Tribulus terrestris var. bicornutus (Fisch. & C. A. Mey.)
Hadidi (syn: Tribulus bicornutus Fisch. & C. A. Mey. (ambiguous synonym); Tribulus hispidus C. Presl; Tribulus lanuginosus L. (ambiguous synonym); Tribulus lanuginosus var. microcarpus Chiov.; Tribulus lanuginosus var. orientalis (Kerner) M. P. Nayar & G.
S. Giri (ambiguous synonym));
Talysh, Iran, Afghanistan (Badakshan, Wakhan, Badghys, Baghlan, Balkh, Bamyan,
Farah, Herat, Kabul, Kandahar, Kunar / Nuristan, Laghman, Logar, Nangarhar,
Nimroz, Orozgan / Daykundi, Paktia / Khost, Qunduz, Samangan, Takhar), Pakistan
(Baluchistan), Northern Caucasus, Egypt, Sinai peninsula, Arabia, India
as per Catalogue of life;
Keys as per Tribulus complex
Common name: Puncture Vine, Caltrop, Yellow Vine, Goathead • Assamese: গোক্ষুৰ gokshura • Bengali: গোক্ষুর gokshura • Gujarati: બેઠા ગોખરુ betha gokharu, ગોખરુ gokharu, મીઠા ગોખરુ mitha gokharu • Hindi: गोखुरू gokhuru • Kachchhi: એકાંટી ekanti, મિઠા ગોખરુ mitha gokharu • Kannada: ನೆಗ್ಗಿಲು neggilu, ನೆರಿಗಿಲು nerigilu, ಸಣ್ಣ ನೆಗ್ಗಿಲು sanna neggilu • Konkani: ನೆಗಲ್ಮುಳ್ಳು negalmullu • Malayalam: ചെറിയ ഞെരിഞ്ഞിൽ cheriya-neringil, ഞെരിഞ്ഞിൽ nerungil, വയൽച്ചുള്ളി vayalchchulli • Marathi: गोखरू gokharu, काटे गोखरू kate gokharu, गोक्षुर gokshura, लहान गोखरू lahan gokharu, सरांटा saranta • Nepali: गोखुर gokhur • Odia: ବ୍ଯାଳ ନଖ byala nakha, ଗୋଖୁର gokhura, ଗୋକ୍ଷୁର gokshura, କଣ୍ଟକଫଳ kantkaphala, ପଳଙ୍କଷା palankasha, ଷଡଙ୍ଗ shardanga, ଶୃଙ୍ଗାଟକ srungatka, ସ୍ବାଦଂଷ୍ଟ୍ରା swadamshtra, ସ୍ବାଦୁ କଣ୍ଟକ swadu kantaka, ତ୍ରିକଣ୍ଟ trikanta • Punjabi: ਗੋਖਰੂ gokharu, ਲੋਤਕ lotak, ਪਕਡ਼ਾ pakra, ਫਨਗਰਾ phangra • Rajasthani: छोटा गोखरू chota gokharu, गोखरू gokharu • Sanskrit:अश्वदंष्ट्रा ashvadanshtra, बहुकण्टक bahukantaka, चलद्रुम chaladruma, चणद्रुम chanadruma, चित्रकण्टक chitrakantaka, गोखुर gokhura, गोक्षुर gokshura, पदन्यास padanyasa, श्वदंष्ट्रक shvadanshtraka, स्थलशृङ्गाट sthalashrngata, स्वादुकण्टक svadukantaka, त्रिकण्टक trikantaka, वनशृङ्गाट vanashrngata, व्याघ्रदंष्ट्र vyaghradanshtra, व्यालदंष्ट्रक vyaladanshtraka • Tamil: அக்கிலு akkilu, அக்கினி akkini, அச்சுரம் accuram, அசுவதட்டிரம் acuva-tattiram, நெருஞ்சி nerunci • Telugu: పల్లేరు palleru • Tibetan: གཟེ་མ gze ma • Tulu: ನೇಗಿಲ್ negilu • Urdu: گوکهرو gokhuru, گوکشر gokshura Source: Names of Plants in India

Tribulus terrestris
Commonaly called as Bhokhari, Gokshur

We call it Go-Khur
Toe or nails of cow. The seeds look like Go-khur.
This is supposed to be tonic in Ayurveda. I eat tender fruits.

If you consider Tribulus lanuginosus as a distinct species (some authors consider this as synonym to T. terrestris), you may call your plant also with that name (T. lanuginosus). The style is long and glabrous. In T. terrestris the style is absent or very short.





Attachments (2)

You are welcome …, and thanks for the pictures. The style is very prominent in the fruits, so it is T. lanuginosus. (the style is pubescent in T. subramanyamii, just for info.)



Tribulus terrestris :: Puducherry :: 15 OCT 19 : 23 posts by 5 authors. 2 correct images- 1st two.

Puducherry  near sea coast

Date: October 15, 2019 … Altitude range: about 0 – 3 m (0 – 10 feet) asl
Tribulus terrestris L.  

i see this in american southwest hiking trails also and in my potted plants i buy near ganges, too. your pictures are very nice

May be Tribulus lanuginosus as per keys and details at Tribulus complex

At GBIF, I had gone through various pages, and concluded as follows:
Tribulus terrestris L. … synonyms, sub-species, varieties at GBIF
Tribulus lanuginosus L. … synonym of variety Tribulus terrestris var. bicornutus (Fisch. & C.A.Mey.) Hadidi … status at GBIF
It was too confusing for me to dig into varieties of Tribulus terrestris.
Let me know whether you think posted plant has to be labelled explicitly as Tribulus lanuginosus L.

Yes, … Among all the varieties given in Catalogue of Life, only Tribulus terrestris var. bicornutus (Fisch. & C.A.Mey.) Hadidi is reported from India, as per distribution given at the links.
So we may take this one only.

I went through links … that you mentioned in your line … “only Tribulus terrestris var. bicornutus (Fisch. & C.A.Mey.) Hadidi is reported from India, as per distribution given at the links.”
It can be seen as follows:
Tribulus terrestris L.  India (widespread)
As per keys and details at Tribulus complex that you suggested in earlier post in this thread, … poster shows fruits of three species.
In that, I see fruits of my posted plant is much closer to the parent species: Tribulus terrestris than that of Tribulus lanuginosus
What are your thoughts?

Tribulus complex

This image from my ppt slide has pictures of 3 species of Tribulus. They are distinct in general morphology, style, fruits, thorns, indumentum, leaves etc. as you can see in the pictures.

Reproducing the key here: 

A simple macroscopic key to distinguish the 3 southern indian species :   
1. Style absent or very short (< 0.5 mm long) --- Tribulus terrestris
1. Style present, 1.5-2 mm long ———————- 2
2. Style glabrous ——————————————- Tribulus lanuginosus

2. Style pubescent —————————————- Tribulus subramanyamii 

Hope this gives some clarity oin id of these 3 spp. 

Look forward to your comments/observations.

my feedback after 9 years, better late etc etc…. as the saying goes.. thanks
I revisited my own pictures from 2010 when Gokhuru plant had come in as an extra bonus (weed?)
in one of the plants pot, from a nursery from the banks of river Hooghly.
following this key
it is Tribulus terrestris
i have superrimposed … key on his poster to keep it handy. i share it here
1 image.

To me fruits are not visible in your images. Otherwise also, we have to rely more on the key based of Style.



Apologies …, I thought I had seen fruits of this plant, but they were of Pedalium murex. I think I am working very very hard 🙂

I am attaching original photo (of what we see in this post).
Since the capacity of attachment is 8MB, I am attaching only one photo here.
Please check when time permits whether the length of style is negligible / appreciable.
Attachments (1)

…, here is another which is not uploaded to flickr because of very poor quality of the photo.
May be this will help in judging the length of style. I hope other aspects (stamens, anthers) help in gauging length of style.
I think the length of style is very minimal.

I was judging based on composite image at at Tribulus complex

I sent two original images for your perusal for showing length of style compared to surrounding petals, filaments, anthers.

The length of style is negligible (less than 0.5mm). The flower is as much as 10mm across, filament about 5 – 6 mm long.
I would consider this plant to be Tribulus terrestris.

If we go by … images, I think differently. 

why … it matches … classification. small flowers. very small //short style

Is it possible that the pictures in this thread were from two different locations/populations? I am inclined to think the first two pictures as Tribulus lanuginosus based on the longer and glabrous styles. The other pictures may be of T. terrestris as the styles appear to be shorter. The general morphology of the two plants look different, too. But, I could be wrong. 

You are absolutely right with your thought, … They are from different locations within the premises of a resort.
Referring to my first post on Nov 25, 2019:
The first two photos (one of them is actually cropped version of another) belong to one location- clicked in the morning, and the rest were at another location- clicked in afternoon.
Later I added 2 photos on Dec 8, 2019, one each from the earlier locations.
The first one attached on Dec 8, belongs to morning location.
The second attached on Dec 8 belongs to afternoon.
So shall I conclude that your thoughts are as:
Morning location plant … Tribulus lanuginosus L. … synonym of Tribulus terrestris var. bicornutus (Fisch. & C.A.Mey.) Hadidi
Afternoon location plant … Tribulus terrestris L.
Thank you very very much …, for your thoughts.
…, shall I label my photos at flickr accordingly, else please guide.

I think …, is the expert in this matter and we have to follow his advice.

Thanks for the reminder … I haven’t looked at it closely yet. However, the plant on FOI was found in Delhi. If on goes strictly by the given distribution, it would mean Tribulus subramanyamii is found only in Peninsular India. That would mean the plant on FOI is unlikely to be Tribulus subramanyamii.

I think there seems to be lot of confusion in this genus as per Taxonomic Status of Some of the Tribulus Species in the Indian Subcontinent by Varghese, M.; Yadav, S.S. & Thomas, J.  Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 13 (1) 7-12: 2006 (keys).
I have added keys at Tribulus with 7 species being reported from India.‎
Pl. see. 

Thanks … Seems like Tribulus lanuginosus … syn. of Tribulus terrestris var. bicornutus (Fisch. & C. A. Mey.) Hadidi is (dis)missed !!


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