Sida acuta Burm.f. (Images by Bhagyashri Ranade (Identified by Tanay Bose) & Balkar Singh & Ritesh Kumar Chaudhary (Inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade)) 

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Malvastrum coromandelianum (L.) Garcke (Images by Bhagyashri Ranade (validation by Dr.Nidhan Singh) & Nidhan Singh (Inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade & J.M.Garg))

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Sida alnifolia L.
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Sida cordata (Burm.f.) Borss.Waalk.



Sida cuneifolia Roxb. (Images by B. Rathinasabapathy (Identified by Vijayasankar Raman (Inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade))

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Sida mysorensis Wight & Arn. (This one has branched inflorescence, whereas, flowers in S. cordata are solitary as per efi thread)

(Images by Vijayasankar Raman (Inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade))

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Sida ovata Forssk. (Images by Dr.Gurcharan Singh (Inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade))

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(Images by Dr. Subhasis Panda (Identified by Vidyadhar Ogale) & Balkar Singh (validation by Nayan Singh), (Inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade))

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Sida spinosa L. (Images by Dr. Balkar Singh & Dinesh Valke (Identified by Tabish) (Inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade))

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Sida tiagii Bhandari (Images by N.S.Dungriyal (Inserted by Bhagyashri Ranade))

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Sida yunnanensis S.Y. Hu ? (Images by Gurcharan Singh (Inserted by J.M.Garg))

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Keys to the species of genus Sida L. in Maharashtra as per A Synopsis of the genus Sida L. (Malvaceae) from Maharashtra, India– Gajanan M. TAMBDE, Ramchandra D. GORE and Milind M. SARDESAI- Taiwania 61(3): 243‒252, 2016:
1a. Plants prostrate …. 3. S. cordata
1b. Plants erect  …. 2
2a. Petioles with 1–3 spiny emergences (spurs) at base ……. 12. S. spinosa
2b. Petioles without spiny emergence (spur) at base  …. 3
3a. Leaves linear or oblong; margins wedge shaped … 11. S. schimperiana
3b. Leaves cordate, acute, more or less rhomboid; margins crenate, dentate or serrate …… 4
4a. Pair of each stipules different, one lanceolate and other linear to filiform …. 1. S. acuta
4b. Pair of stipules not different … 5
5a. Mericarps 5 …..6
5b. Mericarps 7–10 ……7
6a. Plants neither aromatic nor viscid; mericarps not awned … 5. S. elongata var. balica
6b. Plants aromatic, viscid pubescent; mericarps with two awns … 6. S. mysorensis
7a. Leaf base cordate; mericarp awns retrorse ………………4. S. cordifolia
7b. Leaf base truncate, rounded and obtuse; mericarp awns not retrorse …… 8
8a. Mericarps dehiscent ….. 9
8b. Mericarps indehiscent …. 11
9a. Leaves retuse or truncate at apex; mericarps mucronate at apex …. 2. S. alnifolia
9b. Leaves acuminate at apex; mericarps with two awns at apex ……… 10
10a. Leaves concolorous both surface of leaf, pedicels not jointed …. 10. S. scabrida
10b. Leaves not concolorous both surface of leaf, pedicels jointed …. 8. S. rhombifolia
11a. Fruiting pedicels 2–6 mm long … 7. S. ovata
11b. Fruiting pedicels 15–25 mm long … 9. S. rhomboidea


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Malvaceae of Southern Peninsular India: A Taxonomic Monograph V. V. Sivarajan, ‎A. K. Pradeep – 1996- Great details- from p.228-

(Sida Sect. SidaeSida acuta, Sida alnifolia, Sida ovata, Sida rhombifolia, Sida rhomboidea (syn. of S. rhombifolia), Sida scabrida, Sida subcordata)
Sida Sect. CordifoliaeSida cordifolia, Sida fryxellii)
Sida Sect. MalachroideaeSida cuneifolia,
Sida Sect. NelavagaeSida abutifolia, Sida beddomei, Sida cordata, Sida elongata var. balica, Sida mysorensis, Sida repens, Sida spinosa)
Sida Sect. StenindaeSida linifolia)
All species alphabetically:
Sida abutifolia
Sida beddomei
Sida cuneifolia (is a synonym of Melochia corchorifolia L.)
Sida elongata var. balica
Sida fryxellii
Sida linifolia
Sida repens
Sida rhomboidea (is a synonym of Sida rhombifolia L. as per The Plant List Ver 1.1, Tropicos & Flora of China)
Sida scabrida,
Sida spinosa
Sida subcordata

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BSI Flora of India with details & keys (Volume 3- 1993) (Distribution):
Sida acuta Burm. f. (India: Along roadsides, in wastelands, both shady and open places up to 1200 m. Throughout; Pantropical)
Sida alba L. (India: Throughout; Pakistan)
Sida cordata (Burm. f.) Borss. (India: In waste lands, humid and shady places up to 1500 m. Throughout; Pantropical) 
Sida cordifolia L. (India: In dry waste places. Throughout; Pantropical) 
Sida elongata Blume var. balica (Miq.) Borss. (India: Kerala; Malesia (Java and lesser Sunda Islands))
Sida javensis Cav. subsp. expilosa Borss. (India: Kerala; West Indies and Malesia) is a synonym of Sida repens Dombey ex Cav.
Sida mysorensis Wight & Arn. (India: Along roadsides and in wastelands up to 600 m. Bihar, West Bengal, Meghalaya, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala; S. and S.E. Asia)
Sida ovata Forsskal (India: In dry open areas up to 600 m. Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh; Pakistan, Iran, Arabia and Africa)
  subsp. retusa (L.) Borss. (Similar to var. rhombifolia) (= Sida alnifolia L.)
  subsp. rhombifolia var. rhombifolia (Throughout in tropical and Subtropical regions; Pantropical) 
  subsp. rhombifolia var. scabrida (Wight & Arn.) Masters (Similar to var. rhombifolia) (syn. of Sida scabrida Wight & Arn. as per Malvaceae of Southern Peninsular India: A Taxonomic Monograph (1996))
Sida schimperiana Hochst. ex A. Rich. (India: Deccan plateau in dry places up to 300 m. Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Kerala; Africa) (not found in India as per Malvaceae of Southern Peninsular India: A Taxonomic Monograph (1996))
Sida spinosa L. (India: In waste places up to ca 900 m. Throughout; Pantropical)
Sida tiagii Bhandari (India: Rajasthan; Pakistan)

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In Flora of India Vol-3. (Eds.-B.D. Sharma, M. Sanjappa and N.P. Balakrishnan; published by Botanical Survey of India) the account of Indian Malvaceae was written by T.K. Paul.
As per this document Paul (1993) following species of Sida occur in India:
Sida acuta Burm.f. [line diagram given]
S. alba L. [synonym of Sida spinosa L.]
S. cordata (Burm.f.) Borss. [line diagram given]
S. cordifolia L.
S. elongata Blume var. balica (Miq.) Borss.
S. javensis Cav. subsp. expilosa Borss. [synonym of Sida repens Dombey ex Cav.]
S. mysorensis Wight & Arn. [line diagram given]
S. ovata Forsskal
S. rhombifolia L. [subsp. retusa (= Sida alnifolia L.); subsp. rhombifolia, var. rhombifolia, line diagram given, var. scabrida (syn. of Sida scabrida Wight & Arn.)]
S. schimperiana Hochst. ex A.Rich. [line diagram given] (not found in India as per Malvaceae of Southern Peninsular India: A Taxonomic Monograph (1996))
S. spinosa L. [line diagram given]
S. tiagii Bhandari
Scrutiny of these names in The Plant List 2013 indicate some of them as synonyms. 

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Binomial Habit Notes Ref. Distrib.
Sida acuta Burm.f. Erect or Ascend ing Under shrub Plains to Dry Deciduous Forests Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983 All districts
Sida cordata (Burm. f.) Borssum Prostrate or Ascend ing herb Plains to Dry Deciduous Forests Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983 All districts
Sida cordifolia L. Erect Under shrub Plains to Dry Deciduous Forests Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983 All districts
Sida mysorensis Wight & Arn. Erect Under shrub Plains to Moist  Deciduous Forests Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983 All districts   
Sida rhombifolia L. var. retusa (L.) Borss.= Sida alnifolia L. Erect or Ascend ing Under shrub Plains, Degraded Forests Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983 All districts
Sida rhombifolia L. var. rhombifolia  Erect or Ascend ing Under shrub Plains, Degraded Forests   All districts
Sida schimperiana Hochst. Erect Under shrub Dry Localities Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983 Coimbatore, Cuddalore, Dharmapuri, Kanchee puram,  Pudduk kottai, Ramanatha puram, Thanjavur, Tiruchchira ppalli, Thiruvallur, Tiruvanna malai,  Viluppuram   
Sida spinosa L. Erect Under shrub Dry Evergreen to Dry Deciduous Forests Flora of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983 All districts

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Sida carpinifolia L. (? Sida carpinifolia L.f. is a synonym of Sida acuta)





Sida rhombifolia L.  Var.  rhomboidea (DC.) MASTERS (? Sida rhombifolia var. rhomboidea (Roxb. ex Fleming) Mast. is a synonym of Sida rhombifolia)



Sida veronicaefolia LAM. (? Sida veronicifolia Lam. is a synonym of Sida cordata)

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Botanical name Synonyms Family Common name
Sida acuta Sida carpinifolia Malvaceae Common Wireweed
Sida cordata Melochia cordata, Sida humilis, Sida veronicifolia Malvaceae Long-Stalk Sida
Sida cordifolia Sida herbacea, Sida holosericea Malvaceae Heart-Leaf Sida
Sida mysorensis Sida glutinosa, Sida urticifolia, Sida wightiana Malvaceae Mysore Fanpetals
Sida ovata Sida aurescens, Sida dinterana, Sida flexuosa, Sida grewioides Malvaceae Oval-Leaf Fan-Petals
Sida rhombifolia Malvaceae Jelly Leaf
Sida spinosa Malvaceae Prickly Fan-Petals

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Sida alba Linn. (India and Pakistan)= Sida spinosa L.
Sida cordata var. cordata (Tropical and subtropical regions of the World) 
Sida cordifolia Linn. (Common in tropical and subtropical countries)
Sida mysorensis Wight & Arn. (Common in Tropical Asia)
Sida ovata Forssk. (In drier parts of Africa, Arabia, India, Pakistan and Persia)
Sida pakistanica S. Abedin (India, Pakistan and Socotra)
Sida spinosa var. spinosa (Tropical and subtropical regions of both the Old and the New Worlds) 

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Sida acuta Burm. f. (A pantropical weed)
Sida cordifolia L. (A pantropical weed)
Sida rhombifolia L. (A pantropical weed)

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Sida acuta N. L. Burman [Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Laos, Nepal, Thailand, Vietnam].
Sida alnifolia var. alnifolia [India, Thailand, Vietnam]. (syn: Sida retusa Linnaeus; S. rhombifolia Linnaeus subsp. retusa (Linnaeus) Borssum Waalkes; S. rhombifolia var. retusa (Linnaeus) Masters) 
Sida alnifolia var. microphylla (Cavanilles) S. Y. Hu [India]. (Syn: Sida microphylla Cavanilles, Diss. 1: 22. 1785; S. rhombifolia var. microphylla (Cavanilles) Masters) 
Sida alnifolia var. obovata (Wallich ex Masters) S. Y. Hu  [India]. (syn: Sida rhombifolia Linnaeus var. obovata Wallich ex Masters)
Sida cordata (N. L. Burman) Borssum Waalkes [India, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand; pantropical species of unknown origin].
Sida cordifolia Linnaeus [Bhutan, India, Indonesia, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand; Africa, South America; ± pantropical]
Sida mysorensis Wight & Arnott [Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Laos, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam].
Sida rhombifolia Linnaeus [Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Laos, Nepal, Thailand, Vietnam; pantropical].
Sida subcordata Spanoghe [India, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam].

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REVIEW ON THE SPECIES OF SIDA USED FOR THE PREPARATION OF NAYOPAYAM KASHAYAM by M.D.Ajithabai, *Sunitha Rani S.P, G.Jayakumar- International Journal of Research and Reviews in Pharmacy and Applied science- M.D Ajithabai et al, IJRRPAS, 2(2).173-195-
ABSTRACT Sida is a large genus with about 200 species distributed throughout the world. This genus is of great importanc in the Indian traditional system of medicine and this is perhaps the most widely used raw drug in the production of different Ayurvedic formulations. It is known as ‘Bala’ in Sanskrit. The correct identity of Bala remains controversial as the terminology used is quiet confusing due to the prevalence of several synonyms for the same plant and several forms having similar names.
Details-
Sida rhomboidea  (is a synonym of Sida rhombifolia L. as per The Plant List Ver 1.1, Tropicos & Flora of China)
Sida rhombifolia

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Indigenous Drugs Of India By Chopra R N, I.C. Chopra- Details-
Sida cordifolia

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An Excursion Flora of Central Tamilnadu, India By K. M. Matthew (1995)- Details with keys-
Sida glutinosa comm. ex Cav. (? Sida glutinosa Cav. is a synonym of Sida glabra Mill.)
Sida rhombifolia
Sida schimperiana Hochst. ex A. Rich.

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Flora of Ranga Reddi District Andhra Pradesh, India By T. Pullaiah, M. Silar Mohammed (2000)- Details with keys
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Flora of the Indian Desert by M. M. BhandariMPS Repros, 1990 – Botany435 pages

Sida tiagii Bhandari in Ann. Arid Zone 16(4): 455. 1977. Fig. 24. A low, much branched, perennial undersh- rub, densely stellately-tomentose all over. …………


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Sida : 1 post by 1 author.

I have updated eFI (efloraofindia) page on Sida

Attempts have been made to incorporate most of the species available in India & nearby areas with details & keys directly or through links as far as possible. It’s quite possible that there may be some discrepancy in the accepted names & synonyms taken from other links.

Species discussed so far in efloraofindia are given at the bottom of the page in the form of links against Subpages. On clicking them one can see all the details.

If someone can provide complete list of Indian species with source references it will be wonderful.

Any comments/ corrections are welcome.


I have added list of Indian species of Sida based on Flora of India vol-3.


Thanks a lot, … A lot of species given in

Malvaceae of Southern Peninsular India: A Taxonomic Monograph V. V. Sivarajan, ‎A. K. Pradeep (1996) are missing in this document published in 1993.


Following information with links will be useful in this matter:
Sida acutifolia is now Abutilon longicuspe Hochst. ex A. Rich.
http://www.ville-ge.ch/musinfo/bd/cjb/africa/details.php?langue=an&id=82050
Sida cuneifolia is a synonym of Melochia corchorifolia (Sterculiaceae)
http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/tro-19601756
Sida fryxellii is considered as a mere variant of S. rhombifolia not a distinct species in Flora of India after a critical study by authors.
Sida linifolia is really missing.
Sida scabrida is considered as a variety S. rhombifolia var. scabrida
Sida subcordata is really missing.


Thanks a lot, … It’s really nice.
It is Sida abutifolia (valid name as per GRIN & The Plant List) & not Sida acutifolia
Yes, Sida cuneifolia (is a synonym of Melochia corchorifolia L.)
Sida fryxellii Sivar. & Pradeep is an unresolved name as per The Plant List
I think Monograph is going to be more accurate. Otherwise also it is of more recent origin (1996) compared to Flora of India (1993).


Further updated the Sida page.


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Fwd: completed insertion of images for identified Sida species : 1 post by 1 author.
I have completed insertion of images for identified Sida species. Side cordata and Sida cordifolia were already done by some other members


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Pl. go through Sida page with images of species in efloraofindia (done mainly by Bhagyashri ji).

If you find any mis-identification, pl. let us know.

If anybody can send images of other species of this genera (for incorporation in the website), it will be really nice. Also, if anybody is interested to take up the activity of inserting images on efloraofindia pages from efloraofindia posts, pl. let us know.


The 4th image tagged as ‘Sida acuta’ looks different. It may be Sida rhombifolia.


Thanks, … Pl. see the detailed thread by …


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