Psydrax dicoccos Gaertn., Fruct. Sem. Pl. 1: 125 1788. (Syn: Canthium dicoccum (Gaertn.) Merr.; Plectronia dicocca (Gaertn.) F.Muell.; Polyozus bipinnata Lour.; Vangueria dicocca (Gaertn.) Miq.);
S. China to Tropical Asia: Andaman Is., Bangladesh, Cambodia, China South-Central, China Southeast, Hainan, India, Jawa, Laos, Myanmar, Nicobar Is., Sri Lanka, Thailand, Tibet, Vietnam as per POWO;
Common name: Ceylon Boxwood, Malakafe • Coorgi: ಅಮ್ಮೆ ಪಣ್ಣು Amme pannu • Kannada: ಹಣಗೆ Hanage, ಹೆಟ್ಟೇರನಿಕೆ Hetteranike, ಹಣಗಿಗಾರೆ Hanagigaare, ನಲ್ಲ Nalla, ಬಿಳಚಿ Bilachi • Kodava: ಅಮ್ಮೆಪಣ್ಣು ammepannu • Malayalam: നന്യുല് Nanyul • Marathi: अरसुल Arsul, तुपा Tupa • Tamil: நந்ஜுல் Nanjul, நல்லமந்ரம் Nallamandharam • Telugu: Nalla balasu, Balasu naikinna
As per eFI thread:
This appears to be Psydrax umbellatus (Wight) Bridson as 
flowers umbellate on a short very stout compressed peduncle as per IBIS Flora (Flora of British India) vis a vis cymes compressed shortly peduncled for Canthium didymum C.F.Gaertn. (syn. of Psydrax dicoccos var. dicoccos as per POWO) as per IBIS Flora (Flora of British India).

Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 535 ; unarmed, glabrous, leaves ovate lanceolate or suborbicular, cymes compressed shortly peduncled, bracts short or 0, flowers 5-merous, fruit 1/4-1/3 in. globose ellipsoid or obovoid compressed subdidymous, putamen rugose. Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 535 ; W. & A. Prodr. 425 ; DC. Prodr. iv. 473 ; Wall. Cat. 8413 excl. A. Plectronia didyma, Kurz For. Fl. ii. 35. Psydrax dicoccos, Gaertn. Fruct. t. 26 ; DC. l. c. 476. Vangueria spirostylis and lucidula, Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. ii. 250, and suppl. 544 (fid. Kurz). Indeterm., Wall. Cat. 9069.
Sikkim Himalaya, alt. 1,500 ft., at Sittong, King ; Khasia and Jyntea Mts., De Silva ; Western Peninsula, from the Concan southwards ; Malayan Peninsula, from Mergui southwards ; Ceylon, common.—DISTRIB. Malay Archip., S. China.
A stout evergreen shrub ; branches smooth. Leaves very variable, 2-6 by 1/2-4 in., very coriaceous, polished above, usually obtusely caudate-acuminate, base acute obtuse or even cordate, nerve-axils eglandular ; petiole 1/6-1/3 in. Cymes subsessile or on a short peduncle, 1/4-1 in., sometimes puberulous. Calyx truncate or obscurely toothed. Corolla campanulate, tube 1/10-1/4 in. ; lobes 5, subacute. Style glabrous ; stigma subquadrate, notched or 2-fid. Fruit very variable.Thwaites’ var. rostrata is founded on the rostrate (that is caudate-acuminate) leaves, which, however, do not differ from those of a common Eastern or Western form ; it has also often beaked elongate fruits, the result of insect injury.
(Attributions: IBIS Flora (FBI))


Flowering Canthium dicoccum:
please find attached few photos of Canthium dicoccum (RUBIACEAE) from Bettada beedu, Mysore district observed on 05.11.2011 at 10.00 am.

Canthium dicoccum is a Rubiaceae member.
Opposite leaves as one of the character of the family is depicted by … in the given pictures.
I am not sure how prominent the interpetiolar stipule is in this species!


15022012 TBN 1 PLANT FOR ID:
Please identify this plant details of which are as follows:

Date : 18.02.11                                                           
Location : Alagarkoil western slopes
Altitude : 1000 ft
Habitat : wild
Habit : small tree
Height : 10 ft
Leaves : as in photo
Local name : not known ?navugu

This is now Psydrax dicoccos; earlier Canthium dicoccum.


Identify this plant please (ii) : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (9).

3rd May

Looks like Psydrax dicoccos, Rubiaceae  

Thank you for the id …


please identify this. Specimen was collected from Chinnar Wildlife sanctuary, Iduki, Kerala.

Psydrax dicoccos Gaertn (=Plectronia didyma) ?

Psydrax dicoccos Gaertn


ANOCT79 Psydrax dicoccos (Canthium diccocum) :  2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (5).

Nandi Hills
28th October 2014

Pl find the pictures of Canthium dicoccum and confirm the ID. Photo taken during 2011.

I think matches with images under various threads at Psydrax dicoccos, particularly the following:


Thanks … for updating the  name.

Fwd: MS/07/2017/2 : ID of a plant. : 5 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)
Please identify this plant. Photographed in Adyar Poonga, Chennai during 2011.

Canthium of Rubiaceae?

I think it is Psydrax dicoccos Gaertn., var. dicoccos (Syn. Canthium didymum (Brandis) Hook.f., Plectronia didyma Benth. & Hook. f. ex Brandis, Canthium dicoccum (Gaertn.) Merr., )

Thanks …  In fact I also narrowed it to the same species.


Please validate the id Psydrax dicoccos. : 7 posts by 6 authors. Attachments (7)
Need validation.
Psydrax dicoccos
Family : Rubiaceae
March 2019
Chilkigarh , WB

seems to be matching in general but the leaves width, does it seem a bit narrower in your specimen from what we have on this page?

Can anyone please explain specific differences between Psydrax dicoccos and P. umbellata?
Based on the above images, in the absence of fruit, my guess would have been P. umbellata, the species with which I am familiar.

Please, I think the main difference would be location, flowering time, shape and form

of flowers.
I pulled up 2 links.

thank you … I have seen the links you provided. Not at all sure about the plant photographed at Matheran in the second link. I am trying to get detailed botanical descriptions to answer my question.


Canthium?: 2 images.
Taken in the month of Feb in Talakona forests on the way to the waterfalls.

Canthium dicoccum


Psydrax dicoccos in FOI:

Prashant ji’s images of Psydrax dicoccos in FOI, looks to be of Psydrax umbellatus, as per images and details herein and as flowers umbellate on a short very stout compressed peduncle as per IBIS Flora (Flora of British India) vis a vis cymes compressed shortly peduncled for Canthium didymum C.F.Gaertn. (syn. of Psydrax dicoccos var. dicoccos as per POWO) as per IBIS Flora (Flora of British India).
Pl. correct.

I think you are right. Prashant’s plant has flowers on a very short peduncle. It should be Psydrax umbellata.


497 ID wild tree: 16 high res. images.
Please ID wild tree,
Location: bloomed near Vannappuram Thodupuzha Idukki Kerala INDIA
Altitude: 1500fsl
Flower date: 28JUL2023, 05.30pm
Habitat: wild moisture rock outcrop evergreen misty sloppy alpine
Plant habit: tree, erect, branches, branchlets, hard cylindrical woody stem 20 inches base circumference, rough brownish bark, angular sprout stem
Height: 06 meters
Leaves: opposite elliptic acute simple glossy size upto: 09×5cm
Flower: axillary flower head, diameter:04mm, white, non fragrant

Camera: CANON EOS1500D +FL10x

Are the flowral buds infected ?

No, the flowers are not infected, I am checked. Please see the picture all flowers are in the same way,

I go for Psydrax dicoccos

Thank you very much for ID my plant.
My tree resembles to Psydrax dicoccos, but I couldn’t see these kind of inflorescence or flowers as per efloraofindia images, from my frequent visits.  I also pointed that my tree bloomed only with full of this kind of tiny flower (single) on both opposite axillary in young as well as medium old branchlets.

Please zoom the attached images and see flower heads with all axillaries.
2 images.

Canthium dococcum

Canthium dococcum

It reminds me of Psydrax as well.
Perhaps what we have here are not flowering bodies at all! Could these be small axillary spurs instead? Solitary, axillary projections like the ones in this photograph of Psydrax (syn. Canthium) on the Biotik website. Similar projections can be discerned in some photographs of Psydrax in the efloraofindia archive. I don’t know what the white substance in … images could be, maybe it is an infection.

Sharing more images

Date: 02NOV2023
11 images.

I also found similar growth in the attached image of Canthium dicoccum from ( from the thread:  ANOCT79 Psydrax dicoccos (Canthium diccocum)

Yes dear …, but it is very short, flower head is different and having bract on branchlet (please check the resized EFI  screenshot). My tree is full of this kind flower heads

Might be galls???

I don’t know what is in it, but I am sure they are flower heads


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *