Rauvolfia verticillata (Lour.) Baill., Hist. Pl. 13: 170 1895. (Syn: Cerbera chinensis Spreng.; Dissolaena verticillata Lour.; Ervatamia ophiorhizoides (Kurz) Lace; Ervatamia ventii; Hunteria sundana Miq. .; Ophioxylon belgaumense Wight; Ophioxylon chinense Hance; Ophioxylon densiflorum (Wall.) Thwaites; Ophioxylon macrocarpum Wight; Ophioxylon majus Hassk.; Ophioxylon neilgheerense Wight; Ophioxylon zeylanicum Wight; Rauvolfia altodiscifera R.H.Miao; Rauvolfia brevistyla Tsiang; Rauvolfia cambodiana Pierre ex Pit.; Rauvolfia chinensis (Hance) Hemsl.; Rauvolfia densiflora (Wall.) Benth. ex Hook.f.; Rauvolfia latifrons Tsiang; Rauvolfia loheri Merr.; Rauvolfia major (Hassk.) G.Nicholson; Rauvolfia membranacea Merr.; Rauvolfia obversa Koord. [Illegitimate]; Rauvolfia ophiorrhizoides (Kurz) Kerr ;  Rauvolfia perakensis King & Gamble; Rauvolfia serpentina var. gracilis Stapf; Rauvolfia superaxillaris P.T.Li & S.Z.Huang; Rauvolfia taiwanensis Tsiang; Rauvolfia verticillata var. hainanensis Tsiang ..; Rauvolfia yunnanensis Tsiang; Tabernaemontana cylindrica Steud. [Invalid]; Tabernaemontana densiflora Wall.; Tabernaemontana microcarpa Wall.; Tabernaemontana ophiorrhizoides Kurz; Tabernaemontana subcapitata Hook.f. & Thomson; Tabernaemontana wallichiana Steud.);

Rauvolfia verticillata (Lour.) Baill.: Rauvolfia verticillata (Lour.) Baill.
Photograph taken at Patgaon, Dist: Kolhapur (Maharashtra)
Date: 24/07/2011
Dissolena verticillata Loureiro, Fl. Cochinch. 1: 137. 1790; Cerbera chinensis Sprengel; Ophioxylon chinense Hance; Rauvolfia altodiscifera  Miau, R. brevistyla Tsiang; R. cambodiana Pierre ex Pitard; R.
(Sprengel) Hemsley; R. latifrons Tsiang; R. perakensis King & Gamble; R. superaxillaris P. T. Li & S. Z. Huang; R. taiwanensis Tsiang; R. verticillata var. hainanensis Tsiang; R. verti-cillata var.
oblanceolata Tsiang; R. verticillata var. officinalisTsiang; R. yunnanensis Tsiang.
Shrubs to 3 m tall, erect, glabrous. Branchlets pale gray, lenticellate. Lower leaves opposite, terminal leaves in whorls of 3 or 4; petiole 0.5-1.5 cm; leaf blade narrowly to broadly ovate or oblong, 3.5-25 X 5-13 cm, nearly
papery to membranous; lateral veins 6 or 7 pairs. Cymes rather lax, 3-9 together; peduncle 2-15 cm. Pedicel 3-6 mm. Corolla white, tube cylindric, 1-1.8 cm, inflated and villous from middle to throat; lobes broadly elliptic or ovate, 1-4.5 mm. Stamens inserted at middle of corolla tube. Ovaries distinct. Drupes ellipsoid or ovoid, distinct, ca. 10 X 5 mm. Seed 1.
Fl. Feb-Oct, fr. Apr-Dec. 2n = 22.

Used in China to treat snake poisoning, malaria, and typhus. The roots are used to treat hypertension and as a sedative. Distribution: Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam and China


Valparai: Tree for identification 200912MK02:

Please help me in identifying this small tree found in the wet forests of Valparai area of Western Ghats. I have no idea of this species.
Height: 2-3 metres
Leaf: 15-20cm long
Fruit: 1 cm across
Date: 01 August 2012
Place: near Sholayar dam, Valparai, TN
Alt.: 1050 m asl
Habitat: Shola edge

Probably its Ardisia species

This could be a species of Saprosma of Rubiaceae family.
Please smell the crushed leaf and if it gives a foul/unpleasant smell then you can check with other characters of this genus to reach the species.

This is Rauvolfia densiflora and known as Rauvolfia verticillata. One of the common Rauvolfia species in the high altitudes.

I was not aware about this species and the leaf shape and venation lead me to Saprosma. But the whorled leafs reminded me that of Rauvolfia serpentina.
Thanks … for the id and Thanks to … for uploading this new plant to me with very clear pictures.



Rubiaceae shrub for identification 240613MK01 : Attachments (7).  4 posts by 3 authors.

Please help me to identify this shrub found in the wet forests of Nilgiris. It was an undergrowth shrub of about 1.5m tall.
Leaf: c.18 x 6 cm
Flower: white, 1.5cm across, fragrant
Location: Kodanad, Nilgiris, TN
Alt.: 2000 M ASL
Date: 21 June 2013

Rauvolfia verticillata, Apocynaceae.

Very nice pictures and thanks for posting.  I have also seen this plant in Nilgiris and waiting to know the ID.  Thanks to … for the ID.


Rauvolfia verticillata (Lour.) Baill. SN May 40 : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (2).
Rauvolfia verticillata (Lour.) Baill.(= Rauvolfia densiflora (Wall.) Benth. ex Hook.f.), Apocynaceae
wild shrub from Coorg area of Karnataka

Seeing first time. Thank you for showing another species of Rauvolfia.

Anshi Ghat :: Rauvolfia verticillata :: DVFEB31/64 : 3 posts by 2 authors. 2 images.
Anshi Ghat Karnataka
Date: 25 MAY 2013 … Altitude: 340 – 380 m asl
Rauvolfia verticillata (Lour.) Baill.  (family: Apocynaceae)

Seems to be Rauvolfia verticillata


Family: Apocynaceae
Date: 5th April 2015
Place: Agumbe, Karnataka

Habit: Short tree
Flowers had no scent.

Excellent details …

what a unique flower face

Thank you … Yes, ma’am, it is. Short tree in a really tall-tree-filled forest. Only the parts of the tree peeking out onto the roadside were flowering.


Rauvolfia serpentina: 8 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (2)
Sharing some pictures of Rauvolfia serpentina shot at Gadawari Nepal on 13 July 2016 at 5500 ft.

No sir this is not Rauwolfia serpentina

It is cultivated in the Godawari Botanical Garden, an entity of the Government of Nepal.
It is Rauvolfia serpentina for sure.

Could it be Rauvolfia verticillata ??

Thanks, …  I think it appears close to Rauvolfia verticillata (Lour.) Baill. as well as per comparative images at Rauvolfia

Ultimately, in my opinion this is Rauvolfia verticillata (Lour.) Baill. (accepted name) but not native to Nepal rather I guess it is introduced by  the Govt.of Nepal.
Enclosing fruiting pictures of same plant from same location shot on
10 January 2017.
Also, enclosing the link of listing from Nepal for further caparison.
Attachments (7)

[efloraofindia:33899] Request for ID- 040510RA2 : Attachments (4). 11 posts by 8 authors.
Request for ID of this Apocynaceae family species. Thank you.  


Date/Time :


27 April 2010 


Location- Place, altitude and GPS:


Anashi WLS, Karnataka


Habitat- garden/ urban/wild/type:




Plant Habit-tree/shrub/climber/herb:










Entire, wavy, lanceolate, acuminate apex, alternate petioled leaves with prominnet venation. 


Inflorescence type /size:








Fruits type-shape/size/seeds:


Berries, black to red clusters

Seems to a Psychotria.. May be P. truncata..???

It looks like Psychotria but not not sure about species.

.. How about  Psychotria truncata..?

The leaves appear to be ternately arranged. So could it be a species of Rauvolfia?

Was there any milky latex while breaking the stem? Was there inter- petiolar stipule present?
This doesn’t look like Psychotria to me. As … pointed out this is surely an Apocynacean member could be Rauvolfia densiflora or another possibility is Tabernaemontana sp.
Please confirm the species only with flowers because the key characters are based on flowers. Family can be confirmed by replying to my queries in this mail.
I have a humble request to everybody that we should be able to zoom in to see characters. For this, at least one picture should be of little more resolution or please provide more information. While taking pictures please avoid hand shake or out of focus that makes life difficult.

Thank you so much ….  Yes it is Rauvolfia species, so the family ID was correct after all!

Seems to be a dwarf form of Rauvolfia verticillata


SK292JAN01-2016:ID : 7 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (2)
Location: Godawari Botanical Garden, Nepal
Altitude:  5000 ft.
Date: 15 January 2014
No more image. 

Wait for more features to appear..

Is it the same fruit ? efi thread

Yes, I also think so.

Request for ID of a Shrub : 10 posts by 5 authors. Attachments (6)
Request your help in identifying a Shrub.
Photographed in Cherrapunjee area, Meghalaya, about 1500 m asl, in Sept 2017
Shrub, about 1.5 m tall, woody stem at base.

Most possibly Rauvolfia tetraphylla.

I think you have reached to the species …

Would like a reconsideration on the identity of the plant. Comparing it to images on efi shows it to be a different from Rauvolfia tetraphylla.. Will check for more photos of this plant

Attachments (2)

Pl. also check with images at

Is it Rauwolfia densiflora?

Thanks, …
I also feel these are more closer to images at Rauvolfia verticillata (Lour.) Baill.
Rauvolfia densiflora (Wall.) Benth. ex Hook.f. is a synonym of Rauvolfia verticillata (Lour.) Baill.


SK1429 11 Sep 2018 : 25 posts by 5 authors. Attachments (3) – around 400 kb each.
Location: Victoria Peak, Hong Kong 
Date: 12 August 2018
Elevation: 1300 ft.
Habit : Wild

Any idea about family?

Pankaj might know. I guess he was telling me during the trip but I forgot.

Looks like a member of Apocyanaceae


Rauvolfia verticillata (Lour.) Baill. ??

Does it look like Rauvolfia verticillata?

Hahaha, ok it should be it then 🙂

You mean ID is correct …

so i am not the only one with senior moments!!  … both???

senior moment? look above in the thread. …  told you during trip but you forgot, that amusing because i am getting into this senior moment sometimes now

I think we are wrong. I will confirm later.

Verticillata has stalked fruit. Your plant seems to have sessile fruit!

Thank you …! It was just my guess. Anyways, you are there to solve it😁 !

It is indeed verticillata. Sorry for inconvenience!

My friend said that the fruits are not stalked but just that in some flowers only on carpel developed hence it looks like stalked.



Shrub for Id_Kankumbhi Forest_Belgaum_Karnataka: 4 images.

This shrub was observed at Kankumbhi forest near Belgaum, Karnataka.
Observed in July 2021
Kindly help in identification.

Check Rauvolfia verticillata

Yes, I agree as per images at Rauvolfia verticillata


Shrub for Id_Kankumbhi Forest_Belgaum_Karnataka: 4 images.

This shrub was observed at Kankumbhi forest near Belgaum, Karnataka.
Observed in July 2021
Kindly help in identification.

Check Rauvolfia verticillata

Yes, I agree as per images at Rauvolfia verticillata


Rauvolfia verticillata: Mandalpatti, Coorg, Karnataka: 9 images- 2 high res.
On 7.5.22 at Mandalpatti view point at around 4000 ft. in Pushpagiri wildlife sanctuary, Coorg, Karnataka.

For me the ID is correct. I have seen this plant on the  Karnataka – Kerala border (near Coorg) on the highway.