Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. (Images by tspkumar)

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Terminalia catappa L. (Images by Bhagyashri Ranade, Ranjini Kamrath and tspkumar) 
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Terminalia chebula Retz. (Images by tspkumar)

 

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Terminalia citrina Roxb. ex Fleming (Images by Raju Das, (Sourav Mahmud – Id by Surajit Koley) & (Sourav Mahmud – Id by Vijayasankar Raman), (For more photos & complete details, click on the links))

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Terminalia corticosa Pierre ex Laness. (Cultivated- Lalbagh, Banglore) (Images by (Raman Arunachalam – Id by Navendu Page) , (For more photos & complete details, click on the link))

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Terminalia elliptica Willd. (Images by tspkumar)

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Terminalia muelleri Benth. (Cultivated) (Images by Gurcharan Singh & Viplav Gangar, (For more photos & complete details, click on the links))

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Terminalia myriocarpa Van Heurck & Müll. Arg. (Images by Tapas Chakrabarty, (Shantanu – Id by Usha GLachungpa & Vijayasankar Raman) & Bimal Sarkar

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Terminalia neotaliala Capuron (Cultivated) (Images by (Aarti Khale – Id by Ajinkya Gadave ) & Aarti Khale, (For more photos & complete details, click on the links))

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(Images by J.M.Garg – Id by Vijayasankar Raman) 

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(Images by tspkumar)

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Terminalia procera Roxb. (Images uploaded by Dr. Tapas Chakraborty (photo courtesy : Mr. Joju Alappat)) 

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Three new species of the genus Terminalia L. [Combretaceae] : Attachments (1)- 019 Three new species of Terminalia, Combretaceae (1).pdf- 3 MB.- Pleione 12(2): 322 – 331. 2018- A. S. Dhabe
(Abstract- Three new species of the genus Terminalia L. (Combretaceae) are reported from Meghalaya and Gujarat states of India. These are Terminalia kanchii Dhabe (Saputara, Gujarat State), T. maoi Dhabe (Shillong, Meghalaya state) and T. shankarraoi Dhabe (Saputara, Gujarat State).

Gangopadhyay, M.; Chakrabarty, T., 1997: The family Combretaceae of Indian subcontinent. Journal Of Economic & Taxonomic Botany. 21(2): 281-365,. 1
Abstract– A taxonomic revision of the family Combretaceae of India and adjoining countries is presented, based on the study of herbarium specimens and observations in the field. Altogether 41 indigenous species representing 6 genera are recognized, keyed out and described with many illustrations. Anogeissus bentii R.T. Baker, Terminalia burmanica King ex Prain and T. manii King are reduced to synonymy. The name Combretum albidum G. Don is adopted replacing C. ovalifolium Roxb. Lumnitzera racemosa var. lutea (Gaud.) Exell is recorded for South India. 


 
  
Gangopadhyay, M.; Chakrabarty, T., 1992: On the status of Terminalia cuneata Roth. Journal Of Economic & Taxonomic Botany. 16(3): 556
Abstract– The name Terminalia cuneata Roth is adopted replacing T. arjuna (Roxb. ex DC.) Wight and Arn.


 
Flora of Maharashtra by BSI differentiating key says
TERMINALIA
1.Drupes winged; spikes panicled:
2. Drupes equally 3- winged, rusty puberulous …..
T. paniculata
2.Drupes equally 5- winged, glabrous:
3. Wings of fruits hard, lines on wings curved upwards …
T.cuneata (=Terminalia arjuna)
3. Wings of fruits papery, lines on wings straight … T. elliptica (? T. elliptica Willd.= Terminalia alata B. Heyne ex Roth)
1. Drupes not winged; spikes simple or sparsely branched:
4. Leaves clustered at apices of branches, eglandular … T. bellerica
4. Leaves not clustered at apices, frequently glandular on petiole or at base of midrib … T. chebula


 

 

Binomial Habit Notes References Distribution Common name
Terminalia
bellirica
(Gaertn.) Roxb.
Tree Plains to Mid
Altitude,  often Cultivated
Flora of Tamil
Nadu, VOL. I, 1983
All districts Thani, Thandri
Terminalia catappa L. Tree Plains,
Cultivated
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983
All
districts
Natvadumai,
Naattu Badaam
Terminalia chebula Retz. Tree Plains
to Mid Altitude,  often Cultivated
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983
Coimbatore,
Dharmapuri, Dindigul, Erode, Kanniyakumari, Namakkal, Nilgiri, Salem, Theni,
Tirunelveli, Tiruvannamalai, Vellore, Viluppuram, Virudhunagar
Kadukaai
Terminalia cuneata Roxb. (= Terminalia arjuna)
Tree Plains
to Mid Altitude, Riparian, often Cultivated
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983
All
districts
Vellai
marudhu, Neer Marudhu
Terminalia elliptica Willd. (= Terminalia arjuna (Roxb. ex DC.) Wight & Arn.) Tree Western
Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Dry Deciduous Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983; Matthew, 1983
Coimbatore,
Dharmapuri, Madurai, Namakkal, Nilgiri, Tiruchchirappalli,  Tiruvannamalai,  Kanniyakumari, Salem, Viluppuram
Karru
marudhu
Terminalia gella Dalz. Tree Western
Ghats, Dry Deciduous  to Moist
Deciduous Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983; Gamble, 1957
Coimbatore,
Madurai, Nilgiri, Tirunelveli
 
Terminalia pallida Brandis  Tree Mid
elevation, Dry Deciduous Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983
Tiruvannamalai,
Vellore
Vellaikkadukkaai
Terminalia paniculata Roth Tree Western
Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Dry Deciduous Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983
Coimbatore,
Dharmapuri, Dindigul, Erode, Kanniyakumari, Namakkal, Nilgiri, Salem, Theni,
Tirunelveli, Tiruvannamalai, Vellore, Viluppuram, Virudhunagar
Peikadukkaai,
Venmarudhu
Terminalia travancorensis Wight & Arn. Tree Western
Ghats, Moist Deciduous to  Evergreen
Forests
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. I, 1983; Clarke, 1878
Nilgiri,
Tirunelveli
Peikadukkaai,
Murukanji

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


 

 
Botanical name
Synonyms
Family
Common name
Terminalia arjuna
 

 

Combretaceae
 
 

Terminalia bellirica

Myrobalanus bellirica

Combretaceae


Terminalia calamansanai

Gimbernatea calamansanai, Terminalia pyrifolia, Terminalia bialata

Combretaceae


Terminalia catappa

 

Combretaceae


Terminalia chebula

 

Combretaceae


Terminalia elliptica

Terminalia alata

Combretaceae


Terminalia muelleri

Myrobalanus muelleri

Combretaceae


Terminalia paniculata

Pentaptera paniculata

Combretaceae


 

  • Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. – COMBRETACEAE
  • Terminalia paniculata Roth – COMBRETACEAE
  • Terminalia travancorensis Wight & Arn. – COMBRETACEAE


  •  
    Terminalia
    chebula
    var. tomentella
     (No distribution in
    India)
    Terminalia
    franchetii
     (No distribution in
    India)
    Terminalia
    myriocarpa
    var. hirsuta
     (No distribution in
    India)
    Terminalia
    nigrovenulosa
    (No distribution in
    India)


     
    An Excursion Flora of Central Tamilnadu, India By K. M. Matthew (1995)- Details with keys– 
     
    Flora of Davanagere District, Karnataka, India By B. K. Manjunatha, V. Krishna, T. Pullaiah (2004)- Details with keys

     
    Touching Trees: A Field Guide to Common Forest Trees in India By Prisentjit Das Gupta (2011)- Details-
     
    Gardening in India By George Marshall Woodrow, G Marshall (1999)- Brief details-
     

    Terminalia : 4 posts by 1 author.

    I have updated eFI (efloraofindia) page on Terminalia

    Attempts have been made to incorporate most of the species available in India & nearby areas with details & keys directly or through links as far as possible. It’s quite possible that there may be some discrepancy in the accepted names & synonyms taken from other links.

    Species discussed so far in efloraofindia are given at the bottom of the page in the form of links against Subpages. On clicking them one can see all the details.

    If someone can provide complete list of Indian species with source references it will be wonderful.

    Any comments/ corrections are welcome.


    Kindly refer to the following publications:
    1. The family Combretaceae of Indian subcontinent – M. Gangopadhyay & T. Chakrabarty – J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 21(2): 281 – 364. 1997.
    2. On the status of Terminalia cuneata Roth (Combretaceae) – M. Gangopadhyay & T. Chakrabarty – J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 16(1): 59-60. 1992.
    3. A new species of Combretum Loefl. (Combretaceae) from North Andaman Island – T. Chakrabarty & G. S. Lakra – J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 26(2): 502-504. 2002.


    In the above literature, there are two mistakes.
    1. calycopteris floribunda is now Getonia floribunda.

    2. Terminalia sharmae is identified as a species of Elaeocarpus (Unpublished, came to know from a friend who made fresh collection).

    I have no reprints left out. I hope you will have an easy access to the above publications in Combretaceae.


    Thanks a lot, …,
    I hope accepted species are properly enumerated at eFI (efloraofindia) page on Terminalia.
    Can you provide a complete list of Terminalia species in word/ excel etc. as per any of these references so that it can be included at Terminalia page ?
    As per one of your papers, the name Terminalia cuneata Roth is adopted replacing T. arjuna (Roxb. ex DC.) Wight and Arn. but it’s not getting reflected in any of the international databases. Can you pl. elaborate more on this ?


     

    Pl. go through Terminalia (‎‎‎Combretaceae) page with images of species (mainly done by …) in efloraofindia.

    If you find any mis-identification, pl. let us know. If anybody can send images of other species of this genera (for incorporation in the website), if any, it will be really nice.

    Also, if anybody is interested to take up the activity of inserting images on efloraofindia pages from efloraofindia posts, pl. let us know.


    I would like to mention that  the name Pentaptera arjuna Roxb. ex DC., i.e. the basionym of Terminalia arjuna (Roxb. ex DC.) Wight & Arn. has been recommended to be conserved against Terminalia cuneata Roth and T. elliptica Willd.  However, proposal to conserve the name Terminalia coriacea (Roxb.) Wight & Arn. as a replacement name for Terminalia ellliptica sensu Gangopadhyay & Chalrabarty (J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 21(2): 355. 1997), non Willd. 1806 has been rejected.  Thus a later name has to be fixed for it such as T. alata Roth and T. crenulata Roth (both published in 1921 and again, like that of T. cuneata Roth, here also the type materials are not extant).  I will come back to this thread as soon as this name is fixed.


    I am attaching herewith a sheet in which the correct names to be adopted for two species of Terminalia in India are elucidated for ready reference and correction of the efi page, if any. 

    Nomenclature of two species of Terminalia:

    The name Terminalia arjuna is valid (Pentaptera arjuna recommended to be conserved and will be done so next year in China) and  T. elliptica Willd. as well as T. cuneata Roth, both being earlier names of the same plant have been recommended for rejection.

    The name Terminalia cuneata sensu M.Gangop. & Chakrab., non Willd. 1806 will henceforth be called as Terminalia alata B.Heyne ex Roth, unless found otherwise.

    Nomenclature for the two species and their synonyms will be as follows:

    Terminalia arjuna (Roxb. ex DC.) Wight & Arn., Prodr. Fl. Ind. Orient. 1: 314. 1834.

    Pentaptera arjuna Roxb. [Hort. Bengal. 34. 1814, nom. nud.] ex DC.,  Prodr. 3: 15. 1828, nom. cons. prop.

    Terminalia elliptica Willd., Sp. Pl. ed. 4, 4(2):  969. 1806, nom. rej. prop.

    T. cuneata Roth, Nov. Pl. Sp. 380. 1821, nom. rej. prop.

    Terminalia alata B. Heyne ex Roth, Nov. Pl. Sp. 379. 1821.

    T. crenulata Roth, Nov. Pl. Sp. 380. 1821.

    Pentaptera tomentosa Roxb. [Hort. Bengal. 34. 1814, nom. nud.] ex DC., Prodr. 3: 14. 1828, nom. illeg.

    P. crenulata (Roth) DC., Prodr. 3: 15. 1828.

    P. crenulata Roxb. [Hort. Bengal. 34. 1814, nom. nud.] Fl. Ind., ed. Carey 2: 438. 1832, nom. illeg.

    P. coriacea Roxb. [Hort. Bengal. 34. 1814, nom. nud.] Fl. Ind., ed. Carey 2: 439. 1832.

    Terminalia coriacea (Roxb.) Wight & Arn., Prodr. Fl. Ind. Orient. 1: 315. 1834, non Spreng. 1807.

    T. tomentosa (Roxb. ex DC.) Wight & Arn., Prodr. Fl. Ind. Orient. 1: 314. 1834, nom. illeg.

    T. elliptica sensu M.Gangop. & Chakrab. in J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 21(2): 351. 1997, non Willd. 1821.

    Reference:

    Wendy L. Applequist 2016. Report of the Nomenclature Committee for Vascular Plants: 67. Taxon 65(1): 169-182.


    Thanks, … Pl. see if it’s all right now: Terminalia


    Terminalia alata is unresolved name as per The Plant List.
    What should we take then?
    Even it is not mentioned in BSI Mah flora


    It should be Terminalia alata as below:
    Terminalia alata B. Heyne ex Roth, Nov. Pl. Sp. 379. 1821. (Syn: T. crenulata Roth, Nov. Pl. Sp. 380. 1821.; Pentaptera tomentosa Roxb. [Hort. Bengal. 34. 1814, nom. nud.] ex DC., Prodr. 3: 14. 1828, nom. illeg.; P. crenulata (Roth) DC., Prodr. 3: 15. 1828.; P. crenulata Roxb. [Hort. Bengal. 34. 1814, nom. nud.] Fl. Ind., ed. Carey 2: 438. 1832, nom. illeg.; P. coriacea Roxb. [Hort. Bengal. 34. 1814, nom. nud.] Fl. Ind., ed. Carey 2: 439. 1832.; Terminalia coriacea (Roxb.) Wight & Arn., Prodr. Fl. Ind. Orient. 1: 315. 1834, non Spreng. 1807.; T. tomentosa (Roxb. ex DC.) Wight & Arn., Prodr. Fl. Ind. Orient. 1: 314. 1834, nom. illeg.; T. elliptica sensu M.Gangop. & Chakrab. in J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 21(2): 351. 1997, non Willd. 1821. (Reference: Wendy L. Applequist 2016. Report of the Nomenclature Committee for Vascular Plants: 67. Taxon 65(1): 169-182.)


    Which book or flora are we referring to??


    Wendy L. Applequist 2016. Report of the Nomenclature Committee for Vascular Plants: 67. Taxon 65(1): 169-182


    Please see the attachment and you will understand the problem.
    The proposal to conserve the name Terminalia coriacea which is typified well was rejected recently by the Nomenclature Committee. This necessitates the adoption of the name T. alata Roth though its  type is not extant. Attachments (1)- Terminalia nomenclature.docx


    You have to refer to:

    Wendy L. Applequist 2016. Report of the Nomenclature Committee for Vascular Plants: 67. Taxon 65(1): 169-182.).


    Thanks. Seems something very very recent development


    Species, genera & family pages of‎‎‎ Combretaceae are now with images. I request you to pl. go through & point out mistakes, if any. I hope this will aid in identifications in future.


    I am highly impressed with the Combretaceae page, though full representation will take time.
    ……………..
    Terminalia travancorensis Wight & Arn. is a poorly known doubtful species in need of clarification.
    Terminalia alata B. Heyne ex Roth (Sect. Pentaptera) – some nomenclatural problem still exists particularly this name is going without an extant type.  I hope we will be able to solve the nomenclatural problems here in near future!
    Terminalia arjuna (Roxb. ex DC.) Wight & Arn. will be a conserved name next year as conservation of its basionym, i.e. Pentaptera arjuna  Roxb. ex DC. (1828) against Terminalia cuneata Roth (1821 – type in Berlin herbarium  destroyed during World War II) has been recommended by the Nomenclature Committee on Vascular Plants in 2016.  The Committee has also recommended the conservation of Pentaptera arjuna against Terminalia ellliptica Willd. (1806).
    ………………………

     

     
     
     
     

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