Lindernia oppositifolia (L.) Mukerjee, J. Indian Bot. Soc. 24: 134 1945. (Syn:  Bonnaya minima G.Don; Gratiola oppositifolia L. ex Willd.);

Procumbent herbs; stems glabrous. Leaves to 4 x 0.5 cm, linear-oblong, acute, distantly serrate, sessile. Racemes to 13 cm long, terminal; pedicels opposite, 2 cm long, slender, perpendicular to the axis. Flowers paired; sepals 7 mm long, linear lanceolate, free to the base; corolla 12 mm long; upper lip entire or emarginate, lower lip equally 3-lobed; anthers divaricate; staminodes linear, bulged at apex. Capsule 17 x 1.5 mm, terete; seeds 0.3 mm long, obovoid, minutely muriculate.

Flowering and fruiting: July-October
Marshy areas, also in the plains
Peninsular India

Lindernia oppositifolia is widely distributed in South and South West Asia. In India, it occurs throughout Tamil Nadu, Puducherry (Padmavathy et al. 2010), Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Bihar, Goa, Kerala, Maharashtra and Gujarat (Cook 1996). 
Often gregarious (Cook 1996). Recent study recorded 16.2 individuals/m2 in upland and 4.6 individuals/m2 in lowland paddy field of Mahendranagar in Nepal (Bhatt et al. 2009). Whereas, it was reported very common in 1957 and density reduction in 2000-2002 because of habitat alteration and vegetal cover Harni pond in Baroda, India (Dave and Krishnayya 2004).
(From  IUCN Red List (LC))


Lindernia oppositifolia from Iruppu, Kodagu, Karnataka: please find attached few photos of Lindernia oppositifolia spread over in paddyfield (30 07 30) in Iruppu area, Kodagu, Karnataka

Lindernia sp. of Linderniaceae family. Would you please share the reference for L. oppositifolia.

Stems erect, not rooting at nodes; leaves linear-oblong, sessile; flowers solitary, axillary; corolla less than 6 mm long; Marshy herbs with blue flowers. A weed of paddy fields – Mysore Flora -Rao & Razi & Tamilnadu carnatic -KM Matthew.

Bonnaya veronicaefolia Spreng var. verbenaefolia as per … in another thread.

I fail to understand how can all plants in the attached pdf be same. Attachments (1) – pdf

Yes, appears closer to images at Lindernia oppositifolia (L.) Mukerjee


Herb for ID : 13092013 : RV 1:  Attachments (2 + 10). 7 posts by 4 authors.
Please kindly ID this small herb about 16 cm, found on Malad Trail in SGNP, Mumbai in the last week of this month. (13.9.13)

In Marathi, this is called Neelmani, cant remember the botanical name.


Even I was with … on that walk…
Here are some additional photographs of the same plant…
Requesting to please provide ID…

In the absence of sizes of leaves or flowers I guess this to be Lindernia antipoda of Scrophulariaceae

Appears close to images at Lindernia oppositifolia (L.) Mukerjee

Sp. of Scrophulariaceae-2 from Assam : 3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (6).
Attached images  may be Sp. of Scrophulariaceae. Please ID the plant. 
Date :04.06.2014
Location: Assam
Family :Scrophulariaceae
Genus & species : ??
Habitat: Grows wild on wet place
Habit :Small herb 

Looks like a Mazus sp.

Lindernia antipoda (L.) Alston

To me appears close to images at Lindernia oppositifolia (L.) Mukerjee rather than those of Lindernia antipoda (L.) Alston


SK253DEC22-2016:ID : 11 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (9)
Location: Kathmandu , Nepal
Altitude: 4500 ft.
Date: 2 November 2016
Which Scrophulariaceae ??

Thinking if this can be Limnophila (Scrophulariaceae).

Did not find any match to Scrophulariaceae listed in Nepal.

Lindernia or similar genera ?

yes it looks like Lindernia

It is species of Lindernia

Could not confirm. Tried all Nepal listed Lindernia earlier also.

I think close to images at Lindernia oppositifolia (L.) Mukerjee


Lindernia ruellioides (Colsm.) Pennell is a less frequent rainy season herb in Pantnagar.
Now it is in Linderniaceae
Photographed in Pantnagar.

It is not found in Uttarakhand as per latest IUCN Red List (LC) & not matching with Flowers of India.
Also not mentioned in Scrophulariaceae of the Western Himalayas By Francis . Pennell (2007- Description & Keys- L. pyxidaria (syn. of Lindernia procumbens (Krock.) Philcox as per The Plant List), parviflora, crustacea, hookeri, cordifolia (syn. of Lindernia anagallis (Burm. f.) Pennell as per The Plant List), nummularifolia, angustifolia (syn. of Lindernia micrantha D. Don as per The Plant List), verbenaefolia, anagalis & ciliata
Can it be some other species?

Lindernia ruellioides (Colsm.) Pennell is well known from Uttarakhand. It is mentioned in “Flowering Plants of Uttarakhand A Checklist” by Uniyal et al. 2007 at page 187. Even earlier to this it was reported from Dehradun by Raizada (1976) in his document “Supplement to Duthie’s Flora of the Upper Gangetic Plain and of the Adjacent Siwalik and Sub-Himalayan Tracts” (page185-186) and also by Babu (1977) in his document “Herbaceous Flora of Dehradun” (page 356-357). Unfortunately all three documents mentioned here are not available on web due to which IUCN document does not mentioned its distribution in Uttarakhand.
It is not mentioned in Pennell’s document because it was not there in the book available on web, it was mentioned in another publication of Pennell in 1944, obviously one year after publication of Scrophulariaceae of Western Himalaya.
I identified its specimens personally with the help of keys given in Babu (1977), a reliable resource in my opinion. My ID may be wrong/ doubtful and thus opinion of other experts will be helpful.
After your critical observations and comparison with other web sources I am now in doubt too particularly by comparing it with the diagrams given in Flora of China where leaves look different.
Thank you for your doubts which will lead to correct ID. Let the experts to decide.

Thanks, … I thought that Scrophulariaceae of Western Himalaya has been published in 2007 as shown in google search.
May be it is digitized in 2007. But it really gives a very wrong impression.

Does not match with images at Lindernia ruellioides (Colsm.) Pennell
Closet I can reach from comparative images at Lindernia is Lindernia oppositifolia (L.) Mukerjee
Pl. check.

Thank you … for reaching to correct ID. Agreed!


SK1648 15 Dec 2018 : 7 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (3)
Location Gyaneswor, Kathmandu, Nepal
Elevation :  4500 ft.
Date : 13 September 2012
Habit : Wild
Lindernia …??

From old collection. Regret no more images.

Please check comparative images at /species/a—l/l/linderniaceae/lindernia

Lindernia oppositifolia (Retz.) Mukerjee ??

To me also appear close as per images at


114 ID wild plant Lindernia: 8 images.

Please ID wild plant,
Location: near Reserve Forest, Chathamattom, Ernakulam District, (Kochi) Kerala PIN:686671
Flower date: 21.07.2021, 01.40pm
Altitude: 1400fsl
Habitat: wild, moisture, rice field ridges
Plant habit: erect, slender weak quadrangular stem, annual
Height: 10cm
Leaves: opposite, oblong, apex, toothed margins, size:3×1cm
Flower: size:13×10mm, violet, non fragrant
Fruit: round beans green into brown, size:15×1mm
Seed: brown, numerous, nice
Camera: Samsung Galaxy A21s

Torenia crustacea

It is very close to Lindernia oppositifolia

You are right

No way …,

Leaves linear-lanceolate, stamens 2….. oppositifolia
Leaves ovate-obovate, stamens 4……….. Crustacea.

Check with this and let me know,

The bottom image image (084203.jpg) is my flower and others are said to be T. Crustacea, however I can’t understand how it becomes T. Crustacea.

The plant is in my ginger bag, attacked by hen and her chicks,
1 image.

Ok …, once cross-check with the herbarium specimens too,

You’re right for Lindernia oppositifolia,

I have suggested crustacea with observing your second image, there is clear obovate leaves, without observing the second post of leaf and fruit.

Yes, Lindernia oppositifolia (L.) Mukerjee as per images and details herein.



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