Ranunculus arvensis L. (India: Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Uttarakhand, Arunachal Pradesh; Afghanistan; Pakistan; N. & W. Asia to Europe; Persia as per Srivastava SK (2010) Revision of genus Ranunculus L.(Ranunculaceae) in India. Taiwania 55(3): 273-314) 

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Ranunculus brotherusii Freyn (China (Gansu, SW-Nei Mongol, Qinghai, Shanxi, NW-Sichuan, C-Xinjiang), S-Tibet, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Jammu & Kashmir (Zanskar, Kashmir, Ladakh, Rupshu), Pakistani Kashmir (Nubra, Baltistan), India (Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh), Sikkim, Nepal, Bhutan as per Catalogue of Life)
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Ranunculus cantoniensis DC. ? (India: North – Western Himalaya to N.E. India, subtropical to temperate regions. Growing on grassy slopes as weed in irrigated fields at 1000-2500 m. Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa, Sikkim, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Nagaland and Manipur; Pakistan; Myanmar; Nepal; Bhutan; Malaysia; Indo-China; Korea and Japan as per Srivastava SK (2010) Revision of genus Ranunculus L.(Ranunculaceae) in India. Taiwania 55(3): 273-314)

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Ranunculus diffusus DC. (Himalaya in evergreen, subtropical or temperate forests on damp soil and in ditches at an altitude of 1300 – 2700 m. Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur, Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu; Myanmar; Nepal; Bhutan; Tibet; Baluchistan as per Srivastava SK (2010) Revision of genus Ranunculus L.(Ranunculaceae) in India. Taiwania 55(3): 273-314)

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Ranunculus distans subsp. distans (India: Temperate to subalpine regions in Himalaya in damp fields and ditches. Jammu & Kashmir (Ladakh), Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Orissa; Afghanistan; Pakistan; China (Tibet); Nepal; Bhutan; Central Asia and Russia as per Srivastava SK (2010) Revision of genus Ranunculus L.(Ranunculaceae) in India. Taiwania 55(3): 273-314)

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Ranunculus hirtellus Royle (India: North-West to North-East Himalaya, temperate to subalpine slopes at 2000 – 4500 m. Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, and Arunachal Pradesh; Afghanistan; Pakistan; Nepal and China (Tibet) as per Srivastava SK (2010) Revision of genus Ranunculus L.(Ranunculaceae) in India. Taiwania 55(3): 273-314)
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Ranunculus longicaulis С.А. Меу. (India: Kashmir (Ladakh), Himachal Pradesh (Pangi, Spiti Valley), Sikkim; Pakistan) as per Srivastava SK (2010) Revision of genus Ranunculus L.(Ranunculaceae) in India)

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Ranunculus muricatus L. (India: Temperate region of Himalaya and Peninsular India. Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu; Pakistan; Afghanistan; Iran; Greece; Russia to Europe as per Srivastava SK (2010) Revision of genus Ranunculus L.(Ranunculaceae) in India. Taiwania 55(3): 273-314)

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Ranunculus pulchellus C.A.Mey. (India: Himalayas; growing in meadows and cliff edges at 3500-4500 m in alpine and sub-alpine regions. Jammu & Kashmir (Ladakh), Himachal Pradesh (Lahaul-Spiti), Uttarakhand (Kumaon), Sikkim, Manipur; Afghanistan; Iran; Nepal; Bhutan; China and Russia as per Srivastava SK (2010) Revision of genus Ranunculus L.(Ranunculaceae) in India. Taiwania 55(3): 273-314)
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Ranunculus reniformis Wall. (India: Western Ghats of Peninsular India. Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Rajasthan. Growing on grassy slopes at 1600 – 2400 m. Rare and endemic as per Srivastava SK (2010) Revision of genus Ranunculus L.(Ranunculaceae) in India. Taiwania 55(3): 273-314)
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Ranunculus repens L. (Europe)? (India: Sikkim; Pakistan; Europe; USSR; West & South -West Asia as per Srivastava SK (2010) Revision of genus Ranunculus L.(Ranunculaceae) in India. Taiwania 55(3): 273-314)
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(India: Plains of North India, Himalaya and in warm valleys. Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Bihar, West Bengal, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Manipur; Japan; China; Myanmar; Nepal; Pakistan; Afghanistan; Iran; Syria; Egypt; Europe and Russia as per Srivastava SK (2010) Revision of genus Ranunculus L.(Ranunculaceae) in India. Taiwania 55(3): 273-314)
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Ranunculus trichophyllus subsp. trichophyllus (India: Himalaya; temperate and subalpine regions, in ponds and slow flowing stream at an altitude of 3500 – 4500 m. Jammu & Kashmir (Ladakh), Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Punjab, Sikkim; Pakistan; China (Tibet); Nepal; Eurasia; Africa and N.America as per Srivastava SK (2010) Revision of genus Ranunculus L.(Ranunculaceae) in India. Taiwania 55(3): 273-314)

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Ranunculus wallichianus Wight & Arn. (S-India (Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala), Sri Lanka as per Catalogue of Life)
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Key to the Species of Ranunculus L. (RANUNCULACEAE) (Source: Srivastava, 2010)

1.     Aquatic or semiaquatic herbs ……. 2

1.     Terrestrial herbs …………….…….. 6
2.     Flowers up to 1 cm in diam ………. 3
2.     Flowers more than 1 cm in diam. …..4
3.     Lamina reniform; flowers yellow; receptacles glabrous …. 20. R. natans (India: Jammu & Kashmir (Ladakh), Himachal Pradesh (Lahaul-Spiti), Uttarakhand; Afghanistan; Turkestan; Central Asia; China; Nepal; Mangolia and Russia)
3.     Lamina bristle like; flowers white; receptacles hairy …….. 27. R. rionii (India: Jammu & Kashmir (Pahalgam, Dal Lake, Ladakh); Pakistan; Central & Southern Europe and S.E. Russia)
4.     Leaves submerged, divided in capillary segments; flowers 1.5-2.5 cm in diam ………. 5
4.     Leaves not submerged, ovate-cordate with hollow erect stem; flowers 3 – 5 cm in diam …15.
R. lingua (India: Western Himalaya up to 2500 m, Jammu & Kashmir (Srinagar, Ladakh), Himachal Pradesh (Lahaul-Spiti, Kullu); Pakistan; Asia; Europe; America)
5.     Nectar pits elongated; achenes ca 0.1 cm long …… 33. R. sphaerospermus (India: Jammu and Kashmir (Ladakh); Nepal; Pakistan; China (Tibet) ; Egypt; Syria; Labanon; Turkey; and SE Europe)
5.     Nectar pits lunate; achenes ca 0.15 cm long ……… 36. R. trichophyllus (India: Himalaya; temperate and subalpine regions, in ponds and slow flowing stream at an altitude of 3500 – 4500 m. Jammu & Kashmir (Ladakh), Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Punjab, Sikkim; Pakistan; China (Tibet); Nepal; Eurasia; Africa and N.America)
6.     Herbs annual ………….7
6.     Herbs perennial …….. 12
7.     Achenes emarginate, smooth, not tubercled or spinous, in cylindrical heads ….. 31. R.
scleratus
(India: Plains of North India, Himalaya and in warm valleys. Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Bihar, West Bengal, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Manipur; Japan; China; Myanmar; Nepal; Pakistan; Afghanistan; Iran; Syria; Egypt; Europe and Russia)
7.     Achenes marginate, smooth, tubercled or spinous in globose heads…. 8
8.     Achenes tubercled all over the surface ……..………….………………….10
8.     Achenes tubercled or hooked along the border only or sometime smooth …… 9
9.     Radical leaves simple, glabrous … 2. R. arvensis (India: Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Uttarakhand, Arunachal Pradesh; Afghanistan; Pakistan; N. & W. Asia to Europe; Persia)
9.     Radical leaves 3-partite, sparsely to densely hairy …….. 30. R. sardosus (India: West Bengal (Howrah); Europe (France, Switzerland, Spain, France, Italy, Greece and Central Europe))
10.   Radical leaves reniform; flowers ca 1.5 cm in diam; sepals sparsely setulose ….. 19. R. muricatus (India: Temperate region of Himalaya and Peninsular India. Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu; Pakistan; Afghanistan; Iran; Greece; Russia to Europe)
10.   Radical leaves not reniform; flowers less than 1.6 cm in diam.; Sepals glabrous ……… 11
11.    Sepals shorter than the petals, ovate-lanceolate ..…… 4. R. bikramii (India: Western Himalaya, Himachal Pradesh (Lahaul – Spiti). Endemic)
11.    Sepals as long as petals, obovate …… 38. R. trilobus (India: Western Himalaya; Uttarakhand (Almora, Aasan Barrage, Baijnath), Sikkim. Mediterranean region in Greece, Albania, Italy, Malta, Portugal and Spain)
12.    Herbs forming clumps; leaves undivided or rarely lobed …………  13
12.    Herbs not forming clumps; leaves divided or prominently lobed … 16
13.    Decumbent herbs ……  14
13.    Erect herbs ……….       15
14.    Lamina suborbicular; margin teeth rounded, obtuse; sepals glabrous …… 9. R. trivedii (India: Himalaya; Jammu & Kashmir (Ladakh), Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim; Pakistan; Nepal; Bhutan; China (W. Tibet))
14.    Lamina subcordate; margin teeth triangular, acute; sepals hairy outside … 40. R. uttaranchalensis (Distribution: India: Uttarakhand (Gangotri in Uttarkashi))
15.    Plants 5-10 cm high; radical leaves ovate-lanceolate, silky tomentose ……16. R.
membranaceous
(India: Himalaya; Jammu & Kashmir (Ladakh), Himachal Pradesh (Kunawar, Lahaul-Spiti), Uttarakhand (Tehri), Sikkim; China (Tibet) and Pakistan. Found in dry cold desert areas in Himalaya)
15.    Plants 20-35 cm high; radical leaves oblong, ovate – elliptic, nearly glabrous ………. 24.
R. pulchellus var. longicaulis (India: Kashmir (Ladakh), Himachal Pradesh (Pangi, Spiti Valley), Sikkim; Pakistan), var. pulchellus (India: Himalayas; growing in meadows and cliff edges at 3500-4500 m in alpine and sub-alpine regions. Jammu & Kashmir (Ladakh), Himachal Pradesh (Lahaul-Spiti), Uttarakhand (Kumaon), Sikkim, Manipur; Afghanistan; Iran; Nepal; Bhutan; China and Russia) & var. stracheyanus (India: Jammu & Kashmir (Ladakh), Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim; Nepal; China (Tibet))
16.    Achenes tubercled …  17
16.    Achenes not tubercled …  18
17.    Leaves 0.4-1.2 cm in diam., crenate; sepals nearly equaling petals…………17. R. microphyllus (India: Himalaya. In marshy places along the stream at 1200-3500m. Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh; Nepal; Bhutan and China)
17.    Leaves 3-8 cm in diam., serrate; sepals shorter than petals …..  41. R. wallichianus (India: Western Ghats; Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala; Sri Lanka)
18.    Achenes with intramarginal ribs, flattened …. 19
18.    Achenes not margined, turgid ……………….. 26
19.    Achenes dotted .………………………………  20
19.    Achenes not dotted ………………………….   21
20.    Lobes of the leaves scarcely segmented; flowers 0.8-1.5 cm in diam.………9. R. diffusus var. diffusus (Himalaya in evergreen, subtropical or temperate forests on damp soil and in ditches at an altitude of 1300 – 2700 m. Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur, Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu; Myanmar; Nepal; Bhutan; Tibet; Baluchistan) & var. mollis (India: Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, West Bengal, Manipur, Sikkim, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh)
20.    Lobes of the leaves deeply divided; flowers 1.5-2.5 cm in diam. ..… 5. R. subpinnatus (India; Western Ghats of Peninsular India; Tamil Nadu, Kerala, West Bengal (Darjeeling), Assam)
21.    Receptacles of fruits pilose ………………   22
21.    Receptacles of fruits glabrous …………     24
22.    Stout plants; stem with stiff hairs; radical leaf blade ovate or broadly ovate..6. R. cantoniensis (India: North – Western Himalaya to N.E. India, subtropical to temperate regions. Growing on grassy slopes as weed in irrigated fields at 1000-2500 m. Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa, Sikkim, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Nagaland and Manipur; Pakistan; Myanmar; Nepal; Bhutan; Malaysia; Indo-China; Korea and Japan)
22.    Slender plants; stem villous without stiff hairs; radical leaf blade triangular ovate to broadly rounded, cordate or ternate ………  23
23.    Radical leaves broadly ovate to rounded; cauline leaves entire …… 7. R. chaerophyllos (India: Jammu & Kashmir (Ladakh); Europe; Asia and N. Africa)
23.    Radical leaves triangular ovate, lobes dentate; cauline leaves less divided …. 26. R. repens (India: Sikkim; Pakistan; Europe; USSR; West & South -West Asia)
24.   Stem densely strigose or with adpressed or spreading hairs; radical leaves tripartite, pentagonal or dissected …… 25
24.    Stem nearly glabrous; radical leaves pinnatified ……  22. R. pangiensis (India: Himachal Pradesh; Central Pakistan)
25.    Petioles 1.5-6 cm long; flowers 1-1.6 cm in diam; achenes ca 0.4 cm  in diam ……. 37.
R. trigonus var. strigosus (India: (Upper Siang) Arunachal Pradesh; China (SW Sichuan, SE Xizang, Yunnan))
25.    Petioles 12-15 cm long; flowers 2.5-3 cm in diam.; achenes ca 0.25 cm  in diam …… 14. R. laetus (India: Temperate to subalpine regions in Himalaya in damp fields and ditches. Jammu & Kashmir (Ladakh), Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Orissa; Afghanistan; Pakistan; China (Tibet); Nepal; Bhutan; Central Asia and Russia)
26.    Stem absent or creeping, stoloniferous …..…   27
26.    Stem erect or decumbent ……………………..   31
27.    Stem absent; leaves oblong, reniform, orbicular; petioles 3-8 cm long …….. 8.
R. cymbalariae (India: Jammu & Kashmir (Ladakh), Himachal Pradesh (Lahaul), Uttarakhand (Kumaon), Sikkim; Afghanistan; Pakistan; Siberia; Persia; Tibet and America)
27.    Stem creeping; leaves pentagonal to reniform; petioles 2-4 cm long ……  28
28.    Herbs caespitose or loosely caespitose ………  29
28.    Herbs not caespitose …………………………     30
29.    Sepals densely covered with brown hairs …..… 29. R. rufosepalous (India: North-Western Himalaya. Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh; Afghanistan; Pakistan and Russia)
29.    Sepals glabrous or with white hairs ……… 28. R. rubrocalyx (India: N.W. Himalaya; Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh (Pangi, Lahaul-Spiti); Afghanistan; Pakistan and Russia)
30.    Flowers ca 0.5 cm in diam., nectar scale forked or circular, surrounding the nectar pits … 12. R. hyperboreus (India: Himalaya at higher altitude. Jammu & Kashmir (Ladakh), Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, Manipur; Nepal; Pakistan and Russia)
30.    Flowers ca 1 cm in diam.; nectar scale cup shaped, laterally connate  to ventral side …. 23. R. pegaeus (India: Sikkim, West Bengal (Darjeeling); Nepal; Bhutan and China (W. Tibet))
31.    Root stock slender or small, thin fibrous ……  32
31.    Root stock tuberous or densely fibrous …….  35
32.    Leaves flabellate ………………. 10. R. felixii (India: Jammu & Kashmir, Sikkim (Rau, 1993); China)
32.    Leaves not flabellate ……           33
33.    Sepals shaggy …….  32. R. sikkimensis (India: Eastern Himalaya, ca 4800 m. Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh. Endemic)
33.    Sepals silky ……  34
34.    Herbs, 12-20 cm high, flaccid …… 1. R. adoxifolius (India: Himalaya. Jammu & Kashmir (Gulmarg, Jhelum Valley), Himachal Pradesh (Lahaul-Spiti) (Naithani and Aswal, 1984, l.c.), Sikkim; Arunachal Pradesh; Pakistan; Nepal and China (Tibet).)
34.    Herbs, 3-10 cm high, forming small mat ………… 5. R. brotherusii var. brotherusii (India: Himalaya. On alpine moist open meadows and scrub forests at 2400–4500 m. (Ladakh) Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh; Nepal; China (Tibet); Bhutan and Russia) & var. tanguticus (India: Eastern Himalaya. Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh at 3000 – 4000 m; W. China (Tibet); Nepal)
35.    Stem filiform, flaccid; carpels glabrous ……..  36
35.    Stem usually erect, neither filiform nor flaccid; carpels sparingly hairy to densely pubescent ……  38
36.    Leaves ternate or tripartite, segments obovate; flowers 2.5-3 cm in diam…….34. R. stewartii (India: Western Himalaya. Jammu & Kashmir; Pakistan)
36.    Leaves, tripartite, segments ovate or somewhat reniform, flower 0.8-1 cm in diam ……. 37
37.    Herbs 2-5 cm high; stem nearly absent or creeping .….. 13. R. jacquemontii (India: N.W. Himalaya; Uttarakhand (Kumaon), Sikkim; Pakistan)
37.    Herbs 5-15 cm high; stem erect or ascending ..…  18. R. munroanus (India: Western Himalaya; Jammu & Kashmir (Ladakh), Himachal Pradesh; Pakistan; Nepal; China (W. Tibet).)
38.    Radical leaves linear, deeply cut, laciniate …….……  3. R. aucheri (India: Western Himalaya, Jammu & Kashmir; Afghanistan; Pakistan and Iran)
38.    Radical leaves broad, rotund or reniform or palmate partite …… 39
39.    Radical leaves palmately partite ……  21. R. palmatifidus (India: Western Himalaya; Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh (Pin Valley National Park in Spiti valley), Uttarakhand (Uttarkashi))
39.    Radical leaves ovate orbicular or reniform ……..  40
40.    Stem many flowered, nearly 1-flowered in alpine forms ….… 11. R. hirtellus (India: North-West to North-East Himalaya, temperate to subalpine slopes at 2000 – 4500 m. Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, and Arunachal Pradesh; Afghanistan; Pakistan; Nepal and China (Tibet))
40.    Stem 1-flowered ….. 25. R. reniformis
(India: Western Ghats of Peninsular India. Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Rajasthan. Growing on grassy slopes at 1600 – 2400 m. Rare and endemic)
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List of Ranunculus L. species in India (Source: Srivastava, 2010)

1.   Ranunculus adoxifolius Hand.-Mazz.

      R. affinis auct. non R. Br.

      R. caespitosus Wall.

2.   Ranunculus arvensis L.
3.   Ranunculus aucheri Boiss.
4.  Ranunculus bikramii Aswal & Mehrotra
5.1  Ranunculus brotherusii Freyn var. brotherusii 

R. affinis Hook.f. & Thomson p. p. (non R.Br.).

      R. pedatifidus Ledeb. (non L.).

      R. brotherusii Freyn var. dasycarpus (Maxim.) Hand.-Mazz 

      R. brotherusii Freyn subsp. latisectus Reidl

5.2  Ranunculus brotherusii var. tanguticus (Maxim.) Tamura
R. affinis var. tanguticus Maxim.
6.  Ranunculus cantoniensis DC.
R. nepalensis DC.

R. trilobatus D. Don, non Desf.

R. fibrosus Wall. ex Hook.f. & Thomson

R. pensylvanicus auct. non L.f.

R .riparius Edgew

R. chinensis Bunge

7.  Ranunculus chaerophyllos L.
8.   Ranunculus cymbalariae Pursh
R. sarmentosus Adams
Oxygraphis cymbalariae Prantl
9.1  Ranunculus diffusus DC. var. diffuses

R. vitifolius D. Don

R. obtectus Wall. nom. nud.

R. trilobatus D. Don (non Desf, 1798)

9.2 Ranunculus diffusus var. mollis (Wall. ex D. Don) S. K. Srivast.
R. hydrocotyloides Wall. ex D. Don
10. Ranunculus felexii H. Leveille
11. Ranunculus hirtellus Royle

R. glabellus Royle

R. nervosum D. Don

R. choorensis D. Don

12. Ranunculus hyperboreus Rottb.

R. hyperboreus Rottb. var. typicus Hook.f. & Thomson

R. hyperboreus Rottb. var. multifidus (Regel) Hook.f. & Thomson

R. radicans C.A. Mey. var. multifidus
Regel

13. Ranunculus jacquemontii Riedl
14. Ranunculus laetus Wall. ex D. Don

R. distans D. Don

R. brevirostris Edgew.

R. riparius Edgew.

15. Ranunculus lingua L.
16. Ranunculus membranaceous Royle
R. pulchellus C.A.Mey. var. sericeus Hook.f., & Thomson
17. Ranunculus microphyllus Hand.-Mazz.

R. flaccidus Hook.f. & Thomson

R. ficariifolius A. Leveille & Vanoit

18. Ranunculus munroanus J. R. Drumm. ex Dunn
19. Ranunculus muricatus L.
R. emuricatus Majeed Kak
20. Ranunculus natans C.A. Mey.

R. hyperboreus Rottb. var. natans (C.A. Mey.) Regel

R. radicans C.A. Mey.

R. hyperboreus Rottb. var. radicans (C.A.Mey.) Hook.f. & Thomson

21. Ranunculus palmatifidus Riedl.
22. Ranunculus pangiensis Watt
23. Ranunculus pegaeus Hand.-Mazz.
R. hyperboreus Hand.-Mazz.
24. Ranunculus pulchellus C.A. Mey.

R. gaurii L.R. Dangwal & D.S. Rawat

R. flammula D. Don

R. nephelogenes Edgew.

24.1 Ranunculus pulchellus C.A. Mey. var. longicaulis (C.A. Mey.) Hook.f. & Thomson
R. longicaulis C.A. Mey.
24.2 Ranunculus pulchellus var. pulchellus
24.3 Ranunculus pulchellus var. stracheyanus (Maxim.) Hand.-Mazz.
R. affinis R. Br. var. stracheyanus Maxim.
25. Ranunculus reniformis Wall. ex Wight & Arn.
26. Ranunculus repens L.
27. Ranunculus rionii Lagger
Batrichium rionii (Lagger) Nymanin
R. trichophyllus Chaix subsp. rionii (Lagger) Soo
28. Ranunculus rubrocalyx Regel ex Komarov
29. Ranunculus rufosepalus Franch.
30. Ranunculus sardosus Crantz
R. pseudo-bulbosus Schur
31. Ranunculus scleratus L.
R. indicus Roxb.
R. carnosus Wall.
32. Ranunculus sikkimensis Hand.-Mazz.
R. nivalis Hook.f. & Thomson, non L.
33. Ranunculus sphaerospermus Boiss. & Blanche
R. peltatus Schrank subsp. sphaerospermus (Boiss. & Blanche) Miekle
R. aquatilis L. var. sphaerospermus (Boiss. & Blanche) Boiss.
34. Ranunculus stewartii Reidl
35. Ranunculus subpinnatus Wight & Arn.
36. Ranunculus trichophyllus Chaix
R. aquatilis L. var. trichophyllus (Chaix) Hook.f. & Thomson
37. Ranunculus trigonus var. strigosus W.T.Wang
38. Ranunculus trilobus Desf.
39. Ranunculus trivedii Aswal & B.N.Mehrotra
R. lobatus Jacquem. ex Cambess. nonMoench,
R. salsuginosus D. Don, non Pallas ex Georgi
40. Ranunculus uttaranchalensis Pusalkar & D.K.Singh
41. Ranunculus wallichianus Wight & Arn.
R. pinnatus Wight, non Poir.
 

References:
1. Srivastava SK (2010) Revision of genus Ranunculus L.(Ranunculaceae) in India. Taiwania 55(3): 273-314. [Full text with line diagrams]


Records of Ranunculus longicaulis and R. pseudohirculus (Ranunculaceae) from Nepal by Andrey S. Erst* and Alexander P. Sukhorukov – Taiwania, 56(3): 218-222, 2011 218 –

ABSTRACT: The records of Ranunculus longicaulis and R. pseudohirculus are cited from Nepal. Both species were earlier identified as R. pulchellus. The key for delimitation as well as taxonomic notes of these three species are provided. Some populations from Central Asia and Himalayas differ in pubescence details and morphometry.


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Attempting to get the exposure right for white and yellow-flowered plants (especially those with shiny petals) on sunny days is a challenge as they ‘reflect’ the light.  It can be impossible with most cameras to expose correctly for both the flowers and darker green foliage.
Most buttercups are yellow-flowered and thus fall into this category.  The images posted on efI of Ranunculus spp. bear testament to this!
However, they present additional difficulties, even in shady spots.
The best I usually manage is a ‘fair’ exposure.  Seldom am I comfortable with my photos of Ranunculus spp.
I spotted a small piece in ‘The Times’ (of London) 22nd February 2017 entitled ‘Secret of petal power’ which appears to provide an explanation for our ‘trials and tribulations’ trying, often with little success, to photograph buttercups satisfactorily.
Casper van der Kool of Laussane University has discovered the ‘secret’ behind the buttercup’s shiny petals: an outer layer only one cell thick that hides an air chamber beneath.  This “…acts as an optical film similar to oil on water of a soap bubble”.  It seems that butterflies use similar structures to produce colour.  His findings are published in the Journal of the Royal Society Interface.
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Functional optics of glossy buttercup flowers
Casper J. van der Kooi, J. Theo M. Elzenga, Jan Dijksterhuis, Doekele G. Stavenga
J. R. Soc. Interface 2017 14 20160933; DOI: 10.1098/rsif.2016.0933. Published 22 February 2017
Having read the abstract (though not the full article), I find the brief summary of this within ‘The Times’ is incomplete.  I recommend anyone interested, at the very least reads through the abstract, if not accesses the full article.  I shall quote the first sentence of this Abstract, “Buttercup (Ranunculus spp.) flowers are exceptional because they feature a distinct gloss (mirror-like reflection) in addition to their matte-yellow coloration.
NOT that this helps with photographing the buttercups themselves – especially a high elevations where u.v. light is an additional consideration.

AND there is the ‘small’ matter of correct identification of this challenging genus.  I must wait and STEEL myself for the task of scrutinising this genus in the Himalaya along with the entries for it in eFI.  It will not be a quick & easy task!  I have images of Ranunculus taken in the Himalaya decades ago that I cannot, at present, identify with confidence.


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Pl. go throughRanunculus ‎(Ranunculaceae) page with images of species in efloraofindia.

I request you to pl. go through & point out mistakes, if any. I hope this will aid in identifications in future. If anybody can send images of other species of this genera (for incorporation in the website), if any, or can identify unidentified images, it will be really nice.


 

 
 

 

 

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