Senegalia catechu (L. f.) P. J. H. Hurter & Mabb., Mabberley’s Pl.-Book 1021. 2008 (syn: (≡) Acacia catechu (L. f.) Willd.; (=) Acacia wallichiana DC.; (≡) Mimosa catechu L. f. (basionym)); 
a-KAY-see-uh or uh-KAY-shuh — from the Greek akis, meaning point, barb, thorny, spiny

KAT-eh-choo — from the Kannada name ಕಾಚು kachu, extract from the heartwood

commonly known as: black catechu, black cutch, cashoo, catechu, cutch tree, wadalee gum • Assamese: খৈৰ kher • Bengali: খয়ের khayer, ખેર kher • Gujarati: ખેર kher • Hindi: दन्त धावन dant-dhavan, गायत्रिन् gayatrin, खैर khair, खयर khayar, मदन madan, पथिद्रुम pathi-drum, पयोर payor, प्रियसख priya-sakh • Kannada: ಕಾಚು kaachu, ಕದಿರ kadira, ಕಾದು kadu, ಕಗ್ಗಲಿ kaggali • Konkani: खैर khair • Malayalam: കരിണ്ടാലി karintaali • Marathi: खैर khair, खयर khayar, यज्ञवृक्ष yajnavrksa • Nepali: खयर् khayar • Pali: खदिरो khadiro • Prakrit: खइरं or खाइरं khaiiram • Sanskrit: गायत्रिन् gayatrin, खदिरः or खादिरः khadira, पथिद्रुम pathi-drum, पयोर payor, प्रियसख priya-sakh • Tamil: செங்கருங்காலி cenkarungali, காசுக்கட்டி kacu-k-katti, கறை karai • Telugu: ఖదిరము khadiramu. కవిరిచండ్ర kaviricandra, నల్లచండ్ర nallacandra • Urdu: کهير khair
Native to: s China, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Myanmar

If leaflets, young branches and calyx is hairy tomentose, then it is S. catechu. If these organs are glabrous, it is S. chundra.
Naturally, S. catechu is found in northern part of India, north of Maharashtra, while S. chundra is found in South of Maharashtra. However, S. catechu is being cultivated for extraction of tannins.
The characters ‘number of pinnae and number of leaflet’ are overlapping. Therefore, it is sometimes difficult to identify based on herbarium specimens. 
Place of collection will give basic idea whether the species is S. catechu or S. chundra. Senegalia polyacantha is distributed almost every state of India except northeast and temperate regions. To confirm the identity, it is important to observe bark, young stem, calyx. Pods of S. catechu and S. chundra are similar. They are reddish brown to brown at maturity while S. polyacantha showed light brown pods.  Also, please observe prickles are brown, smaller, about 2-4 mm in S. catechu and S. chundra while prickles are light brown, husk coloured and longer, about 3-8 mm in S. polyacantha.

That means keys in the attachment at efi thread (Kshirsagar – 2012 – Observations and taxonomic assessment of Acacia catechu willd. complex (Mimosaceae) in India.pdf) w.r.t. number of pinnae more than 20 in Senegalia polyacantha (Willd.) Seigler & Ebinger & upto 20 in S. catechu & S. chundra is not correct.

I am very much sure that Senegalia catechuSenegalia polyacantha as well as Senegalia chundra are distinct species.  
The calyx of S. catechu and S. polyacantha are hairy (sometimes sparsely hairy in S. polyacantha); while calyx is completely glabrous in S. chundra
Bark of S. catechu and S. chundra is very similar. Grey white when immature while dark brown to black, fissured when matureS. polyacantha bark is white, papery, peeling out and armed with several, individual, prickles even on main trunk (probably the name is because of this feature: poly-a-cantha). Leaves of S. polyacantha are larger than other two species. Prickles in S. polyacantha is yellowish brown, recurved or straight, and about 0.5-1.0 cm long, while prickles in other two species are brown to black, mostly recurved and about 0.3 cm long. 


Fabaceae-Mimosoideae (Mimosaceae) Week: Acacia catechu from Delhi: Acacia catechu (Linn. f.) Willd., Sp. Pl. 4: 1079. 1806.

Syn: Mimosa catechu Linn. f.
Common names: black catechu, black cutch, catechu, cutchtree, khairtree, wadalee-gum tree
Hindi: Katha, Khair
Deciduous tree with grayish-brown bark; stipules spiny, up to 8 mm long, hooked; leaves bipinnate with large gland near base of petiole; pinnae 12-30 pairs, with often small glands between the pinnae, leaflets 18-50 pairs, up to 6 mm long; flowers white or pale yellow in up to 12 cm long spikes, peduncle 1.5-2 cm long; petals 2.5-3 mm long, villous or slightly pubescent; pod 5-9 cm long, flat, shining; up to 10-seeded.
Photographed from Old Delhi Ridge, flowering June-August.


Superb catch of khaira (in Odiya) Sir. this is a very useful plant in odisha. great snap.


Nice pictures sir. Is this called ‘Karungali’ in Tamil?

Local people in Sathyamangalam RF (TN) said that this tree is smuggled for its costly wood.

 

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Tree ID request – RK72 – 28-Dec-2012: Request identification of this tree from Tungareshwer. Flowers not seen but photos of the spines etc. are attached. My guess was khair but I am not sure.


Affirmative. This is Khair [Acacia catechu]. Some of my photographs of this for comparison are available at this link : efi thread

 

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Acacia chundra (Rottler) Willd. SN July 11 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (2).

Acacia chundra (Rottler) Willd.
Medium sized tree frequently cultivated in Tamilnadu by forest department.
wood is having commercial value as a tannin rich medicine. It is also having religious value.


Thorns in Acacia catechu : 2 posts by 2 authors.
I was trying to do a small write-up on Acacia catechu. While some good sources of reference (including Flowers of India: http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Cutch%20Tree.htmlsay that they have a PAIR of thorns at the base of each leaf. As a kid, have often used it as a toothbrush, and if my memory serves me right they have only one at the base.
If anyone with access to any specimen near you can confirm would be extremely grateful!


efi page on Senegalia catechu (Syn: Acacia catechu (L. f.) Willd.)    

 

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ARJUL31 Acacia sp. for ID : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (3).

Bangalore
20th July 2014


This looks like Khair [Acacia catechu]. Please check my previous mail.


 

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Spines on Acacia catechu [Khair]. : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (5).
This one is for … There is a pair of spines at the base of each leaf. Photographed on my property at Shahapur today (20.7.14). Sending a few photographs.

Please also check these links: Google Groups


Thank you so very much for clarifying. So there are two indeed!


Can it be Senegalia polyacantha as spines look quite prominent ?


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Please ID this wild plant captured growing by the roadside near Panshet dam, Pune in May 2014..
A similar plant next to this was identified on efi as Acacia ferruginea, however the leaves had 6 pairs of pinnae. This specimen seems to have more, I could count 9 pairs in 1 pic.


Could it be Acacia catechu?


I think … got it right, this can be Acacia catechu..


It is Acacia catechu considering the place and season as also the description of the pairs of leaflets.
Presently Acacia ferruginea is flowering Pune whereas Acacia catechu will start flowering little later. 


 

 

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Acasia for id : 9 posts by 5 authors. Attachments (3)
Please identify this Acasia from Northen Maharashtra, Betegaon, Boisar, Feb 2015


Is it Acasia suma ?


Flowers or fruits please.


Flowering, fruiting were absent.


Looks like Acacia catechu. Nevertheless, one need to check the  other characters like flowers fruits etc. Please note It is not Acasia. It is Acacia


Thank you for sending email.
The plant showing in the photographs are Acacia catechu or A. chundra
please confirm it with the following key
1a. Calyx, petals and leaf rachis glabrous………………………………………………….. A. chundra
1b. Calyx, petals and leaf rachis villous……………………………………………………… A. catechu


The infra-axillary, short and curved stipular spines and the small leaflets point to Acacia catechu, now Senegalia catechu.  In my opinion A. chundra. A. sundra and A. suma are conspecific with A. catechu.

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Small tree seen at Borgad Conservation Reserve.
…, this will also be Senegalia catechu?
Picture taken on 3rd July,15.


do you have pictures of the trunk/main stem and bark and its habit?


Yes. This is Senegalia catechu.


 

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Fwd: ACACIA CATECHU : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)
Till 1967 I did not know that KATHA or KHAYER is a product obtained from a tree. When some one showed me a tree and told me that KHAYER is produced from this tree I was really surprised. There were many trees on the river bank, and the wood was put to use as poles for building houses. I came to know its scientific identity much late.

Attaching a collage of Acacia catechu (CUTCH TREE/ KHADIR/ KHAIR).


 

 

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11th of April, 2010: Khadakwasla Dam, on the outskirts of Pune;  Request for ID : 120710 : AK-1 – efloraofindia | Google Groups

 

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VALMIKI : OBSERVER OF NATURE 42:  Attaching two images of the 42nd member in the series. The tree is
mentioned as KHADIRA by Valmiki in Ramayan. Scientifically the tree is known as Acacia catechu. The common name is Cutch tree. It is Khair in Hindi and Bangla.


Just wanted to request you that your informations are really very interesting. It would really be nice for you and also for the readers if you can compile all these informations and publish it into a book form.

 

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now this is more or less complete set…
would need bark surface and whole tree for a real complete set in my mind…
but does not take away from my praising your picture set and loving it…

 


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Fabaceae-Mimosoideae (Mimosaceae) Week :: Acacia catechu in northern Western Ghats:   Acacia catechu (L.f.) Willd.  

a-KAY-see-uh or uh-KAY-shuh — from the Greek akis, meaning point, barb, thorny, spiny
KAT-eh-choo — from the Kannada name ಕಾಚು kachu, extract from the heartwood
May 27, 2007 … near Bedsa caves, Maharashtra
commonly known as: black catechu, black cutch, cashoo, catechu, cutch tree, wadalee gum • Assamese: খৈৰ kher • Bengali: খয়ের khayer, ખેર kher • Gujarati: ખેર kher • Hindi: दन्त धावन dant-dhavan, गायत्रिन् gayatrin, खैर khair, खयर khayar, मदन madan, पथिद्रुम pathi-drum, पयोर payor, प्रियसख priya-sakh • Kannada: ಕಾಚು kaachu, ಕದಿರ kadira, ಕಾದು kadu, ಕಗ್ಗಲಿ kaggali • Konkani: खैर khair • Malayalam: കരിണ്ടാലി karintaali • Marathi: खैर khair, खयर khayar, यज्ञवृक्ष yajnavrksa • Nepali: खयर् khayar • Pali: खदिरो khadiro • Prakrit: खइरं or खाइरं khaiiram • Sanskrit: गायत्रिन् gayatrin, खदिरः or खादिरः khadira, पथिद्रुम pathi-drum, पयोर payor, प्रियसख priya-sakh • Tamil: செங்கருங்காலி cenkarungali, காசுக்கட்டி kacu-k-katti, கறை karai • Telugu: ఖదిరము khadiramu. కవిరిచండ్ర kaviricandra, నల్లచండ్ర nallacandra • Urdu: کهير khair
Native to: s China, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Myanmar
References: Flowers of IndiaNPGS / GRINDDSA
more views: May 27, 2007 … near Bedsa caves, Maharashtra 
Jun 21, 2007 … at base of Yeoor Hills, Sanjay Gandhi National Park, Maharashtra 
Aug 11, 2007 … at Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary, Maharashtra
Nov 3, 2007 … at Valley Park, CBD Belapur, Navi Mumbai 
Jun 13, 2009 … along SH 60 between Tamhini ghat and Pune, Maharashtra
Aug 22, 2009 … at base of Yeoor Hills, Sanjay Gandhi National Park, Maharashtra


Very good close up view and complete set with identification features.


It is quite possible that your post have both Senegalia chundra as well as Senegalia catechu. Pl. refer to discussions at efi thread :
If leaflets, young branches and calyx is hairy tomentose, then it is S. catechu. If these organs are glabrous, it is S. chundra.

I had seen this small tree en route Sagargad near Alibaug, Maharashtra. Could this be Acacia catechu??
Date/Time: 20th August / 06:30AM
Habitat: Wild
Plant Habit: Tree (approx: 4 m tall)

I think you are correct … this also looks like Acacia catechu to me.


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Fabaceae-Mimosoideae (Mimosaceae) Week :: Acacia unidentified at Nagpur: Seen this Acacia tree at Nagpur.
Date/Time: 04-09-2011 / 12:45PM
Location: Near Ambazari Lake, Nagpur, Maharashtra
Family: Mimosaceae
Habitat: Wild
Plant Habit: Tree, 5 to 6 m ht.


It may be Acacia chundra.


I think this is Acacia catechu (L.f.) Willd. due to its tomentose rachis and pods acute at both ends. while in Acacia chundra (Roxb.ex Rottl.) Willd. the tachis glabrous and pods obtuse-rounded at both ends.


What is so great about Acacia catechu! After examining 600 herbarium specimens of Acacia catechu and A. chundra in various Indian herbaria, I conclude that the latter is a synonym of the former.


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Acacia catechu???:

is this tree acacia catechu?
locality: Panjab University, Chandigarh
height 350m
temperature: 14degrees min
habitat: rocky waste place
habit: tree
flowers: not seen
Leaves as shown, with some galls affecting leaflet stalk
pods as shown


Affirmative. This is Khair [Acacia catechu]. Leaf galls are seen in the first photograph. Will send some of my photographs of this later.


yes. … its Acacia catechu
… I was wondering what those red globs were, distorting theleaves… thanks for the diagnosis…
do you have pictures of bark from mature trees?? … i have only seen saplings…


 

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SYMBIOSIS : 1426 : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)
Attaching a collage of Rounded Pierrot visiting flowers of Acacia catechu (KHAIR)

 

 

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SYMBIOSIS :1427 : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)
Attaching a collage of Hover Fly visiting flowers of Acacia catechu

 

References:

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