Pavetta crassicaulis Bremek., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 37: 112 1934. (Synonym: Pavetta stocksii Bremek.);
W. & S. India as per WCSP;
Indian Pavetta, Indian Pellet Shrub • Hindi: Kankara, Kathachampa • Manipuri: কুকুৰচূৰা Kukurchura • Marathi: Papat, Papdil • Tamil: Kattukkaranai, Karanai • Malayalam: Mallikamutti • Telugu: Papidi • Kannada: Pavati • Bengali: Jui • Oriya: Paniphingi • Assamese: Sam-suku • Sanskrit: Kakachdi;
pa-WET-tah — from Tamil name of the plant pavattai (பாவட்டை)
krass-ih-KAW-liss — thick-stemmed
Endemic to: Western Ghats & southern peninsula of India


Indian Pavetta:
My photograph of the flowers of the Indian Pavetta [Pavetta crassicaulis, syn. Pavetta indica] for comparison.

Very nice… shows the distinction of flower anatomy for anyone confusing this with Ixora parviflora

Both the names below are accepted names as per The Plant List: (Pavetta indica L.) (Pavetta crassicaulis Bremek.).
Which is this (our) Plant ?
What are the differences betweeen the two ?

Earlier discussion thread in this regard (though inconclusive):…

Yes P. indica and P. crassicaulis are distinct species.. plant here is look like P. crassicaulis


Pavetta crassicaulis & Skipper (for ID):
Name of the Species: Pavetta crassicaulis (P. indica)
Common/Local Name: पापट
Family: Rubiaceae
Photographed on: 01st June`12
Photographed at: Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary, Maharashtra
Habitat: Deciduous forest, hill slope
Description : recently flowered shrub, common in open forest hills and slopes.

According to “the Plant list” P. indica is an accepted species name and Pavetta crassicaulis is also an accepted name for another species with P. stocksii as synonym.

The butterfly looks like a swift butterfly of Hesperidae family, may be Rice swift.

Difficult to say without the upper view but this could be the Small Branded Swift.

The spots in the hind wing is the key character and here it doesn’t look like that of Small Branded Swift.

But I admit that we need characters of upper view, especially of the fore wing to confirm the id.

It is most probably Conjoined Swift (Pelopidas conjuncta)

Please check whether the spots in the hind wing extended to the discal cell. Here in this up loaded pictures the spots are not seen extended to the discal cell or it is not clear. If the spots extended to the discal cells then this could be Conjoined spot. I am not sure whether there is male female difference.


Flower ID:
Recently I saw a beautiful bush with bunches of very fragrant white flowers on the roadside near Hosur. I would like to know the name of the plant. Attached are two pictures.

I think it is Pavetta crassicaulis.

yes, pavetta

Pavetta species. What is the difference between P.indica and P. crassicaulis.


Kas week : Pavetta crassicaulis SMP:
Pavetta crassicaulis Rubiaceae


Date/Time : 17th of April, 2009/ 10.09 am
Location Place : Mahabaleshwar, Maharashtra… Altitude : … GPS :
Habitat : Wild … Type :
Plant Habit : Shrub … Height : about 3-4 feet … Length : …
Leaves Type : … Shape : … Size : …
Inflorescence Type : … Size :
Flowers Size : about 1 inch … Colour : white …

seems to be Ixora.. may be Pavetta too..
but.. please add inforamation on presence of stipules.. and add some pics of leaves too…

… strongly believing it to be Pavetta crassicaulis locally known as papat OR papti.

Leaves missing in two other pictures taken by me. I remember there were practically no leaves on the shrub….only lots of white bunches of flowers. And there were many such shrubs in that area overlooking the Krishna river in the valley below.

…most often sighted this shrub (P. crassicaulis) flowers when leafless.
At my flickr photostream:

.. I do agree with …
….For the plant- P. crassicaulis.
..., you could have touched the flowers.. and definately would have blessed with natural talcum….
….. Pollen mass attach to ur hand and u’ll feel it as a talcum powder,…!!! 🙂

Is it different from Pavetta indica, or is there a naming confusion?
GRIN has Pavetta indica in its database, but Pavetta crassicaulis is missing. IPNI has both, but with no connection between the two.

… yes … me too confused with these two names … however settled with P. crassicaulis at (representing Ingalhalikar ji’s FOS).
Best would be to check into British and Maharashtra flora … will revert with my observations.

According to Kew World Checklist (which I treat as an authority) both Pavetta crassicaulis Bremek. and Pavetta indica L. are accepted name, meaning they are two distinct species.
1. Pavetta crassicaulis Bremek., (accepted name)
Synonym: Pavetta stocksii Bremek.
2. Pavetta indica L. (accepted name)
Ixora pavetta Roxb., Fl. Ind. 1: 385 (1820), nom. illeg.
Ixora indica (L.) Baill., Hist. Pl. 7: 278 (1880).
Pavetta indica var. typica Domin, Biblioth. Bot. 89: 623 (1929), nom. inval.
Pavetta indica var. glabra Bremek., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 37: 119 (1934), nom. inval.
Any new light on this issue is welcome!

Putting here some references from archives:
1) … Theodore Cooke’s Flora of the Presidency of Bombay, Vol I Part III
2) … J Y Smith’s Matheran Hill, Its People, Plants and Animals
3) … The Bombay Flora by Dalzell and Gibson
…, please help on
P. crassicaulis.

In earlier discussions on Efloraindia P.crassicaulis and P.indica are synonyms.

According to Kew, they are not synonyms.
Cooke’s; Smith’s and Dalzel & Gibson are too old to follow for synonymy I think. Smith and Dalzel & Gibson were published much before the publication of crassicaulis. But Cooke’s flora is too good to help in identification.

Pavetta indica is distributed from Indian Subcontinent to S. China and Pen. Malaysia whereas Pavetta crasscaulis is distributed in West and South India. This is according to Kew.
By any chance anyone has the following reference (:P hehehe) this could be of great help: Pavetta crassicaulis Bremekamp, Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 37: 112 (1934).


KAS Week::(Indian Pavetta – 03/10/2012 – NJ):
Indian Pavetta – found in large quantities on roadsides in the month of April

My photograph of the Indian Pavetta [Pavetta crassicaulis, syn. Pavetta indica] is available at this link ;

pa-WET-tah — from Tamil name of the plant pavattai (பாவட்டை)
krass-ih-KAW-liss — thick-stemmed
Jul 3, 2010 … at Ambavane, near Amby Valley, Maharashtra
commonly known as: thick-stemmed pavetta • Hindi: पापड़ी papari • Marathi: पापट papat
Endemic to: Western Ghats & southern peninsula of India
Reference: Flowers of Sahyadri by Shrikant Ingalhalikar • Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
more views: Feb 22, 2009 … at Mahuli near Shahapur, Maharashtra
Jun 12, 2010 … at Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary, Maharashtra

Nice set of pictures especially with Common Lime Butterfly.?

Rubiaceae Week :: Pavetta crassicaulis ? in Matheran Hills:
Seen this Shrub at Matheran Hills. I hope my ID is correct?
Bot. name: Pavetta crassicaulis ?
Family: Rubiaceae
Date/Time: 19-02-2011 / 03:00PM
Location: Matheran hills
Habitat: Wild
Plant habit: Shrub

Yes dear … my belief: Pavetta crassicaulis.
Not knowing any other species which can confuse us.

Rubiaceae Week : Pavetta crassicaulis Near Bhor Pune:
Pavetta crassicaulis
Observed at Many places in Western ghats.



Rubiaceae Week: Tree for ID-100212MN:
Tree with flower seen on the way to Lords Point, Matheran.
Kindly identify the flower.
Place : Matheran
Date : October 2010

Habitat : Wild

…, must be Pavetta crassicaulis; locally known as पापट papat in Marathi.

Yes I agree to Pavetta crassicaulis.
I have seen similar occurrence of this plant near the points of Mahabaleshwar too.
Due to heavily flowing wind the stem and branches become tough and woody as seen here probably.

pavetta indica :  Attachments (4). 7 posts by 6 authors.
pavetta indica, in flower
mulshi dam area
this monday (April’13)

This is definitely not Pavetta indica. It represents some other species. Sadly I have no literature with me here in Riyadh.
If possible try to check with the Revision of Indian Pavetta by Deb & Rout, BSI Calcutta apperared in Bulletin Botanical Survey of India (Rout RC, Deb DB. 1999 Taxonomic revision of the genus Pavetta (Rubiaceae) in Indian sub-continent. Bull. Bot. Surv. India 41. (1-4): 1-182)
I think it will be an interesting species.

Many thanks … for validating the ID.
I have been taking it as Pavetta crassicaulis, an endemic to Western Ghats & southern peninsula of India.
Hopefully someone among us will check the Indian Pavetta paper you suggested and throw light on this species.

It looks like Pavetta crassicaulis to me too!

Would be nice to lay hands on the Pavetta paper

I think both are synonyms as per some earlier threads. Anyway interesting to know some details from the paper.


identification no 090911sn1:
This a very interesting plant,which I have been tracking for long. I dont find any change in the colours, size of the fruit, constant throughout. No visible changes like flowers I have seen., in several months. Kindly identify

location:mulshi,pune about 3000ft.above msl.
plant habit:shrub
heightlenght:about 5 ft.
leaves:slightly ribbed
fruits:green size,shape, colour constant

Pavetta indica

Could this be Celastrus paniculata? If so, locally it is called as Malkangoni and in Sanskrit as Jyotishmati, a powerful brain tonic.

Looks like Pavetta sp to me.

I think this is Pavetta indica

I think it may be Pavetta crassicaulis Bremek. as the leaves do not match with images at Pavetta indica L.

Requesting to please ID this plant captured at Sinhagad, Pune in Aug 2014. No flowering seen…

This looks like the Indian Pavetta [Pavetta indica].

Not Amaranthus? The vegetable we eat?

I think it may be Pavetta crassicaulis Bremek. as the leaves do not match with images at Pavetta indica L.


Yeoor hills visit report May 15/2013 :  Attachments (1). 3 posts by 2 authors. 1 correct image as above.
Visited yeoor hills Part of Sanjay gandhi national park, Mumbai, Maharashtra on May 15/2013

Indian Pavetta
Botanical name: Pavetta indica Family: Rubiaceae (Coffee family)

I think first photo may be Pavetta crassicaulis Bremek. 

Images by Dinesh Valke, Prashant Awale (Validated by Dinesh Valke), Aarti S Khale (Id by Dinesh Valke & Gurumurthi Hegde) & Mohina Macker (id by Dinesh Valke & Radha Veach) (Inserted by J.M.Garg) (For more images & complete details, click on the links)


near Bhor Pune– 4/5/08; from SGNP, May 08; in the monsoons of 2008 in Matheran, Mumbai’s Wildlife Region; in Matheran near Mumbai on 14th March,2009; at Matheran– April’09?; On 7/6/09 in Lotus Pond, Hyderabad, AP; in Ananthagiri forest on 27/6/09 in Rangareddy distt. of A.P. ; 20-July-2008- Gingee or Senji Fort, Villupuram district, Tamil nadu; 17th of April, 2009/ 10.09 am: Mahabaleshwar, Maharashtra; near Anashi WLS, Karnataka, last week of April, ’10;
FW: [WildFlowerIndia] Plant for ID 04/05/2008 SMP5 Pune – indiantreepix | Google Groups Pavetta Indica – indiantreepix | Google Groups for ID 160309 ET77 – indiantreepix | Google Groups  




ID Please: CR01072017 : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (2)
Place: Tamhini, Pune

Pl. check comparative images of Pavetta at efi site. 

Pavetta crassicaulis.


Wild Plant for ID : Karla,Lonavala : 11NOV20 : AK-10 :
A wild plant seen on the mountain slope.
Pavetta Species?

Only one image ? Habitat and other aspects ?

Pavetta crassicaulis ??

Thanks … I have only one picture.

Thanks for the id.


Amboli, MH :: Berries for ID :: ARK2021-95: 3 + 1 images.

This was seen at Amboli hill station, MH in Aug 2021.
Requested to please provide ID.

The fruits remind me of a Pavetta sp. [Rubiaceae].
However, the plant with peltate leaves appears to be Stephania japonica (Thunb.) Miers [Menispermaceae]. A few rain-soaked flowers of this climber are visible in the top portion of IMG_5651.JPEG.

Climber is Cyclea peltata

I’m afraid the climber in this post does not look like Cyclea to me. On close observation, the axillary umbel indicative of Stephania can be discerned in one of the photographs.

On going through the efi pics for Stephania japonica, the fruit images do not match.

As mentioned in my first email, the fruits appear to be of a Pavetta sp. [Rubiaceae]. There are multiple plants in your images, one of them being Stephania japonica (Thunb.) Miers [Menispermaceae].

I have another pic only of the leaves clicked just before these ones, and I think they may belong to some Pavetta.
Similar leaves are also seen in the above pics.
Will this pic help?

Pavetta leaves for sure. Most likely Pavetta crassicaulis Bremek. On close observation, several black dots (bacterial nodules that are known to occur in Pavetta spp.) can be seen scattered on the surface of the leaves in this photograph.


Mulshi near Pune, Maharashtra, June 2022 :: Pavetta crassicaulis for validation:: ARK2022-104: 3 high res. images.

This was near the Mulshi dam near Pune, Maharshtra in June 2022.
Is this Pavetta crassicaulis?
Requested to please validate.

Yes, appears close to images at Pavetta crassicaulis


Pavetta crassicaulis Bremek. :: Matheran :: Apr 1, 2023 · JUN23 DV215:

Pavetta crassicaulis Bremek.
Matheran :: Apr 1, 2023 :: about 800 m (2,625 ft) asl
I was not sure whether this was Pavetta. I could not recollect having seen such clusters of tiny flowers earlier. Thus, so many photos. I have clubbed 3 observations in this post.
Many thanks to Radha Veach for help with the ID at iNaturalist
Observation 1 :: Apr 1, 2023 · 4:10 PM IST
Observation 2 :: Apr 1, 2023 · 4:27 PM IST
Observation 3 :: Apr 1, 2023 · 4:32 PM IST


Jasminum malabaricum?: Mixed thread: 2 correct images- 1 high res. image.
Photos taken at Aambyvalley rd., Upper Lonavala Maharashtra in April 22.
I am not sure if the 3rd photo is of the same plant.

NO leaf and habitat image ? Looks different.

All are different

2 are the same I think

It is Pavetta crassicaulis. Additional photo attached.
1 image.

The 1st photo is of Jasminum only. Yes, others may be of

Yes … Both are different, posted in a single mail

Yes it is