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China (W-Sichuan, NW-Yunnan), S-Tibet, Bhutan, N-India (Himalayas, Assam, Darjeeling), Sikkim, Jammu & Kashmir (Kashmir), N-Myanmar [Burma], Nepal, Pakistan (Swat, Hazara), Pakistani Kashmir (Gilgit), Chumbi as per Catalogue of life;
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Common name: Himalayan Thorowax, Bupleurum, Hare’s Ear, Thorowax Root
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Perennial herb with linear to lanceolate leaves; secondary veins 5-7, apex mucronate, upper oblong to ovate; involucre bracts 1-4, foliaceous, lanceolate to oval; rays up to 10; involucel bracts oval to lanceolate, as long or longer than flowers, 3-5 veined; fruit 4-5 mm long with prominent ridges.
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SK 3177 27 November 2021: 7 very high res. images.
Location: Mugu, Rara, West Nepal
Altitude: 2913m.
Date: 20 August 2021 
Habit : Wild

Bupleurum.. ???


I think it is close to the images at Bupleurum candollei Wall. ex DC.adn as per POWO specimen- onetwo


Also matches as per keys in Flora of Bhutan.


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Apiaceae Fortnight: Bupleurum candollei from Chakrata-GSJUNE12/18 : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (2)
Bupleurum candollei photographed from Chakrata along Budher caves road and along Deovan road.


season it flower?
very nice to see. not seen these before

I think species in 1st and 2nd images are different.
1st image appears to be certainly different from other images at Bupleurum candollei

I further checked up. Could get two high resolution specimens one and two at GBIF.
I think your id may be correct.



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Bupleurum candollei Wall. ex DC., Prodr. 4:131. 1830
Perennial herb with linear to lanceolate leaves; secondary veins 5-7, ape mucronate, upper oblong to ovate; involucre bracts 1-4, foliaceous, lanceolate to oval; rays up to 10; involucel bracts oval to lanceolate, as long or longer than flowers, 3-5 veined; fruit 4-5 mm long with prominent ridges.
Photographed from Mussoorie Chakrata road.

Looks different from other images at Bupleurum candollei

I further checked up. Could get two high resolution specimens one and two at GBIF.
I think your id appears may be correct.

Thanks …, flowers can be both yellow and black.


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There seems some confusion in efi site between these two species.
Let us see the differences:
Bupleurum longicaule Wall. in Flora of Pakistan:  
Perennial, 15-40 cm tall, 1 or more stems from the base. Lower leaves linear to lanceolate; upper leaves lanceolate, amplexicaul, apices long acuminate. Involucral bracts 1-3, ovate, unequal. Rays 2-8. Involucel of 6-8 oval bractlets, slightly connate at the base, longer than the flowering umbellet, veins 5-7. Petals and stylopodium almost black. Fruit oblong; ridges slightly winged; furrows 3-vittate.
Bupleurum candollei Wall. in Flora of Pakistan:

Perennial, up to 1 m tall. Lower leaves linear to lanceolate, veins 5-7 secondary veins prominent, apex mucronate, base narrowed; upper leave, lanceolate to oblong, oval or ovate; shorter subsessible leaves intermixed with the larger leaves, veins 13-17, secondary veins distinct, apex mucronate. Involucral bracts 1-4, lanceolate to oval, foliaceous. Rays 5-10. Involucel of lanceolate to oval bractlets, as long or longer than the flowering umbellet, veins 3-5. Fruit elliptic, 4-5 mm long; ridges prominent, obtuse; furrows 3-vittate.


Here are the keys:
7 (6) Plants with almost black flowers. Bractlets ovate, 5-7 veined, as long or longer than the flowering umbellet   Bupleurum longicaule
+ Plants with yellow or black flowers. Bractlets lanceolate to oval, 3-5 veined, as long or longer or shorter than the flowering umbellet   (8)
8 (7) Bases of upper leaves completely amplexicaul, auriculata (9)
+ Bases of upper leaves not or slightly amplexicaul, not auriculata (11)
9 (8) Apices or upper leaves long acuminate. Flowers yellow (10)
+ Apices of upper leaves not acuminate. Flowers dark purple Bupleurum constancei
10 (9) Lower leaves linear; upper with inflated leaf bases Bupleurum clarkeanum
+ Lower leaves linear to lanceolate; upper without inflated leaf bases Bupleurum thomsonii
11 (8) Bracts present. Rays 5-12. Upper leaves cordate (12)
+ Bracts frequently lacking or 1. Rays 5-8. Upper leaves oblong, not cordate Bupleurum swatianum
12 (11) Bracts 1-3, Rays 8-12. Upper leaves oblong to broadly ovate, cordate. Bractlets shorter than the flowers Bupleurum jucundum
+ Bracts 1-4, unequal. Rays 5-10. Upper leaves oval to ovate, amplexicaul. Bractlets as long or longer than the flowers Bupleurum candollei

To look further to find the clues, I am giving details from all the three eFloras:
Bupleurum longicaule Wall. in Flora of Pakistan:  
Perennial, 15-40 cm tall, 1 or more stems from the base. Lower leaves linear to lanceolate; upper leaves lanceolate, amplexicaul, apices long acuminate. Involucral bracts 1-3, ovate, unequal. Rays 2-8. Involucel of 6-8 oval bractlets, slightly connate at the base, longer than the flowering umbellet, veins 5-7. Petals and stylopodium almost black. Fruit oblong; ridges slightly winged; furrows 3-vittate.
Up to 50 cm tall. Stem usually 1. Lower leaves linear, veins 5-7; upper leaves lanceolate, veins 9-19. Involucral bracts 1-4, unequal. Rays 2-6. Involucel of 6-10 ovate, imbricate bractlets. Flowers almost black. Fruit ridges winged.
Distribution: Himalayas in India and Pakistan. This is common in Kashmir from 3-4000 m.
10-30 cm tall, decumbent. Stems many from the base. Basal leaves linear, lower leaves linear to lanceolate. Involucral bracts 1-3. Rays 3-5. Involucel of 5 linear to oval bractlets. Flowers dark purple to almost black.
Distribution: Himalayas in India and W. Pakistan
Bupleurum longicaule Wall. ex DC. in Checklist of Nepal:
3300-4900 m; Himalaya (Kashmir, Kumaun, Bhutan), Tibet.
Bupleurum candollei Wall. in Flora of Pakistan:
Perennial, up to 1 m tall. Lower leaves linear to lanceolate, veins 5-7 secondary veins prominent, apex mucronate, base narrowed; upper leave, lanceolate to oblong, oval or ovate; shorter subsessible leaves intermixed with the larger leaves, veins 13-17, secondary veins distinct, apex mucronate. Involucral bracts 1-4, lanceolate to oval, foliaceous. Rays 5-10. Involucel of lanceolate to oval bractlets, as long or longer than the flowering umbellet, veins 3-5. Fruit elliptic, 4-5 mm long; ridges prominent, obtuse; furrows 3-vittate.
Distribution: Himalayas in India and W. Pakistan
Bupleurum candollei Wallich ex de Candolle from Flora of China :
Plants 40–100 cm, perennial. Taproot stout, woody, branched. Stem erect, much-branched above, branches spreading-ascending, base without fibrous remnant sheaths. Lower leaves linear-lanceolate or long-elliptic, 12–15 × 0.5–0.8 cm, 11–15-nerved, abaxially glaucous, apex rounded-obtuse, apiculate. Upper leaves long-obovate, base cuneate. Umbels 2.5–4 cm across; bracts 3–5, ovate, 3–20 × 2–10 mm, unequal; rays 4–8, 1–3 cm, unequal, slender; bracteoles 5, broadly elliptic or suborbicular, 3–6 × 1.8–4 mm, apex rounded, apiculate, greatly exceeding flowers; umbellules 8–12 mm across, 10–15-flowered; pedicels 0.5–1.5 mm. Petals pale yellow or dark purple. Stylopodium low-conic, discoid, dark yellow or dark purple. Fruit oblong, brown, 2.7–3.5 × 1.7–1.9 mm; ribs prominent, narrowly winged; vittae 3 in each furrow, 4 on commissure. Fl. Jul–Aug, fr. Sep–Oct.
Mixed forests on shady slopes, open forests, mountain slopes, grassy places; 1800–3200 m. W Sichuan, S Xizang, Yunnan [Bhutan, N India, Kashmir, N Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Sikkim].
Bupleurum candollei var. candollei (C. B. Clarke) Ridley in Flora of China 
Stem, bracts and bracteoles green. Basal leaves linear-lanceolate or long-elliptic, leaf blade abaxially glaucous, thinly papery. Petals yellow. Stylopodium dark yellow.
Open forests, mountain slopes, grassy places; 1800–3200 m. W Sichuan, S Xizang, NW Yunnan [Bhutan, N India, Kashmir, N Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Sikkim].
Bupleurum candoleii Wall. ex DC.in Checklist of Nepal:
2400-4000 m; Himalaya (Kashmir to Bhutan), Assam, N. Burma, Tibet

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Bupleurum candollei in FOI : 3 posts by 2 authors.
Image by Thingnam ji at Bupleurum candollei in FOI should be of Bupleurum longicaule as per images, details and references herein, as petals yellow and stylopodium dark yellow as per Flora of China in Bupleurum candollei
Pl. correct.

Thanks …, Corrected.

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SK 3204 06 September 2021: 5 very high res. images.

Location: Jumla, West Nepal
Altitude: 2500m.
Date: 23 August 2021 
Habit : Wild

Bupleurum …. ????


To me it appears close to images at Bupleurum candollei Wall. ex DC.

Also check other listed species for final confirmation.


Leaves looks very small and stems looks hardy compared to B. candollei !


What are the other listed species from the area?



Bupleurum candollei Wall. ex DC. is the closest among all the listed 5 species as per comparative images at Bupleurum


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Bupleurum lanceolatum Wall. ex DC.: 7 very high res. images

Location: Jumla, Nepal
Altitude:  2893m.
Date: 18 August 2021 

Habit : Wild 


I think this is close to the images at Bupleurum candollei Wall. ex DC.

Looks different from images at Bupleurum lanceolatum Wall. ex DC.



References:

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