Polygala javana DC., Prodr. 1: 327 1824. (syn: Polygala ceylanica Heyne ex Wall.; Polygala javana var. angustifolia Thwaites; Polygala javanica Steud.; Polygala raoii R.N. Banerjee & L.K. Banerjee);
India (Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala), Sri Lanka, Java, Lesser Sunda Isl. (Bali, Lombok, Sumba, Sumbawa, Flores, Timor) as per Catalogue of Life;
Common name: Java Milkwort • Malayalam: Kodassari • Tamil: Selagachedi
Flora of Eastern Ghats: Hill Ranges of South East India, Volume 1 By T. Pullaiah, D. Muralidhara Rao, K. Sri Ramamurthy (2002- Description & Keys- P. furcata, javana, persicariifolia, telephioides (now syn. of Polygala chinensis var. chinensis ), chinensis, buxiformis, bulbothrix, erioptera, wightiana, rosmarinifolia, linarifolia, arvensis & elongata)

Erect-ascending herb or undershrubs, 15-100 cm high; stems woody at base; branches divaricate, slender. Leaves alternate, subsessile, obovate, oblanceolate or elliptic-oblong-linear, cuneate or attenuate at base, obtuse or rounded-mucronate at apex, (5-)15-45 x (2-)5-20 mm, rusty-strigose on both surfaces; petioles 1-2 mm long, puberulous. Flowers 7-8 mm long, in axillary terminal or leaf opposed erect or pendulous 2-9 cm long (2-)5-15 (many) flowered racemes; bracts 3, ovate, 1-3 x 0.5-1 mm, puberulous, rarely caducous; pedicels to 6 mm long. Sepals 5, unequal, puberulous, yellow; outer sepals broadly ovate or lanceolate to elliptic-oblong, acute or subacute, mucronate, 1.5-4 x 1.2-2.5 mm; wing sepals broadly ovate, 3-angled, cordate at base, obtuse or subacute and mucronate at apex, 6-12 x 4-9 mm, distinctly nerved, yellowish turning pale green or reddish violet, persistent. Petals 3, adnate at base for ½, yellow; lateral petals ovate or elliptic-oblong, ca 3 mm long; keel petal 4-5 mm long, pale yellow or green with violet multifid filiform ca 2 mm long crest on back of apex. Stamens 8, pinkish; sheath 2-4 mm long, encircling style; free portion of filaments 0.5-0.7 mm long; anthers oblong-ovoid. Ovary stipitate, obcordate to 1 mm long, velutinous; style curved, broad towards middle, to 5 mm long; stigma subterminal, funnel- shaped, violet. Capsules broadly oblong or suborbicular, notched at apex, margined, 4-6 x 3-5 mm, puberulous; seeds oblong, ca 4 x 2.5 mm, densely stiff-pubescent; caruncle hood-shaped, 3-armed, with 2 arms larger and winged, as long as and covering seed. 

Flowering and fruiting: September-March
Weed in cultivated lands
Sri Lanka, South East Continental Asia and Malesia




Please help me to identify this herb found in the scrub forest floor near Chennai. Is this from Polygalaceae?
Height: 1-1.5 feet
Leaf: 3cm long; mucronate-tip
Flowers: 0.8cm across; yellow (lower petal frimbiated I think)
Date: 16 Aug 2012
Place: Tiruvallur dist., TN
Alt.: c. 45 m asl

You seem to be right in identifying this as a Polygala sp..

Great pictures of a Polygalaceae member. I have seen yellow flowered and purple/pink flowered ones but this seems to be unique with combination of colours. Thanks for including the shots of fruits/seeds too. Will have to study the characters in detail for possible ID

Could this be Polygala arvensis?

Can you please check it with Polygala javana

I agree with … id: Polygala javana.
In Tamil it is known as பெரியா நங்கை ‘Periyaa nangai’ (a name also shared by Andrographis sp.).



Id please – efloraofindia | Google Groups : (Mixed thread): 1 correct image as above.
Pl. identify the Polygala sp.
Locality -Dhimbam Ghats (1300m)
habitat: Open grasslands
habit: herb

I think it is Polygala javana.

To me appears close to images at Polygala crotalarioides Buch.-Ham. ex DC.

On further checking, it is Polygala javana only.


Polygala javana : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)- 680 kb.
kindly identify attached plants

Place: Salem
Altitude: 1500 msl
Habit: Herb
Habitat: Wild

IMG_1.jpg is possibly Polygala javana.

Agree with …

herb up to 10-15 cm height, cultivated.

For me, this looks like Hybanthus sp.

Polygala javana, i think.

Thank you … for helping, I do not think this is Hybanthus sps. Polygala javana might be a possible id, but not getting any images for comparison, if anybody have please please help. awaiting expert opinion

Polygala javana indeed missed the reprodictive parts each thnks to … for posting


For Id 260809JM1 – indiantreepix | Google Groups : 2 images.
On 16/8/08 in Talakona forest, in AP.

It looks like a Crotolaria sp.

This could as well be some Polygala sp. I remember one of Polygala sp. posting of … from AP.
Check for Polygala elongata (Polygalaceae family).

Thanks, … It looks quite similar.

It does not appears to be Polygala arvensis Willd., but something else.

This appears close to images at Polygala javana DC. as per comparative images at Polygala

it looks like Polygala longifolia

Thanks, … I think you mean to say Polygala elongata Klein ex Willd. as Polygala longifolia is different.
I was also initially confused with Polygala glaucoides (syn. Polygala elongata Klein ex Willd.) as per images and details herein.
However, on further scrutiny id of Polygala javana DC. as per comparative images at Polygala, is correct. 

Polygala species SN031016 : 6 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (3)
Polygala species from Dharmasthala area of Karnataka, ascending herb in the forest floor.

Polygala species in eFloraofindia (with details/ keys from published papers/ regional floras/ FRLHT/ FOI/ Biotik/ efloras/ books etc., where ever available on net) 

It appears close to Polygala crotalarioides. But absence of hairs on stem and leaves is confusing me. 

efi page on Polygala crotalarioides 

For me it is doubtful ID. The pictures do not tally completely with those seen on net.

May be Polygala javana DC.  as per images herein.
Pl. check.

OK …

May be Polygala persicariifolia DC.as per comparative images at Polygala
But I am not sure. Pl. check.

I feel more closer to Polygala javana DC. only.

I guess you are right


Polygalaceae: Polygala glomerata Lour.: 1 image.

synonyms: Polygala chinensis L., Polygala linariifolia Poir.
location/date: University of Agricultural Sciences campus, Bangalore, July 1997



Catalogue of Life  The Plant List Ver. 1.1  India Biodiversity Portal  Flowers of India  Flora of Peninsular India (Keys)

Flora of Eastern Ghats: Hill Ranges of South East India, Volume 1 By T. Pullaiah, D. Muralidhara Rao, K. Sri Ramamurthy (Description & Keys- P. furcata, javana, perssicariifolia, telephoides, chinensis, buxiformis, bulbothrix, erioptera, wightiana, rosmarinifolia, linearifolia, arvensis & elongata

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