Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata (Wall. & G.Don) Cif. , Olivicoltore 19(5): 96 1942. (Syn: Linociera lebrunii Staner; Olea africana Mill.; Olea asiatica Desf. [Invalid]; Olea aucheri A.Chev. ex Ehrend.; Olea chrysophylla Lam. …….; Olea cuspidata Wall. & G.Don; Olea europaea subsp. africana (Mill.) P.S.Green; Olea europaea var. cuspidata (Wall. & G.Don) Cif.; Olea europaea f. dulcis Collen.; Olea europaea subsp. maderensis (Lowe) O.E.Erikss., A.Hansen & Sunding; Olea europaea var. nubica Schweinf. ex Baker; Olea europaea var. verrucosa Willd.; Olea ferruginea Royle [Illegitimate]; Olea indica Kleinhof ex Burm.f.; Olea kilimandscharica Knobl.; Olea maderensis (Lowe) Rivas Mart. & del Arco; Olea monticola Gand.; Olea sativa var. verrucosa (Willd.) Roem. & Schult.; Olea schimperi Gand.; Olea similis Burch. [Illegitimate]; Olea somaliensis Baker; Olea subtrinervata Chiov.; Olea verrucosa (Willd.) Link; Olea verrucosa var. brachybotrys DC.);
Eritrea to S. Africa, Mascarenes, Arabian Pen. to China (Yunnan) as per WCSP;
Afghanistan; Angola; Botswana; Burundi; Cape Provinces; China South-Central; Djibouti; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Free State; Iran; Jawa; Kenya; KwaZulu-Natal; Lesotho; Malawi; Mauritius; Mozambique; Namibia; Nepal; Norfolk Is.; Northern Provinces; Oman; Pakistan; Runion; Rwanda; Saudi Arabia; Somalia; St.Helena; Sudan; Swaziland; Tanzania; Uganda; West Himalaya; Yemen; Zambia; Zare; Zimbabwe as per Catalogue of Life;
Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata is a subspecies of olive previously described as Olea cuspidata and Olea africana. It has various local common names, including African olive, wild olive, iron tree, Indian olive or zambujeiro da India.
This much-branched evergreen tree varies in size from 2 to 15 m high. The leaves have an opposite, decussate arrangement, and are entire, 3 to 7 cm long and 0.8 to 2.5 cm wide; the apex is acute with a small hook or point, and the base is attenuate to cuneate. Leaf margins are entire and recurved, the upper surface is grey-green and glossy, and the lower surface has a dense covering of silvery, golden or brown scales. Domatia are absent; venation is obvious on the upper surface and obscure on the lower surface; the petiole is up to 10 mm long.
Fruit are borne in panicles or racmes 50 to 60mm long. The calyx is four-lobed, about 1mm long. The corolla is greenish-white or cream; the tube is 1 to 2mm long; lobes are about 3mm long and reflexed at the anthesis. The two stamens are fused near the top of the corolla tube, with bilobed stigma.
The globose to ellipsoid fruit is a drupe, 6mm in diameter and 15 to 25 mm long; it is fleshy, glaucous to a dull shine when ripe, and purple-black. The tree usually flowers in spring.
The wood is much-prized and durable, with a strong smell similar to bay rum, and is used for fine furniture and turnery.
An extensive native range from South Africa, through Africa, the Middle East, Pakistan, India to China. Subtropical dry forests of Olea europaea cuspidata are found in the Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests ecoregion. In areas where it is not native, such as Australia, it is classified as a noxious weed. It is spread mainly by birds eating the fruit.
(From Wikipedia on 27.12.13)
Olea europea subsp. cuspidata (syn: O. ferruginea, O. cuspidata, O. africana), the wild olive or brown olive differs in taller habit and smaller fruits 9-12 mm across, brownish-black when ripe. The fruit is thinly fleshy, edible and also yielding oil.
Local names in Himalayas: Kahu, kan, kao, Bairbanj.
Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata submission : 6 posts by 5 authors. Attachments (5)- around 600 kb each.
Here’s i am adding some flowering and plant habit images of Indian Olive new to site.
Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata
Common Name – Wild Olive /Indian Olive
Local Name – Kahu in Kullu and Mandi districts
Family – Oleaceae
Photographed at Kullu district, Himachal Pradesh
Dated – 11/5/2019
Thanks, …, for the wonderful posts.
We have only two observations in efi at Olea europea subsp. cuspidata
If you have more images, pl. post them.