Elaeagnus infundibularis Momiy., J. Jap. Bot. 48: 262 1973. (syn: Elaeagnus armata Buch.-Ham. ex Schltdl.);
Nepal, India, Bhutan, Darjeeling as per Catalogue of Life;

Shrub. Leaves elliptic to oblong-elliptic, 6.5-10×2.6-4.9cm, shortly acuminate, base rounded to rounded-cuneate, margin +/- undulate, upper surface glabrescent, lower surface densely silver-scaly with some scattered reddish brown scales; petiole 8-12mm. Flowers on very short axillary shoots; pedicels 3-5mm. Calyx 11-13mm, above constriction obconical with spreading lobes; lobes ovate, 2-3mm. Stamens inserted in throat; filaments c 0.5mm; anthers 1.5mm. Style glabrous. Fruit oblong-ellipsoid, 16-18×9-11mm.

Secondary scrub on hillside
(Attributions- A.J.C Grierson &D.G Long, Flora of Bhutan, Volume 2 part 1, Published by RGoB and RBGE, 1991 from Bhutan Biodiversity Portal)


SK281DEC29-2016:ID : 18 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (8)

Location: Nagarkot, Nepal 
Altitude: 7000 ft.
Date: 28 December 2016

Looks like some Elaeagnus species (Elaeagnaceae).
Elaeagnaceae in eFI.

Elaeagnus parvifolia Wall. (accepted name)   ???
http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=110&taxon_id=242319791 ??

I am pleased to view these good images of an Elaeagnus in flower.  I myself have only ever come across Elaeagnus at the fruiting stage. But is this E.parvifolia?
‘Flowers of the Himalaya’ only describe one species, E.parvifolia, out of 6 recorded from the region, so it is likely this is over-recorded.
‘Enumeration of the Flowering plants of Nepal’ lists 5 species yet has 6 species in a key provided to distinguish between them!
Of these, E.infundibularis, E.kanaii, E.parvifolia & E.tricholepis are recorded from suitable elevations.  And perhaps E.conferta?
The first major problem with the specimen being E.parvifolia is that this, according to the ‘Enumeration’ flowers in the spring (whilst ‘Flowers of the Himalaya’ says spring to early summer). A plant in flower at the end of December does not tally with this.
The second consideration is that ‘Flora of Kathmandu Valley’ (1986) only lists E.conferta Roxb. – which was recorded below Godawari and Phulchoki @ 1900m, flowering November to January, local name ‘Madilo‘.  I cannot be certain as to the reliability of this identification.
This and the genus as a whole along the Himalaya needs checking further.
There are keys in both the ‘Enumeration’ and ‘Flora of Bhutan’ (covering Bhutan & Sikkim). In the latter it says the name E.conferta has sometimes been misapplied to E.caudata such that literature records require confirmation.  E.conferta Roxb. in Bhutan and Darjeeling such this species is from terai and foothills i.e. well below 1900m.  Unfortunately, the entry for this species is missing within the ‘Enumeration’.

Thank you for the detailed information. However, I am also not sure about the correct ID of the plant. I am enclosing the link showing the listing.

As per comparative images at Elaeagnus, I find it more closer to Elaeagnus umbellata rather than Elaeagnus conferta

As per Images posted of Elaeagnus parvifolia Wall. ex Royle & Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. in efi, both look similar.
Flora of Pakistan only lists Elaeagnus umbellata with distribution as Japan, Assam, China, Afghanistan and the Himalayas from Kashmir to Bhutan. Flora of China also only lists this species with distribution as Afghanistan, Bhutan, China, India, Japan, Korea, Nepal; naturalized in North America.
While Flora of Nepal only lists Elaeagnus parvifolia Wall. ex Royle with distribution as Afghanistan, Himalaya (Kashmir to Bhutan), Assam, W. China
In view, I have taken postings of both these plants as Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb.
If you think otherwise, pl. let me know. 

I cannot agree that the specimen you photographed is Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. – as far as I know this is NOT found anywhere in the Himalaya but thickets & thin woods in lowlands and hills in Japan!

Elaeagnus is not an easy genus.
According to the Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal 7 taxa belonging to 5 species are found in Nepal:
Needs looking into further.

Thanks, … Both Flora of Pakistan and Flora of China list it.

I based my comments upon the treatment of Eleagnus within Flora of Bhutan, Enumeration of the Flowering Plants of Nepal and Flora of Japan.
I have greater confidence in these than ‘Flora of Pakistan’ and Flora of China.
Yes, Stewart listed E.umbellata Thunb. based upon Hooker in FBI.  He gave E.parvifolia Wall. ex Royle as a synonym.  He recorded it from N.Pakistan and Kashmir @ 900-3000m incl. Tangmarg.
However, Flowers of the Himalaya has E.parvifolia with E.umbellata auct. non-Thunb. as a synonym – this means E.umbellata NOT authored by Thunberg.
The Enumeration Vol 3 (1982) is consistent with the treatment in Flowers of the Himalaya.
Both give a distribution through to SW for this species. The latter does NOT list E.umbellata Thunb.
As for Flora of Bhutan Vol 2 Part I (1992) this includes E.parvifolia Royle giving as a synonym E.umbellata sensu FBI non Thunberg.
I also happen to have a copy of ‘Flora of Japan’ by J.Ohwi  (in English) published by the Smithsonian Inst., Washington DC in 1984 – my ‘heaviest’ flora @ 3.4kg (28 x 22 x 8 cm).
This includes E.umbellata Thunb. – common & variable OFTEN CULTIVATED in Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku & Kyushu – it does not mention it occurrence elsewhere.  3 varieties are given incl. var. hortensis.
You do get DIFFERENCES of interpretation amongst taxonomists.  Clearly Elaeagnus is not an easy genus identification-wise.
I do not know if there has been a recent revision of the genus Elaeagnus?
I have seen examples of taxa in the NW Himalaya which were assigned to ‘Japanese’ species when there had been a misunderstanding of nomenclature i.e. a species name used by more than one author.
I shall comment about this in a separate post.
IF, a world authority on Elaeagnus exists, their thoughts would be welcome.





31 January 2017 Same plant! 

No luck  !  Not a single fruit !
ID validation still pending !
Attachments (6)


Attachments (3)

Sometimes it is NOT POSSIBLE to fully identify plants beyond genus.  A proper DETERMINATION cannot reliably be arrived at – for various reasons and thus must simply be accepted as sp. ONLY.
In the future when a genus is revised well or someone with specialist knowledge takes a look at the photos, they MIGHT be in a position to name it – though the information provided by the photos may not be sufficient.
To name plants TOO speculatively is A MISTAKE and CAN ONLY LEAD TO FURTHER CONFUSION.
However frustrating, this MUST be accepted.
IF somewhere like Kew receives either an INADEQUATE pressed specimen or the genus is not well-known enough, they will either just put sp. or perhaps aff. indicating “having affinities to” a particular species but NOT saying it belongs to that species.
As I regularly state, plants are variable things and we CANNOT always NEATLY pigeon-hole them into existing species.
To ACCEPT this situation is a sign not of incompetence but COMPETENCE.
A LOT of trouble is caused by too many guesses and speculations as to species names – MANY images of plants on the internet both in cultivation and the wild are MISIDENTIFIED.
As are a SIGNIFICANT proportion of those in Floras of different parts of the Indian Himalaya.

Agree !


Finally the fruits ! Same plant on 31 March 2017. Would it help to close in to the correct ID ?
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No, if you read my previous, extensive comments.
Unless we have access to a specialist in this genus or a proper
revision is undertaken, uncertainty will remain.
That is how it is for quite a number of genera/taxa. 


Elaeagnus conferta Roxb. ??
Same plant !

Location: Nagarkot, Nepal  
Date: 12 December 2017
Altitude: 6800 ft.
Attachments (7)

I have taken your post as Elaeagnus parvifolia in view of … comments in this thread.

Initially I also guessed it as Elaeagnus parvifolia Wall. but after going through the pages of the Flora of Kathmandu Valley it seems closer to the Elaeagnus conferta Roxb. based on the brown spots/scales on the outer surface of petals and underneath the leaves.
Your opinion please !
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Thanks, … When was this published ?
What is its reliability vis-a-vis Checklist of Nepal ?

Published by Medicinal Plants Dept, Nepal Government
in 1986. Cannot confirm since I am not an expert.

Location:  Nagarkot, Nepal  
Date: 2 April 2018
Altitude: 6800 ft.
Habit: Wild
Can we decide the ID ?
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I have kept it at Elaeagnus conferta

Thank you …! Nepali Name: मदिलो Madilo

Ripe fruits and seed for further validation from same location on 16 May 2019.
Attachments (4)- around 800 kb each. 

Corolla tube looks different from images at Elaeagnus conferta
Following keys in Flora of Bhutan at Elaeagnus‎, I think it is Elaeagnus infundibularis (closely related to E. parvifolia) as per
GBIF  High resolution specimen
All your posts in this thread are of this species only.

May be …! By the way E. conferta is recorded in the Kathmandu Valley !

Thanks, …, E.conferta is not mentioned in Checklist of Nepal.

So it is quite possible that High resolution specimen (1995), I mentioned earlier for identification as Elaeagnus infundibularis, is wrongly identified.
On further checking with Type specimen of Elaeagnus infundibularis in GBIF, flowers appears to be tubular and smaller in this species.
On checking with illustration in Flora Mesiana, your post matches with E.conferta.
Also find descriptions in Flora Mesiana and Flora of China, matching with your post.

Thank you …! By the way POWO is also showing its distribution in Nepal!

Elaeagnus conferta Roxb.
POWO showing distribution in Nepal ! And some more book excerpts.
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SK498 03 MAY-2017:ID : 4 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (3)
Location: Soureni, Mirik, India
Date: 21 April 2017
Altitude: 4200 ft.
Can this Elaeagnus be identified only with leaves ?

May be-  appears close to Elaeagnus conferta Roxb. as per comparative images at Elaeagnus

Based on leaf shape and veins, it appears close to your images at Elaeagnus infundibularis Momiy.

This may also be Elaeagnus conferta Roxb. as per your another thread: SK281DEC29-2016:ID

May be Elaeagnus infundibularis as per SK 2419 30 January 2020


SK 2419 30 January 2020 : 11 posts by 2 authors. 7 images- 7 mb each.

Location: Latha Bhanjyang
Date: 8 January 2020
Elevation: 2056m.
Habitat: Wild
Elaeagnus infundibularis Momiy. ??

Thanks, …, E.conferta is not mentioned in Checklist of Nepal.
As per keys in Flora of Bhutan as at Elaeagnus, E. conferta (Subtropical forest, 550m.) and E. infundibularis (Secondary scrub on hillside, 1840- 2100m). So E.conferta appears to be a species of low altitude.
Also as per keys, Calyx tube appears more obconical above constriction rather than tubular as at illustration in Flora Malenesia and specimens at GBIF
Also matches with High resolution specimen (1995) at GBIF.
I think we have to your plant at Elaeagnus conferta Roxb. also to be Elaeagnus infundibularis

Flora of China gives near sea level to 1500 m for Elaeagnus conferta


SK 3651 14 November 2022: 1 high res. image.

Location: Shivapuri, Kathmandu, Nepal.
Altitude:  2194m.
Date: 13 November 2022
Habit : Wild
Elaeagnus infundibularis Momiy.??

Yes, appears close as per images at


MS,Feb.,2023/11 Elaeagnus (pyriformis ?) for id.: 3 images.
Location : Hmuifang tlang, Mizoram

Altitude : ca.1,550 m.
Date : 23-02-2023
Habit : Climbing shrub
Habitat : Wild
Note : Fruit edible

Looks like Elaeagnus infundibularis Momiy., but I am not sure if it has got distribution there.

Yes, as per images at


MS,Feb.,2023/12 Elaeagnus sp. for id: 2 images.
Location : Lurh tlang, Mizoram

Altitude : 1,700-1,800 m
Date : 05-12-2018
Habit : Scandent shrub
Habitat : Wild

Elaeagnus infundibulum ??

Elaeagnus infundibularis Momiy. may be !

Pl. post high res. images to check the details.
3 high res. images.


MS,Feb.,2023/13 Elaeagnus sp.(pyriformis ?) for id.: 1 image.
Location : Kolasib, Mizoram

Altitude : ca.700 m.
Date : 12-02-2020
Habit : Scandent shrub
Habitat : Cultivated

Elaeagnus infundibularis Momiy.

Generally fruits look similar in different species.
Flowers are the best to judge to find out a species.

May I request you to post a high res. image to see the corolla attached at the apex of the fruit.

1 very high res. image.

Yes, as per images at


MS, March,2023/02 Elaeagnus sp. for id: 1 image.
Location : Ailawng, Mizoram

Altitude : ca.1,100 m
Date : 24-10-2018
Habit : Straggling or Scandent shrub
Habitat : Wild ?

Maybe the same sp.

Yes, quite possible.

However, it is difficult to confirm with this image.

Elaeagnus infundibularis is possible as per images at

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