Citrus × taitensis Risso, Fl. Nice 86 1844. (syn: Citrus × jambhiri Lush., Citrus × verrucosa Nakamura);
Hybrid of C. deliciosa × C. medica as per POWO;
Common name: Indian Rough Lemon, Jambhiri orange • Assamese: Godha-tulia, Mithu-thulia, Nemu-tenga • Hindi: जम्भीरी नीबू Jambhiri nibu • Kannada: Kada-narollgi • Khasi: Soh-Jhalia,
India (introduced), Nepal (introduced), China (introduced), Lord Howe Isl. (introduced), Norfolk Isl. (introduced), Tonga (introduced) (Tongatapu (introduced), ‘Eua (introduced)) as per Catalogue of Life;
Asm.: Godha-tulia, Mithu-thulia, Nemu-tenga; Hindi: Jambhiri; Kh.: Soh-Jhalia, Soh-myndog; Kan.: Kada-narollgi; Punj.: Jathi-Katti: The rough lemon of India as per BSI Flora of India;
Fruit is characterized by its warty-bumpy, rough rind.


Citrus taitensis 2 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (5)
Thank you Sir. These are some photos of Meetha and musambi here in my area.. the first four photos are of meetha and the last five photos are of musambi. These look different. Can i use name “Citrus limetta” for both these Citrus plants? Thanks alot for your guidance.

Second one (last five images) is not Mosambi, which won’t have such rough rind. It looks closer to Jambhiri.

Thanks, … But images in this thread looks much different from those in another thread at Citrus taitensis
Would you pl. have a re-look ?

To me closest match for both leaves and fruits is C. jambhiri only which has now been merged with Citrus taitensis. I would have gone for Citrus hystrix with which fruits resemble most but in that species petiole is as long/as broad as leaf blade.

Citrus jambhiri from Herbal Garden, Delhi-GSNOV2016/05 : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (2)
Citrus jambhiri Lush.
Local names: Jambhiri, Jatti-Khati, Rough Lemon of India
Medium sized tree, considered as hybrid between Citron (C. medica) and Lemon (C. limon), produces globose rough fruits with bumpy skin and thick rind moderately adherent to pulp, the segments resembling lime are moderately adherent. Often made into pickles in NW India where it is frequently cultivated, otherwise mostly used as Citrus rootstock.
Photographed from Herbal GardenDelhi.

Thanks, … While GRIN (Name Verified on:17-Dec-1999 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last Changed: 29-Mar-2016) gives this as the accepted name,
Catalogue of Life gives it a syn. of Citrus taitensis Risso
(Latest taxonomic scrutiny: Hassler M., Nov-2016)

ANMAR60/82 Atlantia monophylla (Please validate) : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (17)
Family: Rutaceae
Date: 24th March 2015
Place: Bababudangiri, Chikamagalur, Karnataka

Habit: Tree
Habitat: Shola forest
… identified this as A. monophylla but I am not entirely convinced as my doubts were not cleared by ma’am. Please validate. Any reasons for why it is A. monophylla would be helpful.
I have also posted Atlantia racemosa for comparison. The striking difference is the size of the flowers, with the flowers posted in this current thread twice the size of the ones in the Atlantia racemosa post.
A third post where the names A. racemosa and A. wightii have been suggested.
Kindly resolve the ID of the Atlantia sp. in these three posts.
Another thread where the difference between A. racemosa and A. monophylla has been discussed at length.

For differences & keys between A. racemosa and A. monophylla, pl. see An Excursion Flora of Central Tamilnadu, India By K. M. Matthew (1995)
For differences & keys between A. racemosa and A. wightii, pl. see Biotik links at Atalantia racemosa Wt. & Atalantia wightii Tanaka.

Yes it is Atalantia monophylla

I think it should be Atalantia wightii as per keys at book link in Flora of Peninsular India and as per details at Biotik, as filaments appear to be free.
Pl. confirm.

Beautiful images; Yes … it is not A racemosa or A.monophylla, the flower is different from these 2 species, it is pinkish, the petals and staminal tube are different.

This is more likely to be a species of Citrus than Atalantia

Originally uploaded as Atlantia monophyla, which has much smaller fruits (less than 3 cm), This appears to be Citrus sp, fruit suggests C. jambhiri

Looks something different compared to Atalantia monophylla !

Please compare with this Citrus jambhiri – efloraofindia (

That looks close

Both POWO and CoL give it as a syn. of Citrus taitensis


Rutaceae Week: 09052012GS1 Citrus sp. from Delhi for ID:
This Citrus species I thought as Citrus medica but the surface seems to be be much more rough, rind thicker and projection at one end. Please give your opinion.
Photographed from Herbal Garden, Punjabi Bagh, Delhi.

Citrus medica Linn. often mammillate at one apex with rough & thick rind. so i think this one is Citrus medica Linn. only.. commonly called as Bijora, Mahalungi.

Nice Shot Sir. This one Citrus Medica once we had in our Hostel in Kurukshetra

It is Citrus × taitensis Risso syn. Citrus × jambhiri Lush., as per discussions in another thread: Citrus jambhiri from Herbal Garden, Delhi-GSNOV2016/05

This is Rough lemon…… Citrus jambhiri

Rutaceae Week: Citrus medica from Ambala City Haryana:
Citrus medica from Ambala city Haryana.
Growing in a Kitchen Garden

I was reading somewhere that the way seeds develop in citrus, the fertilized flowers’ seeds sprout true to form, something to do with the way genetics of citrus works..
so my question is… can one grow seeds from that citrus medica from the kitchen garden and get a true citrus medica?
or is it a cutting rooted and grafted?

I am not much aware of the Genetics of Citrus but the pictured plant was from cutting one

It is Citrus × taitensis Risso syn. Citrus × jambhiri Lush., as per images and details herein.

It is Rough lemon (Citrus jambhri). Citron (Citrus medica)  has oblong fruit with thick rind which used in candy making. Fruit gives aroma and used in religious purpose……


Rutaceae Week: Bitter Orange – wartlike skin from Chandagal:
Citrus aurantium
Fruit Size-7-12cms, Leaf size ~15cms
Chandagal, Mysore
19 Aug 2009

It is Citrus × taitensis Risso syn. Citrus × jambhiri Lush., as per images and details herein. 

It is again it is rough lemon. In Sour orange, there is winged petiole

This is called Herale kai in Kannada and Narthangai in Tamil.

Rutaceae Week :: Citrus aurantiifolia at Thane:
Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle … sometimes written as Citrus aurantifolia
more views: Dec 1, 2007 … in Vasant Leela garden (Nisarga), Vaghbil, Thane
Jul 15, 2007 … in Vasant Leela garden (Nisarga), Vaghbil, Thane

If all photographs belong to same plant, the first photograph (flowers) and second (fruits) I hope belong to Citrus medica, the Citron often grown in gardens as nimbu or limbu, not the lime (nimbu) we get in the market.

I was under the impression that the C. medica fruits are never spherical !
Now, I am eager to see flower and plant of C. aurantiifolia.

The picture of the fruit makes me wonder if it is Citrus aurantium (bitter Orange). Please see This though is the opinion of a novice.

Many thanks … for another lead on ID.
Hopefully, the ID gets resolved – I now clearly see it not to be C. aurantiifolia.

It is Citrus × taitensis Risso syn. Citrus × jambhiri Lush., as per images and details herein.

The name of Rough lemon has been changed from Citrus x taitensis to Citrus x jambhiri. It is a cross between orange to citron…..

I am following POWO and CoL, in this regard.

I want to inform you that the currently accepted  name of Rough lemon is Citrus jambhiri by citrus taxonomists. I am enclosing a list of accepted citrus spp. according with

The Plant List is very old, and published in 2010 and not updated after that and sourced it’s data on Citrus from Kew only. Latest from Kew is POWO and constantly updated.
So better to follow POWO.


Citrus Fruits For ID : Muscat : 19FEB15 : AK-19 : 9 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (3)
Citrus fruits seen in a plant nursery in Muscat on 2nd Jan,15.
Bigger fruits, very sour.
For species id please.

How big is the fruit? Check probability of Citrus hystrix DC. –

Roughly the same size as Mosambi fruits.
Orange from inside, not pale yellow as in your link.

Thank you …, in that case it might be a hybrid, the parents of which themselves are hybrids.
Please try searching ugli fruits and browsing for parentage line.

Thanks … I will try to get the size and cross section of the fruits when I revisit the place.

We should wait for … who must have some info on this, …, meanwhile the following links are useful-

This Citrus fruit tree looks like the Sour Pomelo or Amilbed (Citrus megaloxycarpa Lush.). The origin of this is still uncertain. Therefore, in the recent Citrus classifications, this entity has not been given a true species status. Please refer to GRIN Taxonomy database ( for further details.

Thanks a lot for the id. Will go thro’ the link provided by you.

Thank you very much, I am happy that the ID has been resolved.

It may be Citrus × taitensis Risso syn. Citrus × jambhiri Lush., as per images and details herein.

Bergamot orange could also be possible.

Kindly send the photographs of tree and fruits for identification


what fruit is this – efloraofindia | Google Groups:
the fruit was plucked from Solan district in Himachal Pradesh from a home garden a few days back and has extremely sour taste. the plant was growing in kind of rocky soil and is about 7-8 ft high.

It looks like grapefruit.

Citrus limon, perhaps.

Based on some references I have, on wild and primitive cultivars of Citrus, I guess it is C. megaloxycarpa.
Attaching a plate from NBRI, Lucknow’s presentation on the topic. It is described to be a primitive cultivar of W. Himalaya, NE India and Gangetic planes.

Thickness of rind suggests C. medica.

I don’t think it is C. medica. C. medica has prominent mamilla and comparatively less warty rind.

I know that this plant is used as the base on which Oranges are grafted. Quite often, when one does not take care, the orange graft perishes and new shoots of this citrus grows and bears fruits as seen in the pictures. It is either Citrus medica or citrus hustrix.
Please have a look at the link

Perhaps it is one of the two. The surface of fruit is similar to C. hystrix but thickness of rind suggests C. medica. Perhaps if leaves could be seen it would be clinching. They are quite distinct. Petiole is hardly winged in C. medica whereas winged petiole is almost 3/4 as large as the leaf blade.

Please check Citrus aurantium and C. grandis.

It is Citrus × taitensis Risso syn. Citrus × jambhiri Lush., as per images and details herein.


Citrus medica? Ukhrul, Manipur:
Can anyone give me an definite ID on this large Citrus? I assume it is C. medica.
This was seen cultivated in Ukhrul, Manipur and also in Khayang village, Manipur near the Burmese border.
It formed a tree to perhaps 6m high. Fruit was about the size of a grapefruit, but with very thick, coarse skin. Photographed November 2012.

It is Citrus × taitensis Risso syn. Citrus × jambhiri Lush., as per images and details herein.

Rough lemon is growing in this area and farmers are using the fruits in preparation of several value added crop



Citrus taitensis : 1 post by 1 author.
These are some photos of Citrus sp which we called locally as “Khatti“. So this should be C. jhamberi or C.aurantium subsp jhamberi as you sugested? sorry i didnt post photos earlier.

Yes it is, now correctly known as C. taitensis, as mentioned earlier.

Can it be Citrus × aurantium L. (Khatta or some other cultivar) as per details herein, as pericarp appears to be quite thin? And fruit appears to be quite juicy.

Leaves and fruit characterstics indicates it is Citrus jambhri…. Rough Lemon

Citrus Fruit For ID : Uttarakhand : 210413 : AK-2 : Attachments (1).  8 posts by 4 authors.
Citrus fruit seen growing near a house in Jim Corbett on 23/3/13.
Fruit oblong and much bigger than our common Lime.
Id please.

It looks like galgal.

Common names can be confusing as there are so many dialects spoken in India… In Maharashtra Galgal or Ganer is called for another evergreen tree of Cochlospermum religiosum/C.gossypium….. So Botanical Pundits pl id the scientific name of the Citrus fruit/plant.

Yes that is the irony of common names.

Every one in hilly areas of Punjab, Jammu, Himachal Pradesh and other parts of NW Himalayas is so familiar with citrus fruit GALGAL, oblong yellow fruit extensively used in pickle making. It is botanically Citrus pseudolimon, hill lemon or Kumaon lemon
But not so with our published literature. I have with me Useful Plants of India, published by CSIR in 1986
It has Galgal as Hindi name for Cochlospermum religiosum, as mentioned by …, also known as kumbi or ganer, and if we go by English names, It is known as Silk Cotton Tree,, a name belonging to Bombax ceiba more commonly.
In UP Galgala is name of a grass Eragrostis pilosa.

It is Citrus × taitensis Risso syn. Citrus × jambhiri Lush., as per images and details herein.


ITIS – Report: Citrus:
ITIS link
Thanks for POWO regarding  change name of Citrus jambhri change. Well ITIS and taxonomist working on citrus, recommend Citrus jambhri for rough lemon.

ITIS was the 1st online database which came around 2000. 

It had its limitations being the 1st.
The Plant List followed it on a much wider scale in 2010, but it was a static source which was not updated at all.
Things moved for better with the recent coming of Catalogue of Life and after that of POWO.
I think on plants, POWO is the best on date, though not totally reliable (as are other databases), but they keep on updating regularly.

Thanks for providing information. Horticulture scientist of the world still follow Citrus jambhri for Rough Lemon.

Taxonomists differ on such aspects.
There is no harm in following either of them, as long as it refers to the same species.


(PDF) Horticultural Classification of Citrus Cultivars:
…, pl go through recent paper on citrus classification.

It give details as below:
C. × limonia var. jambhiri:  C. jambhiri Lush.(Tanaka (1961)), C. limon (Swingle and Reece (1967)), C. × taitensis Risso (Zhang and Mabberley (2008),  Rough lemon [2, 16, 17]
So the latest classification was C. × taitensis Risso (Zhang and Mabberley (2008), as per this.

Citrus from Tripura: 7 images.
This is exclusively found in Tripura and its juice is used on head for relieving headache.
Please identify

Looks like Ugly fruit, Jamaican Tangelo, a hybrid of tangerine – orange – grapefruit.

Appears close to images at

Yes …, C. taitensis (formerly C. jahambiri) seems good match.


Citrus × taitensis :: Waghbil, Thane :: Dec 1, 2007 · JUN23 DV313: 2 images.

Citrus × taitensis
Waghbil, Thane :: Dec 1, 2007 · 12:11 PM IST :: about 3 m (10 ft) asl
Many thanks to Garg ji for suggesting the ID at efloraofindia, and to Scott K. Johnsgard for validating the ID at iNaturalist


Citrus × taitensis :: Waghbil, Thane :: Jul 15, 2007 · JUN23 DV353: 3 images.

Citrus × taitensis
Waghbil, Thane :: Jul 15, 2007 · 12:24 PM IST :: about 3 m (10 ft) asl
Many thanks to Garg ji for suggesting the ID at efloraofindia, and to Scott K. Johnsgard for validating at iNaturalist.




Catalogue of Life  POWO  The Plant List Ver.1.1 (Unresolved) IPNI  Flowers of India  India Biodiversity Portal  Plant ideas  Plant this  Florida Plant Atlas (specimen)  Research gate (illustration) 

Edible Medicinal And Non-Medicinal Plants– T K Lim (2012) (Abstract- Rough lemon is native to the Himalayan foothills in India and has naturalised in many parts in Asia, Australia and the Pacific Islands. In Assam, India semi-wild populations are found. The rough lemon is one of the most important rootstocks of Citrus species, cultivated for this purpose in India, USA, South Africa, and Australia. At the end of the ­sixteenth century it had been introduced to southeast Africa by the Portuguese, and later it was distributed to Europe and the New World. In Australia, it has naturalized along creek banks and on rainforest margins; often persists around old habitations in New South Wales and southern Queensland.) 
World Economic Plants: A Standard Reference, Second Edition By John H. Wiersema, Blanca León (2016)

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