Basil, Sweet basil, Ram Tulsi राम तुलसी (Hindi), Sabje (Gujarati), Sabza (Marathi), துளஸி Tirunittru (Tamil), Khubkalam (Bengali), Kattu tulasi (Malayalam); ‘Tukhmariya’ ‘तुखमरीया’ / ‘Sabjache Bee’  ‘सब्‍जाचे बी’ in Marathi
Complete set of Keys for Indian Species available on efi page Ocimum.
The species is characterised by 3-6 cm long leaves, petiole winged in upper part, leaves-ovate-oblong, bracts lanceolate 6-8 mm, flowers pink or white, corolla 7-9 mm long, fruiting calyx 5-7 mm long with 2 mm long front teeth.
Although they may be confused, Leaves are usually shorter than 2.5 cm narrower than 1.5 cm in O. americanum, always longer than 2.5 cm and broader than 1.5 cm in O. basilicum. Corolla 3-5 mm long in former, 6-9 mm long in latter. fruiting calyx 4-5 mm long in former, 5-7 in latter. Both are herbs with fruiting calyx ascending or spreading, upper calyx lobe circular with wings decurrent (joined) to middle of calyx, and front two teeth of calyx quite distinct.
O. gratissimum is a shrub with wooly leaves 5-12 cm long and 1.5-6 cm broad, fruiting calyx drooping, up to 5 mm long and corolla 4.5-5 mm long. Upper calyx lobe has wings only slightly decurrent on calyx, and front two teeth very close to each other.
Calyx tube is bearded within in all above species
O. tenuiflorum (O. sanctum) has 2-4 cm long leaves, calyx glabrous within, fruiting calyx spreading, 4-5.5 mm long, corolla 3-4 mm long. upper calyx lobe abruptly acute, lower two teeth long, spine-tipped.

a very good information on this plant available on


Pl. confirm:
I’ve planted this one in my garden. Locally identified as ‘MAROOAH’ plant. The leaves & flowers are scented, somewhat identical to TULSI but much more scented. Plant has grown to a height of around 2 ft. & is a shrub. This has been planted under shade but still it is doing good. Please identify this one as I’ve tried to search under the name ‘MAROOAH’ but did not get any near results. I’ve searched for ‘Tulsi’ also but no results.

I think this is Ocimum basilicum also known as “Niazbo“.

Your Basil is a culinary Basil originating from Thailand, known as Basil Siam Queen… called in Thailand as “Horapha“.

Notice the inflorescence’s anatomy… its NOT A SPIKE… seems to be a bunch… a cyme or a corymb… and the leaves are large, light green..
Secret of growing culinary basil to eat in italian cooking for pasta or pizza etc is to not to let it go to flower…
becomes bitter… pinching the top keeps the leaves tender and taste just right,  …
although i must confess I loved seeing these flowers, they are just sooo beautiful…

Marawa in gujarati is the Lantana whose leaf smells when crushed… earthy ++ unripe mango like….
and its very distinctive, once experienced one does not forget…
may be its the same with some of these culinary herbs,….

This Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum), once native to India & Persia, is said to be considered by Hindus as a passport to heaven when buried with them.
This was a ‘Royal herb’ for ancient Greeks, it seems.

This is a common kitchen herbal garden plant in TN.
Tamil name: திருநீற்றுப் பச்சிலை (Thiruneetru pachchilai).
Leaf-juice is administered into painful ear for quick relief.

Yes Dr. .., you are right….as I re-read my own message…
I forgot to mention the binomial name of culinary or sweet  basil….
it is indeed Ocimum basilicum,
whatever country or continent it grows in….
and its nice to know its cultivated in TN..
here in cal/kol  it’s “imported” from Bangalore gardens and only the stores with refrigeration facility carry them…

Dear …
1.From the link you have given I could recollect that I have seen this plant quite frequently in some trecks or outings in villages. But did not know the name, neither veracular nor botanical. The leaf of this plant smells like Tulasi and hence is called as Jangali Tulas.
2.The Marawa explaination you have send: Lantana in Marathi is called Ghaneri. Why I dont know. Actually Ghaneri means bad smelling, but some how i personally and many who accompany me on outings like the smell of Lantana and flowers too. No doubt it is species camara.
3,Marawa smells different than Lantana, very nice and cooling smell. It is offered to god. Has a good importance in pooja especially in Ganapati and Gauri festivels. Not very sure but is used in rituals after death,
It is used by the Fisherwoman community in the garlands which they put on their hairstyle (called Veni)
we have a song in Marathi
Pachu Hirwa Ghalun Marwa
that is wearing a green sari and Marawa in hair
have started getting a doubt again now whether Marawa flowers like this??????
Some Marathi botanist pl


Request for ID : 220611 : AK-1:
Taken at Muscat,Oman on the 22nd of March, 2008. Cultivated garden plant.

Ocimum basilicum. Sweet Basil , Kannada – Kama kasturi, Ramkasturi,

sure its a basil…
but the leaves look to be too thin for the sweet basil used in western salads and eaten raw or in pesto…
in my experience, when the same seeds are grown in hot climate, or when winter grown Basil plants behave as Sweet Basil, and then are allowed to grow on their own till summer, the leaves become thinner, sharper tasting (almost as sharp as Tulsi leaves) … and with flowering ends up a little bitter…
Secondly… BASIL..OCIMUM to be exact cross pollinates like crazy and what the end result is often bewildering….
PS did you get to take a picture from the side , so the sahpe of the flower stalk be seen?

Yes Ocimum basilicum

Lamiaceae & Verbenaceae Week: Lamiaceae, Ocimum basilicum from Delhi:
Ocimum bsilicum, the basil plant, ‘Niazbo’, photographed from Delhi


Lamiaceae & Verbenaceae Week: Lamiaceae, Basilikum (Ocimum basilicum) from Ritterhude:
Basilikum grows only in a pot in my house. Very difficult to grow. Only in summer, I can buy some plants, but they don’t survive very long. This time I put some seeds, I had brought from Apulien,  in a pot. So far the plant is alive, but don’t know if they survive this winter. Leaves used with tomatos in salad. But snails like the leaves too, unfortunately.
Fotos taken in March 2011.

Flora of Panipat: Ocimum tenuiflorum from PIET Campus Panipat:
Small Aromatic garden Herb Ocimum tenuiflorum from Garden of PIET Samalkha Panipat
pls validate

doesnt look like Ocimum tenuiflorum???

That is why I had asked the question. Calyx throat seems to be bearded.

It looks more of Ocimum basilicum

At present i dont have more pics of this plant. Will try to see it again and also try to catch more pics

I think this time right Tulsi

Yes I think this is fine


Lamiaceae & Verbenaceae Week : 110711 : AK-1:
Ocimum or Tulsi taken at Munnar Kerala on 22/10/2008.
Probably growing wild as it was seen at many places in the resort.
Could have been planted too…I’m not sure.

I think Ocimum basilicum

looks like Ocimum kilimandscharicum

Ocimum basilicum only never O. kilimandscharicum

O. kilimandicharicum is an exotic , introduced into India about 3-4 decades ago.



Purple basil, Is it Ocimum basilicum ?- Flora Of Madhya Pradesh:
Photographed this Tulsi sp. at Betul, MP on 12 th Dec 11.
This basil’s leaves tasted very diff from Ocimum tenuiflorum / Tulsi . It had a taste n aroma of ajwain / Trachyspermum ammi.
Local people called it Kapoor Tulsi
Family- Lamiaceae.

Yes Ocimum basilicum, commonly known as Niazbo also in Kashmir and Punjab

To me it looks like Ocimum gratissimum lets wait for some more comments

My photographs of O. basilicum and O. gratissimum for comparison

Thanks … for comparative photographs it surely appears to be O. basilicum

Yes it is Ocimum basilicum



Flora of Mafhya Pradesh: 05022012 BS2 Ocimum sp for id from Alha Udal Akhara Maihar:

Ocimum sp for id from Alha Udal Akhara Maihar
This plant was small less than 1 feet
pls id particular sp

I think Ocimum basilicum only
We find similar flowers in Delhi also.

thanks Sir for id

Ocimum For ID : MNP,Mumbai : 230314 : AK-30 : Attachments (1). 3 posts by 2 authors.
Ocimum species seen at Maharashtra Nature Park, Mumbai.
Species id please.

It seems to be O. basilicum

Thanks for the id …


Ocimum basilicum L. SN May 24 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (2).
Ocimum basilicum L.
cultivated herb, the strain is with pilose hairs, leaves relatively smaller.

Ocimum basilicum L. from Assam : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (5).
Attached images are Ocimum basilicum L.  
Date :17.06.2014
Location: Assam
Family : Lamiaceae
Genus & species : Ocimum basilicum L. 
Habitat: Grows wild on roadside
Habit : Herb    

O1 28/7/2014 : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1).
Can you please identify this medicinal plant, probably an Ocimum sp. Photo was taken in Sri Lanka I March 2014.

Ocimum basilicum

Lamiaceae (inc. Verbenaceae) Fortnight: Lamiaceae- Ocimum basilicum from Coimbatore -BRSMAY01/11 : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (2)
Sharing the images of Ocimum basilicum from Coimbatore


Attached images are Ocimum basilicum L. from Assam


Lamiaceae (incl. Verbenaceae) Fortnight: Lamiaceae Ocimum basilicum var. thyrsiflora, Thai Basil from California-GSMAY83/86 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (3)
Ocimum basilicum var. thyrsiflora, Thai Basil
Photographed from Sunnyvale, California

Ocimum-basilicum ‘Spicy Globe’
Photographed from Sunnyvale, California


Lamiaceae (incl. Verbenaceae) Fortnight: Lamiaceae,Ocimum basilicum from Delhi–GSMAY78/81 : 5 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (5)
Uploading photographs of different aspects of of Ocimum basilicum.
The species is characterised by 3-6 cm long leaves, petiole winged in upper part, leaves-ovate-oblong, bracts lanceolate 6-8 mm, flowers pink or white, corolla 7-9 mm long, fruiting calyx 5-7 mm long with 2 mm long front teeth.
Photographed Delhi.

English Name: Basil
Tamil Name: திருநீற்று பச்சிலை, கற்பூரதுளசி
Just recently I learnt that the leaves (tender) are edible and are used as salad greens. Do this species have varieties?

i know its basil
what i wanted to to know was how to pronounce what you typed in tamil..

Tamil Names: Thiruneetru patchai (glaucous leaves), Karpura thulasi

Attached are pictures of Ocimum basilicum captured at VJTI Flower Show, Mumbai in February 2013.
Requested to please validate the ID.

Your identification is correct

Posted earlier, identified by …


Lamiaceae (incl. Verbenaceae) Fortnight-PC-03-Ocimum sp.-09-05-2015 : 5 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (1)
please identify the Ocimum species.

Ocimum species so far in efi with keys.

It is either Ocimum gratissimum or O. basilicum.

It is typical Ocimum basilicum, sweet basil, gives very pleasant aroma.


Ocimum ¿ species ?
Please ID … not sure of dimensions. Growing in scrub vegetation near creek.
at Vaghbil, Thane on October 30, 2010

i support Ocimum

Ocimum species so far in efi with keys 

This might either Ocimum basilicum or gratissimum.

This is Ocimum bascilicum confirmed


Lamiaceae (Incl. Verbenaceae) Fortnight: Ocimum basilicum ? from Panipat- NS May 94/94 : 3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (3)
This aromatic herb is in cultivation..
Please suggest if this can be Ocimum basilicum or otherwise..

Yes, it is Ocimum basilicum


ID please PC 1 110416 : 3 posts by 1 author. Attachments (1)
Please identify the Basil Sp in the picture. It is from AFA Senior Citizens Home Tuglakabad.

Pl. post other photographs showing habit etc.

From the photo I suspect it might be a Ocimum kilimandscharicum an introduced species cultivated through out India. It is having Camphor smell (Kappoor).

Thanks … Here is another picture. Attachments (1)

It looks like Thai basil (Ocimum basilicum var. thyrsiflora).

Thanks … for ID. And thanks … It does not have camphor smell.

Ocimum Species For ID : 09FEB17 : AK-15 : 3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (2)
Ocimum Species seen earlier this week (9.2.17) in Muscat.
Cultivated garden plant.
For Species id please.

I think Ocimum basilicum


Herb id from BD_SM_1207 : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (1)

Pl. check /species/a—l/a/acanthaceae

I think this is Ocimum basilicum, though pic is insufficient..


Ocimum basilicum :: Dattaji Salvi Udyan :: 01 MAY 18 : 2 posts by 2 authors. 4 images.
Dattaji Salvi Udyan  Thane

Date: May 1, 2018 … Altitude: about 11 m (36 feet) asl
Ocimum basilicum  L.

Date: May 10, 2018 … Altitude: about 11 m (36 feet) asl
Ocimum basilicum var. thyrsiflorum ‘Siam Queen’  

Appears close to images at Ocimum basilicum L. as per comparative images at Ocimum
Can not say anything about variety and cultivar.

Ocimum basilicum has many varieties and cultivars. This one is grown as an exotic pot herb in India. We had procured its plants in 2016 from Delhi and performing very well in Hamirpur (H.P.) and not so good in Shimla.

Ocimum basilicum var. thyrsiflorum clicked at Shimla in my kitchen garden
Other Ocimum visible in the photograph is O. gratissimum (Boodhhi tulsi)
Attachments (1)


MS/4/2020/2 – ID of basil – Ocimum sps. : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (4)
Kindly confirm the ID of the plant : Ocimum basilicum
Photos taken today (7.4.20) in Chennai garden.


Ocimum basilicum: 1 image.
Habit: Herb

Yes it’s ma’am


SK 2906 25 May 2021: 8 very high res. images.
Location: Kathmandu, Central Nepal
Altitude: 1400 m.
Date : 24 May 2021
Habitat : Cultivated
Ocimum sp. ! ID ?

Ocimum basilicum

I also agree with …


SK 2905 19 May 2021: 8 very high res. images.

Location: Kathmandu, Central Nepal
Altitude: 1400 m.
Date : 24 May 2021
Habitat : Cultivated
Ocimum sp. ! ID ?

Ocimum kilimandscharicum

I think there are more chances of it being Ocimum americanum L. as per images and details herein.

On further consideration, it is Ocimum basilicum L. only as in your another post:  SK 2906 25 May 2021

In fact, both species are quite confusing to each other.
As per efi thread :
Although they may be confused, Leaves are usually shorter than 2.5 cm narrower than 1.5 cm in O. americanum, always longer than 2.5 cm and broader than 1.5 cm in O. basilicumCorolla 3-5 mm long in former, 6-9 mm long in latter. fruiting calyx 4-5 mm long in former, 5-7 in latter. Both are herbs with fruiting calyx ascending or spreading, upper calyx lobe circular with wings decurrent (joined) to middle of calyx, and front two teeth of calyx quite distinct.

I have this plant. It is known as Kamakasthuri in Kannada. For me it looks like A.basilicum.


SK 2907 25 May 2021: 1 high res. image.
Location: Kathmandu, Central Nepal
Altitude: 1400 m.
Date : 24 May 2021
Habitat : Cultivated
Ocimum sp. ! ID ?

Ocimum basilicum

Same as SK 2907 25 May 2021 ??
Looks different !

I agree with … as per other threads..

SK 2906 25 May 2021 !
Surprising ! Both sp. same ID though looks so much different !



Lamiaceae (incl. Verbenaceae) Fortnight :: Lamiaceae :: Meriandra benghalensis :: Almora :: ARKMAY-13/13 : 10 posts by 5 authors. Attachments (3)
Attached are pictures of Meriandra benghalensis captured near Almora in November 2012.
Requested to please validate the ID…

It looks like Ocimum species.

Thank you again …, yet another unknown. I wish I could spend hours after hours browsing all threads so that I can learn as many as species ids.

… is correct. The Meriandra bengalensis is different as I have seen it.

Thanks … It was identified as such on another forum… Would like to know the correct ID…..

Ocimum species so far in efi

Isn’t it Ocimum americanum (= O. canum)?!

Thank you … for the ID….Hoping to get it validated….

Looks like Sweet BasilOcimum basilicum.

Meriandra benghalensis is a synonym of Salvia dianthera (see here-plantsoftheworldonline) but this plant is not Salvia in my opinion. Rather it should be in Ocimum genus.
Please compare with available Ocimum species in eFI.

Could be Ocimum sanctum.

Calyx tube glabrous within; pedicels spreading in fruit, terete or more or less so, fruiting calyx 4-4.5 mm long  … Ocimum tenuiflorum
+ Calyx tube bearded within; pedicels adpressed to axis in fruit and apically reflexed, flattened, fruiting calyx  5-7.5 mm long … Ocimum basilicum
O. basilicum
seems correct ID

I guess correct ID !


Platostoma coloratum (D.Don) A.J.Paton (accepted name) ?? : 5 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (9)
Location: Pilot Baba Ashram, Bhaktapur , Nepal
Altitude:  5200 ft.
Date: 11 September 2016
Platostoma coloratum (D.Don) A.J.Paton (accepted name) ??
Geniosporum coloratum (D.Don) Kuntze (synonym)  ??

Appears close as per images at

Nepali Names : वन बावरी Van Baawaree  / छाले सोइन Chhaale Soin / मोसी झार Mosi Jhaar / सेतो टाउके Seto Taauke / ठेउले Theule

Does not matches with illustration in FOC at

Yes …, it is not the right ID.

Can it be from Ocimum or some other close genus.

From the photos it seems to be Ocimeae group, but in labiatae based on photo it is difficult to identify even genus level as dissecting of flower is required for character verification, and most of the labiates morphologically similar with bilabiate corolla!!!!

It is some Ocimum species.
Leaves shown in last 2-3 photographs are of some different plant, may be Bidens species.

Leaves of Ocimum are also visible in the background.

Thanks, …  I agree with you. That may be causing confusion in I’d.

Yes, … Plant growing in the foreground is causing confusion. The photographs of leaves are only of the foreground plant.
Plant with Flowers is Ocimum species.

I think confusion created because of leaves may be of other plant entangled. Enclosing some images of other plant shot at the same time same location.
Attachments (6)

From the flower characters it is of Ocimum species, I am afraid based on this photo species id could not be made.

Leaves also resemble some species of Hyptis. Also check for H.mutabilis.

Only Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit. is listed in Nepal.

Not Hyptis, some species of Ocimum only

Ocimum basilicum L.

Yes, Ocimum basilicum L.


Ocimum Species for ID : Nasik : 06JAN22 : AK – 04: 2 images.
Ocimum Species seen in a plant nursery in Nasik.

Name was given as Sabja.
Ocimum basilicum, Basil?
Kindly validate.

You are right. It is called kamakasturi in Kannada. Check the seeds. They inflate with mucus if you put into your mouth and keep it for some time. Very useful medicinal plant.


Ocimum for id:
Request for id of Ocimum from Bilaspur. Photographed in February, 2022.
Is it O. gratissimum?

Ocimum basilicum

SK1634 08 Dec 2018 : 4 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (3)
Location Gyaneswor, Kathmandu, Nepal
Elevation :  4500 ft.
Date 2 August 2013
Habit : Cultivated 
I guess not native to Nepal.
Which Ocimum ??

Pl. Check comparative images at

Did not find a match.

Hello, in relation with the Basil, with red pollen, from Gyaneswor : it is the temperate Tulsi coming from Ethiopia… and not Ocimum americanum sp. pilosum or Ocimum americanum sp americanum.
Please, consult my very long monograph on this fantastic subject: Ethiopia is the source of the temperate Tulsi with its spicy scent of vanilla and myrrh… and red pollen.

my monograph is in relation with the Gyaneswor red pollen Tulsi growing everywhere in Nepal
As to your pictures, they are definitely Ocimum basilicum var. thyrsiflorum


I’d please identify place kota Rajasthan: 1 image.

Pl. post high res. images to check details.

Ocimum basilicum L. !

Yes, possible as per images at


Ocimum basilicum L. :: Waghbil, Thane, Maharashtra :: Nov 13, 2010 · 4:25 PM IST: 1 image.
Ocimum basilicum L.
Waghbil, Thane, Maharashtra :: Nov 13, 2010 · 4:25 PM IST :: about 3 m (10 ft) asl


Ocimum basilicum L. :: Waghbil, Thane, Maharashtra :: Dec 1, 2009 · 8:30 AM IST: 2 images.
Ocimum basilicum L.
Waghbil, Thane, Maharashtra :: Dec 1, 2009 · 8:30 AM IST :: about 3 m (10 ft) asl


Ocimum basilicum L. :: Waghbil, Thane, Maharashtra :: Nov 28, 2009 · 2:15 PM IST: 4 images.
Ocimum basilicum L.
Waghbil, Thane, Maharashtra :: Nov 28, 2009 · 2:15 PM IST :: about 3 m (10 ft) asl


Lamiaceae: Ocimum basilicum: 3 high res. images.
Ocimum basilicum from Andhra University campus, Andhra Pradesh,

Three species are quite confusing.
Pl. check with the following keys:
5. Fruiting calyx up to 5 mm long; corolla 4 – 5.5 mm long
6. Fruiting calyx 2 – 3 mm long; stem internodes with short adpressed or retrose hairs ……… 4. O. americanum
6. Fruiting calyx 4 – 5.5 mm long; stem internodes with long, spreading and sometimes retrorse hairs ……… 5. O. africanum
5. Fruiting calyx 6 – 8 mm long; corolla 7 – 8 mm long ……. 6. O. basilicum

Ok sir, I will check. And inform you



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