Gymnostachyum febrifugum Benth. (Images by Dinesh Valke & Anurag N. Sharma (Inserted by Anurag N. Sharma & J.M.Garg))


Gymnostachyum glabrum T.Anderson (Images by Prashant Awale (Inserted by J.M.Garg))


Gymnostachyum latifolium T.Anderson (Images by Prashant Awale & Dinesh Valke Identified by (Inserted by J.M.Garg))


Gymnostachyum latifolium var. decurrens Gamble (SW-India (Kerala) as per CoL)


Gymnostachyum polyanthum Wight (Images by Anurag N. Sharma (Inserted by J.M.Garg))

Gymnostachyum pubescens (Lam.) M.R.Almeida (Images by Prashant Awale (Inserted by J.M.Garg))

Gymnostachyum warrieranum KMP Kumar, Indu et V.B.Sreek. (Images by Prashant Awale (Inserted by J.M.Garg))



Gymnostachyum species in India:

  1. Gymnostachyum canescens (Nees) T.Anderson [synonym of G. pubescens (Lam.) M.R.Almeida]
  2. G. ceylanicum Arn. ex Nees
  3. G. fabrifugum Benth. [vars. fabrifugum; bracteatum V.S.Ramach.]
  4. G. glabrum (Dalzell) T.Anderson [vars. glabrum; denticulatum
  5. G. lateriflorum (C.B.Clarke) B.Hansen
  6. G. latifolium (Dalzell) T.Anderson [vars. latifolium; decurrens Gamble]
  7. G. polyanthum Wight
  8. G. sahyadricum C.N.Mohanan, Ramadevi & Binojk.
  9. G. tomentosum T.Anderson
  10. G. venustum (Nees) T.Anderson
  11. Gymnostachyum warrieranum K. M. Prabhukumar, Indira Balachandran, V. B. Sreekumar, K. S. Ramya, Satheesh George


  1. Karthikeyan, S., Sanjappa, M. and Moorthy, S. 2009. Flowering Plants of India, Dicotyledons, vol-I (Acanthaceae- Avicenniaceae). Botanical Survey of India, Kolkata. pp.17-18.
  2. eFIpage

Gymnostachyum warrieranum (Acanthaceae), a new species from the Western Ghats of India, based on morphological and molecular data– K. M. Prabhukumar, Indira Balachandran, V. B. Sreekumar, K. S. Ramya, Satheesh George- Kew Bulletin September 2015, 70:40-
Summary– A new species of Gymnostachyum Nees (Acanthaceae), G. warrieranum K. M. P. Kumar, Balach. & V. B. Sreek. from the Western Ghats of India is described and illustrated. IUCN status, distribution, phenetic relationships, phenology and plastid genome variation are discussed and a key to the Gymnostachyum species distributed in Kerala is also provided for easy identification.

Binomial Habit Notes Ref. Distrib.
Gymnostachyum canescens (Nees) T. And. is a synonym of Gymnostachyum pubescens (Lam.) M.R.Almeida Shrub Western Ghats,
Evergreen Forests
Flora of Tamil
Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Kanniya kumari, Nilgiri, Tirunelveli
Gymnostachyum ceylanicum Arn. ex Nees Herb Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Gymnostachyum latifolium (Dalz.) T. And. Under
Ghats, Evergreen Forests
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987


Botanical name Synonyms Common name
Gymnostachyum febrifugum Cryptophragmium febrifugum, Gymnostachyum febrifugum var. bracteatum Fever Gymnostachyum
Gymnostachyum glabrum Cryptophragmium glabrum Smooth Gymnostachyum
Gymnostachyum latifolium Cryptophragmium latifolium Broad-Leaf Gymnostachyum
Gymnostachyum pubescens Gymnostachyum canescens, Gymnostachyum longifolium, Justicia pubescens Grey Gymnostachyum

A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon -, Volume 12 By M. D. Dassanayake (1998)- Details with keys

Hot spots of endemic plants of India, Nepal and Bhutan by M. P. Nayar- Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, 1996 – Science252 pages-
Gymnostachyum canescens (Nees) T. Anders. is a synonym of Gymnostachyum pubescens (Lam.) M.R.Almeidaherb; W. Ghats.
Gymnostachyum febrifugum Benth.- herb; southern W. Ghats.
Gymnostachyum latifolium (Dalz.) T. Anders- undershrub; central W. Ghats; Nilgiri hills.
Gymnostachyum polyanthum Wight


The flora of British India, by J.D. Hooker assisted by various botanists By Joseph Dalton Hooker (sir.) (1872)- Details-
Floristic Plants of the World By Rashtra Vardhana (2006)- Details-
Gymnostachyum febrifugum


Notes on Andrographis and Gymnostachyum (Acanthaceae) by B. Hansen- Nordic Journal of Botany Volume 5, Issue 4,  pages 353–356, November 1985
Abstract: Taxonomic and nomenclatural comments are given on two widespread Andrographis species, A. paniculata (Burmf.) Nees and A. laxiflora (Bl.) Lindau. A revised synonymy for A. laxiflora is worked up, adding 6 new synonyms from Thailand. Cryptophragmium tonkinense R. Benoist and Parajusticia petelotii R. Benoist are sunk into Gymnostachyum listeri Prain and Eranthemum lateriflorum C. B. Clarke is shown to be Gymnostachyum lateriflorum comb. nov., The pollen grains of G. listeri and G. lateriflorum are briefly described and seem to be typical Gymnostachyum pollen.

Gymnostachyum (‎Acanthaceae) : 3 posts by 2 authors.

I have updated eFI (efloraofindia) page on Gymnostachyum (Pl. click).

Attempts have been made to incorporate most of the species available in India & nearby areas with details & keys directly or through links as far as possible. It’s quite possible that there may be some discrepancy in the accepted names & synonyms taken from other links.

Species discussed so far in efloraofindia are given at the bottom of the page in the form of links against Subpages. On clicking them one can see all the details.

If someone can provide complete list of Indian species with source references it will be wonderful.
Any comments/ corrections are welcome.

I have added the list of species.

Thanks a lot, … Now the list is complete.


Pl. go through Gymnostachyum page with images of species in efloraofindia (done by me).

If you find any mis-identification, pl. let us know.
If anybody can send images of other species of this genera (for incorporation in the website), it will be really nice. Also, if anybody is interested to take up the activity of inserting images on efloraofindia pages from efloraofindia posts, pl. let us know.

The image inserted for G. glabrum is G. warrieranum KMP Kumar, Indu et V.B.Sreek.

Thanks, … I have done the corrections. Pl. see  Gymnostachyum page, if it’s all right now. 



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