Verbena aristigera S.Moore (Introduced) (Native to: Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Bolivia, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Paraguay, Uruguay; Introduced into: Botswana, California, Free State, Greece, Guatemala, Honduras, India, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, New South Wales, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia, Swaziland, Tanzania, Venezuela, Victoria, Western Australia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe as per POWO)
Verbena bonariensis L. (Introduced) (Native to: SE. & S. Brazil to S. South America: Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Bolivia, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay; Introduced into: Alabama, Angola, Arkansas, Assam, Austria, Azores, Bahamas, Bermuda, Borneo, California, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Czechoslovakia, Easter Is., Fiji, Free State, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Illinois, India, Italy, Jamaica, Kenya, Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Louisiana, Madagascar, Madeira, Malaya, Massachusetts, Mauritius, Mississippi, Missouri, Mozambique, New Caledonia, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Niue, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Oregon, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Réunion, South Australia, South Carolina, Spain, St.Helena, Swaziland, Sweden, Tanzania, Tennessee, Victoria, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe as per POWO)
Verbena × hybrida Groenland & Rümpler (Cultivated)
Verbena officinalis L. (Native to: Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Assam, Austria, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Central European Rus, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Egypt, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hainan, Hungary, India, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Jawa, Kirgizstan, Korea, Kriti, Krym, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, Netherlands, New South Wales, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northern Territory, Northwest European R, Pakistan, Palestine, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Queensland, Romania, Sardegna, Sicilia, South Australia, South European Russi, Spain, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tasmania, Thailand, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Victoria, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Western Sahara, Xinjiang, Yugoslavia; Introduced into: Alabama, Amsterdam-St.Paul Is, Azores, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, California, Canary Is., Cape Verde, Chile Central, Colorado, Connecticut, Cuba, Delaware, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, Florida, Georgia, Guatemala, Haiti, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Madeira, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Michigan, Mississippi, New Caledonia, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Niger, Niue, North Carolina, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode I., South Carolina, Tennessee, Tristan da Cunha, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin as per POWO)
Verbena rigida Spreng. (Introduced) (Native to: Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Bolivia, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Paraguay, Uruguay; Introduced into: Alabama, Arkansas, Azores, Bermuda, California, Cape Provinces, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Florida, Free State, Georgia, Hawaii, India, Jamaica, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Louisiana, Madagascar, Madeira, Mississippi, New Caledonia, New South Wales, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, North Carolina, North Dakota, Northern Provinces, Oklahoma, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Réunion, South Australia, South Carolina, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Sweden, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Victoria, Virginia, Western Australia, Zimbabwe as per POWO)
BSI Flora of India Checklist (Distribution):
Flora of Peninsular India with keys at species links, if any:
Species with description & pictures in Flowers of India as on 6.5.15:
Species with description & keys in Flora of Pakistan (Distribution):
Verbena bonariensis Linn. (A native of S. America, introduced and naturalized in the Himalayas and elsewhere in the Old World)
Verbena incisa Hook. (A native of lower S. America, introduced and cultivated elsewhere) syn. of Verbena tweedieana Niven ex Hook.
Verbena officinalis Linn. (Most of Europe and Asia, N. Africa; introduced in N. America and S. Africa)
Verbena tenuisecta Briq. (A native of S. America, introduced and naturalized in many parts of the world) syn. of Verbena aristigera S.Moore
Species with distribution in annotated checklist of Flowering plants of Nepal (Distribution):
Verbena officinalis L. (Europe, Africa, Himalaya (Kashmir to Bhutan), India, Japan, China, Indo-China, N. & S. America)
Some species found in India with description & keys from Flora of China (Distribution other than China):
Verbena officinalis Linnaeus [worldwide weed in temperate zones and tropics].
Floriculture in India By Gurcharan Singh Randhawa, Amitabha Mukhopadhyay (1986)- Details- p. 108-
Verbena x hybrida
Gardening in India By George Marshall Woodrow, G Marshall (1999)- Brief details-
Verbena aubletia Jacq. synonym of Verbena canadensis (L.) Britton
Verbena venosa Gillies & Hook.is a synonym of Verbena rigida (Naturalised)
Flora of Davanagere District, Karnataka, India By B. K. Manjunatha, V. Krishna, T. Pullaiah (2004)-
An Excursion Flora of Central Tamilnadu, India By K. M. Matthew (1995)- Details-
Verbena rigida (Naturalised)
Verbena & Glandularia : 1 post by 1 author.
Attempts have been made to incorporate most of the species available in India & nearby areas with details & keys directly or through links as far as possible. It’s quite possible that there may be some discrepancy in the accepted names & synonyms taken from other links.
Species discussed so far in efloraofindia are given at the bottom of the page in the form of links against Subpages. On clicking them one can see all the details.
If someone can provide complete list of Indian species with source references it will be wonderful.
Verbena (Verbenaceae)- comparative images : 1 post by 1 author.
Pl. go through Verbena (Verbenaceae) page with comparative images of species in efloraofindia. On clicking the link of species, one can check the complete details. Genus pages generally give details of most of the species found in India.
I request you to pl. go through & point out mistakes, if any. I hope this will aid in identifications in future. If anybody can send images of other species of this genus (for incorporation in the website), if any, or can identify unidentified images, it will be really nice.