Duhaldea cappa (Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don) Pruski & Anderb. (Images by Alok Mahendroo (Id by Gurcharan Singh), Nidhan Singh (Validation by Satish Phadke) Gurcharan Singh (Id by Nidhan Singh & Krishan Lal) & Alka Khare (Validation by Nidhan Singh) (Inserted by J.M.Garg) (For more images & complete details, click on the links)) 


Duhaldea cuspidata (Wall. ex DC.) Anderb. (Images by Nidhan Singh (Validated by Krishan Lal), Anurag N Sharma (Id by Narain Singh Chauhan, Krishan Lal & Nidhan Singh) & Alok Mahendroo (id by Nidhan Singh & Gurcharan Singh)(Inserted by J.M.Garg) (For more images & complete details, click on the links)) 


Duhaldea eupatorioides (Wall. ex DC.) A. A. Anderberg (Himalaya to SE. Tibet and Indo-China: Assam, East Himalaya, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Tibet, Vietnam, West Himalaya as per POWO)


Duhaldea nervosa (Wall. ex DC.) Anderb. (Images by Nidhan Singh & Ritesh Kumar Chaudhary (All Ids by Krishan Lal) (Inserted by J.M.Garg) (For more images & complete details, click on the links)) 


Duhaldea rubricaulis (Wall. ex DC.) Anderb. (Himalaya to China (Yunnan) and Indo-China: Assam, China South-Central, East Himalaya, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand, West Himalaya as per POWO)


Duhaldea simonsii (C. B. Cl.) A. A. Anderberg (Bhutan to Assam: Assam, East Himalaya as per POWO)


Inula obtusifolia A.Kerner (Images by Saroj Kasaju (Validation by J.M.Garg) (Inserted by J.M.Garg) (For more images & complete details, click on the links)) 


Inula orientalis Lam. (Images by Prashant Awale, Nidhan Singh (Id by D S Rawat), Balkar Singh (Id by Gurcharan Singh), D S Rawat & Alok Mahendroo (Id by Gurcharan Singh) (Inserted by J.M.Garg) (For more images & complete details, click on the links)) 


Inula racemosa Hook.f. (Images by Gurcharan Singh (Inserted by J.M.Garg) (For more images & complete details, click on the links))


Inula royleana DC. (Images by Gurcharan Singh (Inserted by J.M.Garg) (For more images & complete details, click on the links))



Duhaldea cuspidata vs Duhaldea cappa vs Duhaldea eupatorioides:

Here are the keys as per The genus Duhaldea (Asteraceae) in India (2020):
4a. Heads discoid/ homogamous; leaves covered with dense silky woolly hairs on lower surface ………D. cappa
4b. Heads radiate/ heterogamous; leaves not covered with dense silky woolly hairs on lower surface ……….. 5
5a. Leaves membranous; petioles slender; ray- florets 5–10 mm long…… D. cuspidata
5b. Leaves rigid, leathery/coriaceous, much reticulated venation beneath; petiole stout; ray florets up to 5 mm long ……… D. eupatorioides
Detailed description is given below as per The genus Duhaldea (Asteraceae) in India (2020):

Duhaldea cappa (Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don) Pruski& Anderb. Duhaldea cuspidata
(Wall. ex DC.) Anderb.
Duhaldea eupatorioides (Wall. ex DC.) Anderb.
Erect, stout, aromatic shrubs or under-shrubs, 1–2.5 m tall. Stems branched; branches thick, terete, densely white tomentose.
Leaves thick, leathery, oblong-lanceolate; petioles short 0.5–0.7 mm long, acute-obtuse at base, margins glandular-dentate, 5–20 × 1–5 cm, densely silky woolly on lower surface, dark green and hairy on upper surface.

Heads in corymbs, compact, 0.5–1 cm in diam., 
densely silky; peduncles up to 12 cm long.Involucral bracts imbricate, 4-seriate, pale green, very variable in size and number; outer bracts shorter than inner, elliptic, lanceolate to linear ensiform, herbaceous to thin papery, 1–5 mm long, rigid; hairs white, dense, silky tomentose.
Ray florets absent or very few, shortly radiate. Disc florets yellow, tubular, 4.2 mm long, 5-toothed, prominently ribbed; corolla campanulate, papillate at the tip. Cypselae 1.5–2 × 0.25–0.5 mm, yellowish brown, narrowly obovate-oblong, densely sericeous, silky hairy, with a prominent base, 8–10-ribbed. Pappus bristles 22–24, 1-seriate, 5–6 mm long, off-white.Flowering and fruiting from August to late February.

Chromosome number: 2n = 20, 40 (Kumar & Subramaniam, 1987).

Habitat: Frequent along road-sides, among rock crevices and boulders, between 850–3500 m elevation.

Distribution: China, India, Java, Nepal, Pakistan and Thailand.

Erect, stout shrubs, 50–100 cm tall; branches terete, brownish-purple, glabrous or scarcely pubescent.

Leaves elliptic, ovate to lanceolate, 3.15–14 × 1.5– 6 cm, acute or shortly acuminate at apex, attenuate at base, glandular, petiolate, margin dentate, membranous,
upper surface dark green, glabrous, rough, lower surface pale, pubescent, serrulate.

Heads heterogamous
polycephalous but not compact, radiating, in terminal corymbs, pedunculate. Capitula 1–1.5 cm in diam.
Involucral bracts imbricate, 1–5 mm long, 5-seriate, elliptic, lanceolate, linear to ligulate/herbaceous to thin papery, pubescent and rarely glandular above, with prominent mid-rib, dark green.

Ray florets radiate, yellow, 5–10 mm long, 3-toothed. Disc florets 6– 8 mm long, campanulate, 5-toothed, yellow. Cypselae narrowly obovate-oblong, 1.5–2 × 0.25– 0.5 mm, reddish brown with sparsely white pubescent surface, silky-hairy, 8–10-ribbed. Pappus bristles 22–26, 1-seriate, 4–5 mm long, creamgolden.

Flowering & fruiting: Flowering from June to early December.

Chromosome number: 2n = 20 (Kumar & Subramaniam, 1987).
Habitat: Common in open places, steep hill slopes, along the edges of the forests, river banks and among rock crevices, from 900–2000 m elevation.

Distribution: Bhutan, China, India, Nepal and Pakistan.

Stout shrubs, 1–3 m tall. Stem pubescent, terete; branches brownish-purple.

Leaves spirally arranged, rigid, leathery, shortly petioled; lamina elliptic-oblong or lanceolate-acuminate, 5–25 × 1.5–7.5 cm, coriaceous,
irregularly toothed, cuneate or rounded at base, dark green above, scabrid, pale green below, pubescent, dense towards nerves, sometimes glandular, lateral nerves prominent, shorter, with much-reticulated nervation beneath.Corymbs polycephalous. Heads terminal or in upper axillary panicles; capitula crowned with short peduncles, 0.5–1.0 cm in diam.Involucral bracts 2–4 × 0.5–1.0 mm long, 4-seriate, lax, imbricate, lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, brownish, villous to velutinous, sometimes glandular at tip.

Ray florets a few, shortly radiate. Disc florets tubular, 5- toothed. Cypselae narrowly obovate–oblong, 1.5– 2.0 × 0.25–0.5 mm, yellowish brown, sparsely white pubescent, 8–10-ribbed. Pappus uniseriate, bristles 22–24, 4–5 mm long, cream-golden. Flowering & fruiting:

Flowering and fruiting from August to February.

Chromosome number: 2n = 20 (Kumar & Subramaniam, 1987).

Habitat: Grows on rocky slopes, between 1700– 1800 m elevations.

Distribution: Bhutan, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Thailand and Vietnam.


Duhaldea DC. species in India
Duhaldea cappa (Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don) Pruski & Anderb.
D. cuspidata (Wall. ex DC.) Anderb.
D. eupatorioides (Wall. ex DC.) Anderb.
D. nervosa (Wall. ex DC.) Anderb.
D. rubricaulis (Wall. ex DC.) Anderb.
D. simonsii (C.B.Clarke) Anderb.

Reference: Shekhar, S., Pandey, A.K. and Anderberg, A.A. 2020. The genus Duhaldea (Asteraceae) in India. Rheedea 30(2): 257-269. https://dx.doi.org/10.22244/rheedea.2020.30.02.01

Botanical name Synonyms Family Common name
Inula cuspidata (syn. of Duhaldea cuspidata) Asteraceae Lanceleaf Inula
Inula nervosa (syn. of Duhaldea nervosa) Inula asperrima, Inula nitida, Inula venosa, Inula esquirolii Asteraceae Veined-Leaf Inula
Inula orientalis Inula grandiflora Asteraceae Showy Inula
Inula racemosa Asteraceae Indian Elecampane
Inula royleana Asteraceae Himalayan Elecampane

Inula & Duhaldea : 1 post by 1 author.
I have updated eFI (efloraofindia) pages on Inula & Duhaldea
Thanks to Dr. Pandey & Dr. Shekhar for revising Inula as below:
The genus Inula (Asteraceae) in India by Shweta Shekhar, Arun K. Pandey* and Arne A. Anderberg1 Rheedea Vol. 23(2) 113-127 2013
Attempts have been made to incorporate most of the species available in India & nearby areas with details & keys directly or through links as far as possible.
Species discussed so far in efloraofindia are given at the bottom of the page in the form of links against Subpages. On clicking them one can see all the details.

Any comments are welcome.


Pl. go through Duhaldea page (Asteraceae (Compositae)) with images of species in efloraofindia (done by me).

If you find any mis-identification, pl. let us know.

If anybody can send images of other species of this genera (for incorporation in the website), it will be really nice. Also, if anybody is interested to take up the activity of inserting images on efloraofindia pages from efloraofindia posts, pl. let us know.


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