Shorea robusta Gaertn., Suppl. Carp. 48 48 1805.;
Sal • Hindi: साल Sal, Salwa, Sakhu, Sakher • Marathi: sal, guggilu, rala, sajara • Tamil: attam, venkungiliyam, kungiliyam • Malayalam: karimaruthu, kungiliyam, maramaram • Kannada: ashvakarna, asina, asu, bile-bhogimara • Bengali: Sal • Oriya: Sargi gatcho • Urdu: Ral, Safed dammar • Assamese: Sal, Hal • Khasi: Dieng blei • Sanskrit: agnivallabha, ashvakarna, ashvakarnika; 

Hypericaceae, Clusiaceae and Dipterocarpaceae Fortnight:: Dipterocarpaceae-Shorea robusta from Chakrata:: NS 16 (Concluding Post) : 5 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (8).
this is a valued timber tree, ….please find the flowers of Shorea robusta from Chakrata area and fruits from Kalesar (Haryana) recorded on different occasions..

what does the tree habit look like?

Only wordly answer I can give …, this is very a very huge, majestic tree, fortunately, we have a large protected area of “Sal” forest in Haryana Siwaliks..
I would have been happy to share habit pics, if I had any, flowers are usually very high up, getting them nearby really excites…

yes i agree Nidhan
the flowers are really high up so it is indeed very exciting to see them close and be able to photograph
I share your excitement and euphoria at finding them close at hand…
thanks for showing them
i had a rare chance to see them thru your eyes but I am greedy
always want to see the habit and habitat….
that’s why I ask being an armchair naturalist now ha ha
make the young ones do the laborious photography
jokes aside
it would be lovely someday with a perhaps a 10mm fisheye lens and a powerful digital camera that’s also light to carry on your field trip

Excellent pics.. Really interesting to see the flower photographs..


Paschim Medinipur : Shorea robusta Gaertn. : 5 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (4).

Thanks for sharing … First time observing close pictures of the flowers.

We were lucky to get some even closer views of beautiful flowers of this majestic tree…will share soon..


Flora of Chakrata-Shorea robusta flowers:: NS April 04 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (6).
This tree which is a source of high grade timber is blooming these days, was shot from way to Chakrata near Asan Barrage last week… (21.4.14)
Shorea robusta C.F. Gaertn.


Tree For ID : Jim Corbett,Uttarakhand : 220614 : AK-38 : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (2).
Tall trees inside the forest seen on 17/5/14.
Is it the bark of Shorea robusta?

Affirmative. This is the bark of Sal.

Thanks a lot for confirming.
I was given the names by our guide, but few days later you tend to get confused with the ids.


Tree For ID : Jim Corbett,Uttarakhand : 250614 : AK-49 : 5 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (4).
Tree seen inside the forest on 17/5/14.
These were very common trees in the forest.

These are also all Sal trees.

Thanks a lot for the id.
Sal and Sagwan (Teak) were the prominent trees in Corbett.

First two pics with thick & deep grooved, dark coloured bark are Sal and the remaining two pictures with  light bark coloured trees along the road are Teak (Sagaun)

Hypericaceae, Clusiaceae and Dipterocarpaceae SN 01 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)
Shorea robusta Gaertn plantation in the Dehradun shorea- Mussoorie Ghat

Hypericaceae, Clusiaceae and Dipterocarpaceae Fortnight: Dipterocarpus sp. for ID from Kothdwar, Uttarakhand-GSNOV14 : 3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (4).
Please help in the ID of Dipterocarpus sp. photographed from near Kothdwar in Uttarakhand in June, 2013

No wild Dipterocarpus sp. is known in Uttarakhand.
Probably Shorea robusta, which reach to about 1500 m altitude in the Kotdwar area.

Yes, Shorea robusta..


FLOWERS/TREES MENTIONED BY TAGORE IN HIS SONGS : ( SHAL-1 ) : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)
Attaching translated version of a song by Tagore, in which SHAL has been mentioned. The scientific name of this tree is Shorea robusta. The same song has been up loaded earlier while up loading BAKUL.

Attaching translated version of a song by Tagore in which SHAL (Shorea robusta) has been mentioned.

FLOWERS/PLANTS MENTIONED BY TAGORE IN HIS SONGS ( AAM-4 , JAM -2 ,SHIRISH -2 , SAL -3 ) : 1 post by 1 author. 1 correct image as above.
Attaching translated version of a song by Tagore in which AAM, JAM, SAL and SHIRISH are mentioned.


Sal forests under threat : 1 post by 1 author.
From Down to Earth magazine:


Attaching an image of SAL tree as mentioned by Valmiki in his Ramayan. Good quality Sal is not available at Cooch behar town. There are few trees. They don’t have majestic look. Scientifically this tree is known as Shorea robusta.

Now that you know about epics, I had been searching for one slok from vedas. This slok can be interpreted as, OFFERING ONE BRAHMA KAMAL TO GOD IS EQUIVALENT TO OFFERING 1000 ROSES TO HIM.
I am looking for the original sanskrit version of this if you could help.


Information on Shorea Robusta (Sal):

This is my first post to this group. I would like to request some information on Shorea robusta (Sal tree).
The details required are as follows:
1. Origin of the Sal tree
2. Geographic distribution (world & India)
3. Interesting facts about Shorea robusta
4. It’s uses to man and importance to ecology and society
I would appreciate it if someone could share this information or direct me to the right source as I am unable to find it online.

If you have a library near by…
Bombay historical society have several books on trees of India…
one such is The book of Indian Trees by Mr KC Sahni … Published by Oxford Books, 1998.
For Economic Botany … there are some hardwood books about indian forest trees, but I am blanking their names right now…
Some body else would know… there are some good books about wood of commercial purposes , I have seen them but dont have the info handy…
Your list of points needed is long and comprehensive…
are you writing an essay about it?


Identify krithmalai tree:
Raths (as in Jagannath ) are made of following timber: Krithmalai,
Saal, Jambaka, Saara, Sarala, Arjun, Kadira, Pansi.
Please Identify Krithmalai.

… if you know the language which krithmalai belongs, please let know.


Plant ID : 19 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (1)
Please help me identify the tree this seed belongs to? It got blown away into my yard after a storm.
I had been thinking it’s Bombay ceiba.

I meant Bombax ceiba

diptocarpus sp. most likely Dipterocarpus obtusifolius or D. intricatus.

is there a large regal looking tree in your neighbourhood ?
now you need to go search!!!
delightful task, regal trees with large shiny leaves and these seeds
if the seed is intact and not eaten up by insects (mostly they are eaten)
then,plant this one in a well drained soil in a pot, in shade. cover with a plate etc, do not overwater….. may germinate while monsoon is still around.
but what we have, shows two wings only
but four wings are not unheard of
colloquially known as HELICOPTER tree

i may have jumped the gun. the four winged fruit had me worried.
Dipterocarpaceae family has another set of trees that ususally has four winged fruit: SHOREA sp
we have a just the case: efi thread pictures by …
and a nice paper about Shorea seeds

As per suggestion by …, Pl. check

the seed in question is Shorea roxburgii
I could confirm it only after going through the link that … sent.
Something my gardener also mentioned about this seed belonging to a tree whose cutting is banned by the Indian government. Its wood is quite expensive and not a large number of these remaining.  He mentioned some local name which i cannot recall.
But of course i now know the botanical name and  thanks for identifying the exact plant !

Shorea robusta, common name Sal

thanks for the diagnosis. knowing the exact name helps a great deal

now we know. and what language would your garner use? it would be interesting to know what he called it and to document local vernacular names. many are known, but i suspect there are many that have not been jotted down.
was it something like CP katth? what state is this tree in? could you ask him again

Thanks … I would ask him again. The place I reside in is gorakhpur in Uttar Pradesh.
I would get back to you with the local name

The local name of the tree is ‘Saakhu ‘ or ‘Sekhuaa

yes sounds like it

wikipedia has at least one of theses names listed,
i quote ” The sal tree is known also as sakhua in northern India, including Madhya PradeshOdisha and Jharkhand.[3][4] It is the state tree of two Indian states – Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand.[5][better source needed]”
and when googled Sakhua tree
found a utube about it in Jharkhand

Sakhua (Sal Trees) of Jharkhand
so that validates what your gardener told you
Wild Tree Id from Bangladesh_SM_1442 : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (2)
Note: It is a giant wild tree, 27 feet girth.
Only trunk and leaf picture is available.
Location: Sangu Matamuri Wildlife Sanctuary, Bandarban
Picture taken: February, 2019

Leaves have a Magnolia sp type of look. But bark probably not so…

Leaves remembering Shorea, any more information …

Thanks, … Maybe Shorea robusta Gaertn. as per details and comparative images and details at Shorea, in that case.


Tree Id from Bangladesh_SM_1501 : 6 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (2)
Flowering and Picture taken : April, 2018
Habitat:  River shore (tree trunk submerged 6 months)
Locaton: Taherpur, Sunamgang, Bangladesh

Do you have any other good images?

Maybe some Apocynaceae member.
Better images and details are required.

Bhitarkanika NP, December 2021 :: Big tree for ID :: ARK2022-047: 3 high res. images.
This was clicked near the Dangamala boating centre in Bhitarkanika NP, Odisha in December 2021.
No fruiting or flowering seen.
Requested to please ID.

This appears to be Artocarpus lacucha Buch.-Ham. [Moraceae].

Shorea robusta only

Shorea robusta


Tree ID: 2 images.
I am new to this group and none of these photos are mine, but their are some images of these trees in Kanha National Park that I was curious if you could identify them. Taken November 9, 2015 and  February 26, 2020

Shorea robusta, the sal tree perhaps

Shorea robusta Gaertn. !


Shorea robusta Gaertn: 4 high res. images.

Location:  Shubhakuna, Surkhet, West Nepal 
Date: 30 May 2023
Elevation 600 m.

Habit : Wild

Nepali Names: ग्राख Agraakh/ साल Saal/ सखुवा Sakhuwaa

Yes … Sal in Hindi. Bihar has big forests of Sal.



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