Assam; Bangladesh; East Himalaya; India; Jawa; Malaya; Myanmar; Nepal; Solomon Is.; Sri Lanka as per Catalogue of Life;
Key to species as per
efi thread:
1. Lamina orbicular-ovate, 5-7-nerved from base; Stem densely prickly……………..S. ovalifolia
1. Lamina broadly ovate or elliptic, 3-5 nerved from base; Stem less prickly ……..S. zeylanica


The red and green hued leaves and raw green fruits of Smilax ovalifolia seen at the south end of the national park in Mumbai 11 June, ’10. Request validation of the same please. Thank you.


Smilax ovalifolia indeed …, the leaves are quite distinctive character

Recently I had shown some plants pictures to Dr. Almeida one of them being the climber Smilax. In my posts on ITP I had ided these as Smilax ovalifolia but they are infact Smilax zeylanica as corrected by Dr. Almeida. I think a few other posts of the same species earlier too have have been misided as S. ovalifolia. Kindly do the needful.  Thank you.
Others may also have a re-look on their posted pictures of Smilax ovalifolia.

Kindly help to identify this climber found in shades of high elevation.
Stipules are modified in to tendrils here.

Date/Time- 06 Mar 2010 02:00pm

Location- Place, Altitude, GPS- Satyamangalam RF; Eastern Ghats. ca. 1250msl

Habitat- Garden/ Urban/ Wild/ Type- wild

Plant Habit- Tree/ Shrub/ Climber/ Herb- climber

Height/Length- up to 8m

Leaves Type/ Shape/ Size- 10-15cm length

Inflorescence Type/ Size- panicle; 15-20cm length

Flowers Size/ Colour/ Calyx/ Bracts- 0.3-0.5cm across; petals golden colored

Fruits Type/ Shape/ Size Seeds- berry; on maturity is red

Other Information like Fragrance, Pollinator, Uses etc.- no fragrance

… a guess … some Smilax species ?

Yes, i agree with … Looks like Smilax sp. Check for Smilax ovalifolia..

Could this be Smilax zeylanica L.?

But Muthu ji, S. macrophylla, S. zeylanica are synonyms of S. ovalifolia.
Please wait for more comment(s).

Female flowers of Smilax sp. I wonder if S. ovalifolia occurs in E. ghats.

It is Smailax zeylanica.

Yes exactly Smilax zeylanica…Stipules modified into tendrils and reticulate venation (Although its a monocot) Smilax is an exception
with it..the roots are preferred as medicine..in veneral diseases..

This climber matches with Smilax perfoliata. Please validate.
S. perfoliata: Umbel > 7; leaf sheath auriculate; fruits ripening red
S.zeylanica: Umbel 1 – 3; leaf sheath narrow; fruits ripening black

i have seen S. perfoliata in which the auricles are very prominent and broad. The number of umbels is 10-30 as per Fl. China. And also read the petiole & sheath characters here: http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200027946
If you are fully satisfied with the characters and the id, pl go ahead.

oh okay sir, I arrived to these keys by ‘Excursion flora of Central TN’ by KM Matthew.
Now I can comfortable with the id Smilax zeylanica.
Thank you sir, for the clarification.


Climber ID request – RK42 – 1-Nov-2012: 2 images. Request id of this climber from Tungareshwar. The leaves are big and the veins are conspicuous. Flowers and fruits not seen.

It’s a multicostate convergent venation.
It may be Dioscorea, Zizyphus or Smilax.

Smilax zeylanica i guess 🙂

Agreed. This is Smilax zeylanica.


Wild plant ID request – RK90 – 9-Jan-2013: Requesting identification of this wild plant trailing on the ground in Tungareshwer. The stem is scattered with short spines. The leaves are quite big and the petiole is ridged and twisted.

This is a species of Smilax possibly S. zeylanica.

Could it be Zizyphus rugosa?


On a subsequent visit I luckily saw the fruits and I’m attaching the photo here although it is not of good quality. Hope it is possible to confirm the id with this.

So, it has to be Smilax zeylanica!



ANFEB41 Smilax zeylanica : 2 posts by 1 author. Attachments (10).

Family: Smilacaceae
Date: 26th December 2014
Place: Agumbe, Karnataka
Habit: Climber
Reference: Flora of Karnataka image one and two

For further information, please see this.



A spiny ground creeper – efloraofindia | Google Groups : 1 image.
got this strange looking creeper that grows on the ground….its stem is provided with sharp tough spines…and sometimes they can inflict a severe wound on legs…
pic taken in a bamboo glade near Narendrapur. Kolkata.

Smilax zeylanica !

Smilax zeylanica


attached pics of berries.
pl. confirm id.
pic taken on Silonda trail at Sanjay Gandhi National park, Borivli, Mumbai in the last week of Sept 2009.

I think it may be more closer to images at Smilax zeylanica L. as per comparative images at ‎Smilax (based on the relative size of the umbel and pedicels)

Smilax zeylanica L.


Affirmitive … Sending you some of my photographs.
3 images.

It may be more closer to images at Smilax zeylanica L. as per comparative images at ‎Smilax (based on the relative size of the umbel and pedicels)

Leaves to 5-costate, Smilax zeylanica L.

Smilax sp.?? Munnar- PKA47 : 5 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (2) – around 400 kb each.
This climber was seen at Eravikulam National park, Munnar.
Looks like some Smilax sp. Could this be Smilax ovalifolia??

I think looks different from images at

I think it is.

Thanks, … Is the suggested id by … correct?

Yes I think so

I think it may be more closer to images at Smilax zeylanica L. as per comparative images at ‎Smilax (based on the relative size of the umbel and pedicels)

I guess correct ID !

ID requested; Liana (Nellakkotta, Mudumalai Tiger Reserve, Nilgiris, TN): 4 images.
Moist semi-evergreen forests.

Check Smilax sp.

Yes, Smilax it’s,

Pl. check comparative images at Salix

Correct link is https://efloraofindia.com/2011/03/30/smilax/

I think Smilax zeylanica L. is possible as per images and details herein and as per comparative images and details at Smilax 


125 ID wild plant: 15 images.

Please ID wild plant,
Location: near Reserve Forest, Chathamattom, Ernakulam District, (Kochi) Kerala PIN:686671
Altitude: 1400fsl
Flower date: 02.08.2021, 03.50pm
Habitat: wild moisture
Plant habit: climbing, branches, hard thorny rigid young and cylindrical old stem, purple young shoot, hanging or climbing spring or tendrils tip thread, perennial
Height: 05 meters
Leaves: alternate, ovate, oblong, apex, size:12×6cm or less
Flower: orbital racemose, clustered, diameter:18mm, green, non fragrant
Fruit: ovate capsules, green into black size:1×.8mm, edible little sweet
Seed: brown up to 3 nos., pear shaped, size:2.5×1.5mm
Camera: mobile Samsung Galaxy A21s

Please check for Smilax sp.

This look like Smilax zeylanica (Syn. S.ovalifolia)

It is very close to Smilax wallichii … Thank you very much for helping to ID my plant,

Thanks, …, for the id.

I agree with you as per images and details at Smilax zeylanica L.
Smilax wallichii Kunth have distribution only in E.Himalayas as per POWO.