Hook.f.) R.R.Fernandez. Have attached the key by Fernandez from his book ‘Trees of Mumbai (Bombay)’, pp. 173-174, Scientific Publishers, 1999.
In Cooke’s Flora, the anthers are said to be included within the corolla tube as depicted in Navendu ji’s photographs on flowersofindia.net. But the anthers are clearly exserted in the trees that I have come across in Madh. In the eflora archives, I found some photographs of the flowers of M. pubescens bearing exserted stamens & anthers (posted by Mohina ji fr. Alibag & Dinesh ji fr. SGNP in Mumbai). The flower image of M. pubescens in ‘The Trees of Mumbai’ by M. Almeida & N. Chaturvedi (p. 20) as well as in Shrikant ji’s ‘Trees of Pune’ (p. 98) also depicts exserted anthers. Would appreciate any information / comments on this.
Am sending the photographs of the leaves, fruit, and bark in separate emails.
Photographed on Madh Hill (North Mumbai) in March 2015.


About 50 kms north of Madh in the hills I’ve seen both forms of this tree. At a guess there are probably 60% of trees whose flowers have anthers exserted and 40% with anthers included in the tube. All are growing very close to each other. I can’t see any other differences between the 2 types of tree.
Brandis in his book Indian Trees refers to it by the old name Morinda tinctoria, Roxb. He says: “anthers exserted or included”
Talbot says the same: “Anthers exserted or included” in his Forest Flora of Bombay Presidency and Sind.


Thank you so much … for these important inputs. From what I’ve noticed, the style/stigma is exserted in the trees bearing flowers with included stamens/anthers and vice versa.
Roxburgh’s description of the flowers of Morinda exserta (attached herewith & also quoted in Surajit ji’s thread) is pertinent to our observations but the disparity in the nomenclature & synonymy given in various present-day sources is confusing me.
Attachments (2)


Aside from the correct nomenclature what interests me is why the plant has evolved two distinct flower forms within the same small geographical area. A single tree has only one type of flower and both forms grow side by side.


Can you please take a look at my thread and give your view?


… did you get to take pictures of the fruits? from this same tree?


No Didi, I do not have fruits of this shrub, I am not sure if it can grow to a tree.


Thank you very much for the link to your thread. The stamen exsertion in your flowers is similar to what I’ve posted. But the stipules in your photographs appear to be larger, roundish & persistent, quite unlike the small (c. 4 mm) triangular stipule seen by me which is caducous. In the flowers I’ve posted, the corolla tube is glabrous on the inside and hairy on the outer surface; I’m unable to ascertain the same in your photographs. It would be interesting also to see the fruits of your plant if possible.


Thank you very much … for your kind feedback. Yes, the stipules are different in your thread (i had noted that. My species is M. exserta Roxb., I think, which can be ascertained by its emarginate stipules and shape of leaf-blade (please check the top most leaf in the herb. – http://www.br.fgov.be/RESEARCH/COLLECTIONS/HERBARIUM/detail.php?ID=487591). I do not know if the corolla tube was glabrous inside & hairy outside. Perhaps a little hairy as can be seen in the pictures I attach herewith.

Your species may well be different. I didn’t mean that your species was M. exserta. In fact I did note the stipule as you have mentioned and also difference in leaf-lamina. I wanted your view on my thread as it was left unattended and other eFI uploads of M. coreia had flowers with inserted stamens.

Sorry, …, here are the photographs, cropped from the highest resolution (not original) I have retained. Attachments (4)


It is difficult for me to say anything definitive from these photographs alone. Another problem, as mentioned in my previous email to …, is that there is substantial confusion surrounding the current nomenclature & synonymy of Morinda spp. (including M. exserta Roxb.).
In my posts, I have used the name Morinda coreia var. tomentosa as per the keys by RR Fernandez from Mumbai.

… are you sure it can not grow to be a tree?
Roxburgh in FI vol 1 describes it as a “A tree of rather small stature” and Cooke’s Flora calls it ” a small tree.”
and these are people whose work and books you like… these are form pages either you or Viplav provided above…
definitions of a tree and shrub are different
they are distinct.


The trunk of Morinda exserta Roxb. is “six to tweleve feet” high( ref. Flora Indica) Didi.Of course it’s a small tree as per Roxburgh himself. But the individual I recorded won’t grow to a tree because it was too close to railtracks, when I saw it it was about 6 ft and by this time it is either pruned or cut!

Viplav Ji’s species may be different, can grow more as per my search. In Vilav Ji’s word disparity in nomenclature and synonymy


I wonder …, if anybody ever examined those two version of trees, bearing different types of flowers in the said locality, a bit more closely!

Does any version or even a single individual have two different types of flowers on the same body? If yes what is the percentage? Are those two types of flowers identical in other respect?

If no, then they are likely to be two different taxa or var.
It is interesting to note what Bangladesh think of related nomenclature. Please note that the flower description in that doc doesn’t tally with my record. You may check if it tallies with yours. Also attached here what Haines recorded about tomentosa.
Attachments (1)

Thank you … for your thoughts. I am also intrigued by the reason behind different individuals of this tree bearing separate kinds of flowers i.e. with ‘exserted anthers – included stigma’ and vice versa. I have not come across these two different flower types/morphs on a single individual.
Based on the above, would it be correct to infer that this tree is a distylous plant exhibiting heterostyly?
In the description of the genus Morinda in Flora of China, the flowers are said to be “bisexual and distylous”.
Flora of China further states that “Morinda includes a notable range of breeding systems (Johansson, Opera Bot. 122: 1-167. 1994), but most of the species are apparently distylous, with the anthers and stigmas separated and their positions reciprocal between the short-styled and long-styled form of the same species; however, this biology has been sometimes overlooked.”
PS: In the paper on Morinda in Bangladesh, everything is exserted in the line drawing depicting the flower of M. pubescens i.e. anthers as well as stigma. I have not come across such a flower so far.


This is very interesting.
Thank you, …, for this piece of research. Heterostyly is new to me.
I think it explains our Morinda flower question very well.


Thank you very much … for this new angle – heterostyly. Very interesting and much probable solution of your two morphed population over there. But it doesn’t explain my query. It doesn’t explain stipule character. Neither it explains hair property of corolla, within as well as without. As I said the flowers of my species may be a little hairy, but not like what had been recorded in Cooke’s Flora. Leaves are rather glabrous or pubescent, not tomentose (Ref. Cooke’s flora) specially underside, in my species as far as I can make out examining my records.

In short “heterostyly” doesn’t explain if Morinda tinctoria var. tomentosa and Morinda exserta is same species or not.
I said Bangladesh document doesn’t sastisfy my records, in addition to what you have pointed out about the line drawing, the corolla size is smaller in that doc., style is longer than corolla tube.


The occurrence of distylous flowers in the genus Morinda has been documented in several sources including those quoted in my previous email. Once we admit to the existence of heterostyly in this genus, don’t you think it negates the core basis upon which M. exserta was conceived and separated from the rest i.e. exsertion of the stamens and inclusion of the stigma? The possibility of the same occurring in the entire genus may have been either discounted or overlooked at the time.
Morinda exserta Roxb. was described in the second volume of Roxburgh’s Flora Indica, first published posthumously in 1824 (pp. 199-200). Roxburgh would have recorded his observations much before his demise in 1815. In the year 1866, fifty-one years after Roxburgh’s passing, “Heterostyly was first defined by Hildebrand (1866) as the presence of di- or trimorphism in the length of the style and stamens between flowers on separate plants of the same species.
With the benefit of hindsight, we can sense the tenuous premise upon which M. exserta was based, at a time when thorough investigation into the phenomenon of heterostyly was decades away.
It would be interesting to learn about any breakthrough involving the plant in your thread. I think I have already conveyed my reluctance-cum-inability to attempt an identification of your individual plant from the limited available photographs.
PS: The quote on heterostyly in the 2nd para. has been sourced from the journal New Phytologist, vol. 89, issue 4, p. 693, Dec. 1981. The PDF is hyperlinked in the quoted text.


I am sorry for limited available photographs in my thread of Morinda. Though I disagree that those limited images do not carry enough info to id my plant to species level, I accept your view that the heterostyly character of this genus rejects the idea of determining a species level id based only on its stamen character.
Thank you very much for spending some time for me.



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ID and Identification: Could you please identified species of Morinda collected from Kota, Rajasthan?


I think this is Morinda pubescens


M.tinctoria is synonym of M. pubescence, pls check the link for reference,

so its nothing but same plant


 

 

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Fwd: 20/07/16 Request for species id : 3 posts by 2 authors.

20/07/16 Request for species id
Location Mhow district Indore M. P.
Image size is large. Not able to reduce it on my smartphone, hence sending to you and not to the group.
Will reduce the size of the files and send to the group once my desktop internet connection is restored.


Some Morinda species.


Looks like Morinda pubescens 

 

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Morinda pubescens from Pune: Morinda pubescens photographed at Vetal Tekdi, Pune.
Dated- 21 st April 12.
It was a small , crooked tree of appx. 10-12 feet.
Habitat- Wild.
Tree had both flowers n fruits.
(sorry dat close up pic f fruits came blurred !!) 


 

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Please identify this tree: (mixed thread): 1 correct image.
I think Apocynaceae, but help me identify the species.
Location- Taljai Hill, Pune
Date-14 Aprl 2011.

… looks ike species of Morinda … most probably M. pubescens.
Please wait for comments.


Ya its Morinda sps.. (Rubiaceae and not Apocynaceae)
… why not M. tinctoria ?


… the soft (velvety) texture of the leaves makes me think of M. pubescens.

M. tinctoria is cultivated for dye, and M. citrifolia is planted as an ornamental in gardens or along avenues.
Both are non-natives, with darker green leaves … plus shining in case of citrifolia,
Mistaking is easy for me !! Please wait for comment(s).
… will help us here by letting us know whether the plant is found planted / wild.

First of all M. pubescens is different from M. tinctoria its not synonym… some have merged them together..
Secondly M. tinctoria is found wild… ya its produces yellow dye from the roots of the plants..

M. citrifolia is cutivated
I know the leaf of M. pubescens is hairy,,, but it hard to make out in this photograph..


M. pubescens J. E. Sm. is syn M. tinctoria Roxb. var tomentosa (Heyne ex Roth.) Hook. f. It is wild in Pune surroundings. Bartondi alluring to multi faced fruit (syncarp)


I think M. tinctoria Roxb. var tomentosa (Heyne ex Roth.) Hook. f. is syn of M. pubescens J. E. Sm.


According to Kew Plant List Morinda tinctoria var. tomentosa Hook.f. was renamed Morinda coreia var.
tomentosa<
http://www.tropicos.org/Name/100225909> (Hook. f.) R.R.Fernandez (TROPICOS information) in Trees of Mumbai 174, 1999. This is now considered as synonym of Morinda coreia Buch.-Ham. http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl/record/kew-129800


1) M. tinctoria Roxb. var tomentosa (Heyne ex Roth.) Hook. f. … synonym of M. pubescens  J. E. Sm
2) M. tinctoria var. tomentosa Hook.f. … renamed as M. coreia var. tomentosa (Hook. f.) R.R.Fernandez … synonym of M. coreia Buch.-Ham.
Wanting to clear my confusion … hope these: 1) and 2) are distinct.


… OR did you imply M. pubescens is J. E. Sm is now reduced to synonmy of M. coreia Buch.-Ham. ?


Thought we had settled this issue. Please refer to this link:
https://groups.google.com/group/indiantreepix/browse_thread/thread/59…  


The link and discussion cited by … was dated in 2009, and lot has changed since the publication of KEW Plant List in 2010. It still contains some ambiguities but hope we will have to live with these for at least 2-3 years more till things are sorted out.

The name Morinda pubescens Sm., according to Kew Plant List is unplaced name, yet to be resolved.
In Flora of British India, Sir J D Hooker, while naming the variety M. tinctoria var. tomentosa Hook.f. did cite M. tomentosa Heyne in Roth as the first synonym, but perhaps the two plants are different (Hooker also gave
differentiating characters as leaves tomentose on both surfaces, peduncles leaf-opposed) and that is why the entry at Kew Plant List as well TROPICOS (and Fernandez, Trees of Mumbai, page 174, 1999–though I have not seen this) lists the variety as tomentosa Hook.f and not (Heyne ex Roth) Hook.f., similarly Fernandez while transferring this to species to M. coreia Buch.-Ham., names it as M. coreia* Buch.-Ham. var. tomentosa (Hook.f.) Fernandez and not M. coreia Buch.-Ham. var. tomentosa (Heyne ex Roth) Fernandez.
………………….This taxon (excluding M. tomentosa Hehne ex Roth) is according to KEW Plant List synonym of M. coreia Buch.-Ham. In fact M. tinctoria Roxb. itself is synonym of M. coreia Buch.-Ham
http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl/record/kew-129800
The fact that two (M. tinctoria var. tomentosa Hook.f. and M. tomentosa Heyne ex Roth) are different is supported by the fact that M. tomentosa Heyne ex Roth is now considered as synonym of M. citrifolia L. http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl/record/kew-129953
Perhaps both species (M. coreia and M. citrifolia) occur in India and a reliable recent key should help.

Perhaps the easiest difference between the two species

Leaves shining and glabrous on both surfaces………………………………Morinda citrifolia
Leaves tomentose on both surfaces…………………………………………..Morinda coreia
In light of this above plant should be M. coreia

Morinda tinctoria is not glabrous either tomentose… which is commonly found in Sanjay Gandhi National Park… though everyone merge M. tinctoria and M. pubescens..  
M. tomentosa is in 1821 is earlier than M. coeria Buch.-Ham. is in 1822 . and M. tinctoria Roxb. is later in 1832. Hook.f. was first to change the rank.. infact he made many other var. in genus M. tinctoria
According to Blatter, M. citrifolia is introduced species to India… 
I have seen M. citrifolia only in Cultivation…


Perhaps you did not read my mail carefully

I wrote (on the basis of KEW Plant List) that M. tomentosa Heyne ex Roth, 1821 is synonym of M. citrifolia L., 1753…..that should be fine with Principle of Priority
I also wrote that on the basis of combinations cited by me M. tomentosa and M. tinctoria var. tomentosa are two different plants and latter is synonym of M. coreia (as per Kew List)
If we have latest Database of 2010, citing earlier publications carries no meaning in final solution.
Please read my mail analysis carefully and suggest if you have any improvements.
I could not understand what you wanted to convey “Morinda tinctoria is not glabrous either tomentose… which is commonly found in Sanjay Gandhi National Park…”
Leaves shining and glabrous on both surfaces………………………………Morinda citrifolia
Leaves tomentose on both surfaces…………………………………………..Morinda coreia


Many thanks .. for digging into Morinda complex. The situation seems to be in a kind of flux.  With so much discussed, in my belief, … plant is Morinda pubescens… synonym of M. coreia.


every thing is in mess if you see the work done by Kew Plant List in case of Morinda..

How can M. tomentosa can be syn. of M. citrifolia which has nothing to do with tomentose… i feel its a syn. of M. pubescens rather M. citrifolia. we need to dig out original descriptions given by original authors..
i feel Morinda tinctoria and M. pubescens are two distnct plant… here is nothing to do with M. citrifolia as it is exotic.. planted only in gardens… or for NONI…

Some more evidence to support that Morinda tomentosa Heyne ex Roth and Morinda tinctoria var. tomentosa Hook.f. are two different taxa (supporting entries in KEW Plant List): http://www.globalspecies.org/ntaxa/1085299 <http://www.globalspecies.org/ntaxa/1085299>
http://www.globalspecies.org/ntaxa/1085287 <http://www.globalspecies.org/ntaxa/1085287>Morinda pubescens is not listed at all, nor was it in Flora of British India, although supposed to have been described from India in 1813. Perhaps its status has to be investigated.


… this makes some sense in context of not finding this species in any of the old texts (other than scientific).
No dictionaries OR literature has any instances of M. pubescens, though a thorough native.
In comparison, M. tinctoria and M. citrifolia are well discussed. 


Rubiaceae Week :: Morinda pubescens from Coimbatore: Sharing the image of Morinda pubescens from Coimbatore.


Nice Shot of Fruit  

 

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Morinda coreia Buch- Ham : Attachments (1). 1 post by 1 author.

Morinda coreia Buch- Ham, ( M. pubescens J.E.Smith (M. tinctoria Roxb, M. tomentosa Heyne ex Roth ) Nuna – Tamil, Fam- Rubiaeae

Anakaputhur, Chennai suburban, Tamilnadu
Small tree, hedge shrub, fruit medicinal, 


    

Images by tspkumar

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TSP-JAN2016-12-12: Images of Morinda coreia (Rubiaceae) : 4 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (5)

It is my pleasure to share few images of Morinda coreia (Rubiaceae 

Habit: Small tree 

Habitat: Wild, Occurring by the roadsides 

Sighting: Chikmagalur and Hassan in Karnataka, about 800 msl 

Date: 01-08-2014 and 06-03-2015 


Is it different from Morinda pubescens?


Morinda pubescens Sm. in A.Rees a syn. of Morinda coreia


 

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Rubiaceae Week :: Morinda pubescens at Mumbai: Morinda pubescens from Mumbai.
Family: Rubiaceae.


Superb capture and awesome photography … To me this is the best possible close up of the flower of Morinda pubescens.  


 
morinda: is this morinda pubescens, it is lically called aisii
the leaves were soft and hairy, not smooth and shiny
the flowers were softly fragrant
, but then I took these photographs at two in the afternoon, so i am not very sure if they are more fragrant when fresh in the morning
the fruit is about an inch in diameter
growing naturally at my place, zirad, alibaug


Morinda for sure. Please check the bracts.  In M.pubescence the bracts are bifid and deciduous.  Fruits are small  and seeds are not  winged, when compared to M.citrifolia.


– Yes it does appear to be Morinda pubescens.

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ANAPR61 Morinda sp. for identification : 13 posts by 8 authors. Attachments (14)

Family: Rubiaceae
Date: 21st April 2015
Place: Bangalore, Karnataka
Habit: Tree


Morinda species in eFIoraofindia (with details/ keys from published papers/ regional floras/ FRLHT/ FOI/ efloras/ books etc., where ever available) 


This is very interesting. I’m not familiar with this tree and eager to know the specific id. Very detailed depiction of the plant parts by …


me too

its flowering without the the tell tale “fruit like” structure like we see in may morindas.. we have recently seen some here


May be Morinda angustifolia.


Looks more like M. angustifolia. Check this link : http://biodiversity.bt/species/show/6314

Also check this website where key has been provided for ID of Morinda species (Bangladesh J. Bot.40 (2): 113-120, 2011 (December) TAXONOMIC REVISION OF THE GENUS MORINDA):

http://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJB/article/viewFile/9766/7250


Looks like Morinda citrifolia.


Keys are also available at

It is Morinda coreia Buch.-Ham. (= M. tinctoria Roxb.)


So many species, I am confused … Please provide a key to effectively rule out the various species sir.


me too

I’ll really appreciate if some one had UNDERSTANDABLE KEY

in somewhat plain (not entirely idiot proof is ok) but the sever botany jargon hides so many faults

just like the medical jargon,
too ambiguous sometimes and obscure


Cool!!!


Please note :
  • I do not have latest materials to identify any species
  • I do not know the species distribution in the given area
  • I do not know which new (but BSI listed) species can be found in our country besides the ones listed in FBI
  • I do not know which listed species is now divided into separate taxa and which are var. of a known taxon
  • I do not find Morinda concanensis (there is mention of it in eFI site) in FBI
  • I have read all suggested id along with  in this thread, so far
Please also note :- I am not sure about your leaf photographs. It seems to me those are immature leaves or partly mature. Because, the first pic shows some darker coloured leaves.
Now I gonna give you my view. But, You Will Have to Ascertain How Many Secondary Veins are there in a Mature Leaf. If it is less than 9 pairs it is likely to be Morinda citrifolia L. var. elliptica of Flora of British India. Else it has several (but not all) characters of M. angustifolia Roxb.


Hi sir, I have attached the list of species in Karnataka from Fl. Karnataka Analysis. In addition, JCB reports one more species Morinda pubescens var. pubescens.

And as you mentioned, the leaves I clicked up close might have been young ones. I will go the place I found this and get the mature leaf characters.

Attachments (1)


As per our group site (also the Bangladesh pdf) and http://www.keralaplants.in/keralaplantsdetails.aspx?id=Morinda_pubescens –
Morinda pubescens = M. tinctoria = M. coreia.
As for “var.” name what I learned from Gurcharan Sir is that a species will either have no subspecies/var./forma or if one is created by describing a new or by name change it will establish a minimum of two – (i) the newly named one (ii) one automatically created from the original specific epithet.
Please check the attached pdf (I pasted the link in your other thread) for the KEY to coreia, angustifolia and elliptica.
Also attached herewith FI description of angustifolia.
Attachments (3)


Hi sir, I went 2 days back to get the mature leaves. Here are they are attached. They almost always have 8 pairs, only once or twice vary as 9 and 7.

This would fit, as per your description, to Morinda citrifolia L. var. elliptica in FBI and Morinda elliptica in the pdf you provided.

While examining with a lens, I also found hairy domatia in the axils of the lower lateral veins!

Attachments (2)


Roxburgh’s M. angustifolia has “bullate” leaf; FoC’s leaf has 9-13 pairs nerves….. so I will skip this.
Roxburgh’s tinctoria has fragrant flowers. Check this and check flower size to determine if it can be coeria or elliptica.
My guess was based on FBI description of elliptica which has leaves similar to angutifolia.


Sorry, fragrance won’t help …, both coreia & elliptica are fragrant as per Thailand doc.

I would say you should rely more on … regarding the id of this species. My encounter with Morinda was only once.
My points in favour of elliptica are –
  • no amount of pubescence can be seen in either in leaves or in flowers
  • corolla tube looks shorter, but I can be wrong here do you have stats?
  • leaf margin somewhat undulate
  • somewhat curved filaments (not a strong point)
Now, you decide what species you have submitted.


Thank you very much for your help sir.

I will keep it as a maybe between the two species.

Thanks to this discussion, I will be able to spot some Morinda species that I read up on.


I think it should be Morinda coreia Buch.-Ham. as per comparative images at Morinda


Yes, you are correct 


 

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20 th April 2010– Versova  ( Andheri) -Mumbai; Request for ID 220410SC1 – efloraofindia | Google Groups

 

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Mhow, Indore, MP: Request for Species Id : 12 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (2)
Forest tree
Mhow, Dist Indore, Madhya Pradesh
Request for Species Id.


Looks like Morinda sp. Not sure of the species from fruits


Thank you sir.
The fruit is Karunda (Carissa spinarum)


So there are two plants?


After sending the pics I saw that the second pic also contained the pic of the Karaunda fruit. My apologies. 


Please send the close up of the flowers of the plant/ tree (i.e. other than Karaunda). It looks interesting.  Though the flowers resemble Morinda, the leaves do not tally.


Sending close up of the flowers and leaves of the unknown flora species.


I will visit the site soon and click more pictures. The forest is roughly 15 km from my residence. 


Please take pictures of stipules also. KEY to certain species of Thailand (we too have several of those species) can be downloaded from http://www.scienceasia.org/2013.39.n4/scias39_331.pdf


Will do …


I think it should be Morinda coreia Buch.-Ham. as per comparative images at Morinda


Correct ID …!


 

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Tree ID request – RK40 – 1-Nov-2012: Request id of this small tree from Tungareshwar. It is about 12 – 15 feet tall and the leaves have a soft, somewhat velvety texture. Flowers and fruits not seen.


If I was to hazard a guess, I would say this is Antidesma ghaesembilla [now called A. pubescens].


It look like Morinda pubescens (Rubiaceae) to me.


Looks more closer to Gynochthodes umbellata rather than those at Morinda coreia


It looks like Morinda coreia to me. The bark is typical. A common species in Tungareshwar. It is usually a small tree.


 

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080619AB1 ID – Morinda pubescens? : 5 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (2)
Identification, please. Morinda pubescens?
Date/Time- November 4, 2017; 12:18 hrs.
Location- Place, Altitude, GPS- Eastern Melghat; 21°17.483′ N, 77°22.530′ E
Habitat- Garden/ Urban/ Wild/ Type- Wild
Plant Habit- Tree/ Shrub/ Climber/ Herb-  Tree
Height/Length- 8-10’ Height


Pl. check with images and details at 


Thanks … Looks like it is Morinda coreia.

Yes, …, You are right based on leaves and bark.

References:

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