Arisaema tortuosum (Wall.) Schott : As per efi thread : In N India and the Himalayas there is only one species that has a pseudostem with 2 or more pedatisect leaves showing a substalk (rachis) on which the leaflets are arranged AND an inflorescence with a upward facing, elephant trunk like appendix and that is tortuosum. …. The leaflets can be broad and often with ruffled edges (sometimes referred to as helleborifolium) or narrow and almost lanceolate (referred to as curvatum and predominantly present in W Himalaya). The pseudostems can range from all green to heavily striated showing the variation characteristic of widespread species. In S India the tortuose appendix occurs in more species with 2 having a single leaf (neglectum and sivadasanii) and 1 with 2 or more leaves (tortuosum). Both single leaved species are mostly confined to Maharashtra state but tortuosum occurs in more states. Sivadasanii is late flowering but still has a green inflorescence combined with a very short rachis whereas neglectum ranges from green to brown-beige flowered.
Arisaema tortuosum var. neglectum (Schott) Fisch.: As per efi thread: In S India the tortuose appendix occurs in more species with 2 having a single leaf (neglectum and sivadasanii) and 1 with 2 or more leaves (tortuosum). Both single leaved species are mostly confined to Maharashtra state but tortuosum occurs in more states. Sivadasanii is late flowering but still has a green inflorescence combined with a very short rachis whereas neglectum ranges from green to brown-beige flowered.
As per another efi thread: Tortuosum is bigger with usually more than 1 leaf and the leaf has a substalk (rachis) on which the leaflets are positioned whereas the leaflets of neglectum seems to originate from a single point.
Arisaema : 2 posts by 1 author.
I have updated eFI (efloraofindia) page on Arisaema
Attempts have been made to incorporate most of the species available in India & nearby areas with details & keys directly or through links as far as possible. It’s quite possible that there may be some discrepancy in the accepted names & synonyms taken from other links.
Species discussed so far in efloraofindia are given at the bottom of the page in the form of links against Subpages. On clicking them one can see all the details.
If someone can provide complete list of Indian species with source references it will be wonderful.
Any comments/ corrections are welcome.
Maybe I can help a bit, I have been asked to compile an Arisaema checklist for the new and upcoming Flora of India so I already have a good overview of all Arisaema growing in India. Unfortunately I cannot share the research data with you and it takes too much time for me to comment on what you have put on the website but I can send you a shortlist of species I recognize from India:
Arisaema agasthyanum Sivad. & C.S. Kumar, Aroideana 10(4): 19. 1987
Arisaema album N.E.Br., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 18: 247-248. 1880
Arisaema asperatum N. E. Brown, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 36: 176. 1903
Arisaema attenuatum E. Barnes & C.E.C. Fisch, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1936(4): 275-276. 1936
Arisaema barnesii C.E.C. Fisch., Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1933(7): 342-344. f. 2. 1933
Arisaema caudatum Engl., Monogr. Phan. [A. DC. & C. DC.] 2: 559. 1879
Arisaema concinnum Schott, Bonplandia 7(3): 27. 1859
Arisaema consanguineum Schott, Bonplandia 7(3): 27. 1859
Arisaema dahaiense H. Li, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 15(2): 107 (1977); et in Fl. Yunnanica, 2: 819 (1979)
Arisaema decipiens Schott, Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 7(47): 373. 1857
Arisaema echinatum (Wall.) Schott, Melet. Bot. [Schott & Endlicher] 1: 17. 1832
Arisaema elephas Buchet, Notul. Syst. (Paris) 1: 370. 1911
Arisaema flavum (Forssk.) Schott, Prodr. Syst. Aroid. 40. 1860
Arisaema fraternum Schott, Bonplandia 7(3): 26-27. 1859
Arisaema galeatum N. E. Br., Gard. Chron., n. s. 12(291): 102. 1879
Arisaema ghaticum (Sardesai, S.P.Gaikwad & S.R.Yadav) Punekar & Kumaran, Novon 19(3): 391. 2000
Arisaema griffithii Schott, Syn. Aroid. 1: 26. 1856
Arisaema intermedium Blume, Rumphia 1: 102. 1836
Arisaema jacquemontii Blume, Rumphia 1: 95. 1836
Arisaema jethompsonii Thiyagaraj & P.Daniel, Kew Bull. 54(2): 483. 1999
Arisaema leschenaultii Blume, Rumphia 1: 93-94. 1836
Arisaema muricaudatum Sivad., Kew Bull. 1985. 40(4): 801-803, f. 1(A-D). 1985
Arisaema murrayi (J. Graham) Hook., Bot. Mag., Ser 3 4: t. 4388. 1848
Arisaema murrayi (J.Graham) Hook. var. sonubeniae P. Tetali, Punekar & Lakshmin., Kew Bull. 59(3): 483. 2004
Arisaema neglectum Schott, Bonplandia 7(3): 26. 1859
Arisaema nepenthoides (Wall.) Mart., Melet. Bot. [Schott & Endlicher] 14: 458. 1831
Arisaema nilamburense Sivad., Aroideana 6: 37. 1983, nom. nov.
Arisaema ostiolatum H. Hara, J. Jap. Bot. 36(3): 75-76. f. 1. 1961
Arisaema peltatum C.E.C. Fisch., Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1936(4): 277-278. 1936
Arisaema petiolulatum Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J. D. Hooker). 6(19): 498. 1893
Arisaema propinquum Schott, Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 7(42): 333-334. 1857
Arisaema psittacus E. Barnes, Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 35(1): t. 3405. 1940
Arisaema rhizomatum C.E.C. Fisch., Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1936(4): 283-284. t. f. 1. 1936
Arisaema saddlepeakense P.S.N.Rao & S.K.Srivastava, Nordic J. Bot. 11(5): 575. 1991
Arisaema sahyadricum S.R.Yadav, K.S.Patil & Bachulkar, Wildenowia 23(1–2): 177. 1993
Arisaema sarracenioides E. Barnes & C.E.C. Fisch., Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 34: t. 3307. 1936
Arisaema setosum A.S. Rao & Verma, Bull. Bot. Surv. India 11(1-2): 196.f. 1. 1969
Arisaema siangense Gusman, Syst. & Geogr. Pl. 76(2): 229-233. f.1-2. 2006
Arisaema speciosum (Wall.) Mart., Flora 14: 458. 1831 var. speciosum
Arisaema speciosum (Wall.) Mart. var. mirabile (Schott) Engl., Monogr. Phan. [A.DC. & C.DC.] 2: 540. 1879
Arisaema speciosum (Wall.) Mart. var. ziroense Gusman, Syst. & Geogr. Pl. 73(1): 66 2003
Arisaema tortuosum (Wall.) Schott, Melet. Bot. [Schott & Endlicher] 1: 17. 1832
Arisaema tortuosum (Wall.) Schott ssp. sivadasanii (S.R.Yadav, K.S.Patil & Janarth.) Punekar & Kumaran, Novon 19(3): 394-395. 2009
Arisaema translucens C.E.C. Fisch., Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1933(7): 344-346. f. 3. 1933
Arisaema tuberculatum C.E.C. Fisch., Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1935(2): juxtra 65, 1934(4): 167
Arisaema utile Hook. f. ex Schott, Prodr. Syn. Aroid. 30. 1860
Arisaema wattii Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India (J. D. Hooker). 6(19): 498. 1893
Arisaema wightii Schott, Bonplandia 7(3): 26. 1859, p.p.
For the checklist I am doing fieldwork in Arunachal Pradesh for the next few years because the species from the north-eastern states are still poorly researched, highly likely new species will be described in the near future. In about a month I will be doing fieldwork in the Pemako-area north of Tuting in Siang District of Arunachal Pradesh. You can compare my list with the other lists but only some short comments:
– Arisaema auriculatum Barnes was an illegal name as it was already used for a Chinese species, it was renamed to Arisaema nilamburense
– Arisaema triphyllum and Arisaema dracontium are American species
– Arisaema tylophorum is a good species, it is NOT a synonym of barnesii
– Arisaema erubescens and Arisaema exappendiculatum are endemic Nepalese species, they do not occur in India (not in W Bengal or Sikkim)
Hope this helps a bit?
Thanks, … It certainly is of great help untill some authentic research paper is published.
Arisaema : 3 posts by 2 authors. 4 images.
Arisaema gracilentum, a new species of Arisaema (Araceae) from NE India– P. Bruggeman- Blumea 61, 2016: 87–89-
Abstract: Arisaema gracilentum, a new species of Araceae, belonging to section Arisaema from the Lower Dibang Valley, Arunachal Pradesh State in NE India is described, illustrated and compared with related taxa.
Arisaema ciliatum H. Li var. liubaense Gusman & Gowda (Araceae), a new record for India– Manudev K. M., Santhosh Nampy and Arunkumar P. G.- Pleione 9(1): 226 – 230. 2015.-
Abstract : Arisaema ciliatum H. Li. var. liubaense Gusman & Gowda, collected from Khasi Hills in Meghalaya, is reported as a new record for the Flora of India. It also forms the first report of its occurrence outside China. Taxonomic description and colour photographs are provided to facilitate easy identification in the field.
Two New Combinations in Arisaema (Araceae) from India by Sachin A. Punekar and K. P. N. Kumaran- Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature 19(3):391-396. 2009.
Abstract– Taxonomic and palynological studies on Arisaema Martius (Araceae) from the Western Ghats, India, distinguish two taxa belonging to section Tortuosa Engler. Arisaema sahyadricum S. R. Yadav, K. S. Patil & Bachulkar var. ghaticum Sardesai, S. P. Gaikwad & S. R. Yadav, a recently described variety in 2006, is treated here at the species level as A. ghaticum Punekar & Kumaran. Arisaema sivadasanii S. R. Yadav, K. S. Patil & Janarthanam, previously considered as a synonym of A. tortuosum (Wallich) Schott, is recognized here as the subspecies A. tortuosum subsp. sivadasanii (S. R. Yadav, K. S. Patil & Janarthanam) Punekar & Kumaran. Taxonomic implications are discussed and a key to the Arisaema taxa of the North Western Ghats is provided.
ARISAEMA MADHUANUM, A NEW SPECIES OF ARACEAE FROM INDIA by K. M. Manudev and S. Nampy- Edinburgh Journal of Botany / Volume 71 / Issue 02 / July 2014, pp 269-273-
Abstract : Arisaema madhuanum, a new species of Araceae from the southern Western Ghats, is described and illustrated. The new species is morphologically allied to Arisaema attenuatum, from which it differs in having subulate neuters on the male spadix, a wide-mouthed spathe tube with the margins dilated into broad auricular extensions, and an erect to arching, oblong-lanceolate spathe limb with a narrow constricted basal region. The new taxon belongs to Arisaema sect. Sinarisaema Nakai.
Arisaema sahyadricum (Araceae), a New Species from India by SR Yadav – 1993
Arisaema sahyadricum (Araceae) from the Western Ghats of Maharashtra, India, is described- Willdenowia 23: 177-179. – ISSN 0511- 9618.
Arisaema saddlepeakense, a new species of Araceae from … by PSN Rao – Nordic Journal of Botany Volume 11, Issue 5, pages 575–576, December 1991
Abstract: Arisaema saddlepeakense is described from Saddle Peak, Andaman Islands, India. It belongs to section Fimbriata and is allied to A. album.
Species with description & pictures in Flowers of India as on 17.4.14:
Species with description & keys in Flora of Pakistan :
Arisaema flavum (Forsk.) Schott
Arisaema jacquemontii Blume
Arisaema pertusum H. Riedl is a synonym of Arisaema flavum
Arisaema propinquum Schott
Arisaema tortuosum (Wall.) Schott
Arisaema tortuosum var. curvatum (Roxb.) Engler is a synonym of Arisaema tortuosum
Arisaema utile Hook. f. ex Schott
CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants: Common Names … By Umberto Quattrocchi (2102)- Details-
An Excursion Flora of Central Tamilnadu, India By K. M. Matthew (1995)- Details with keys–
Flora of Ranga Reddi District Andhra Pradesh, India By T. Pullaiah, M. Silar Mohammed (2000)- Details –
Forest Plants of Eastern India By Amal Bhusan Chaudhuri (1993)-
Arisaema galeatum N.E.Br.
Floriculture in India By Gurcharan Singh Randhawa, Amitabha Mukhopadhyay (1986)- Details-
Encyclopaedia of world medicinal plants, Volume 1 By T. Pullaiah (2006)- Details-
Species of genus Arisaema are basically and easily differentiated on the basis of position of leaflets and their number number, in addition to the spathe and spadix characteristics:
1. Leaves with digitate leaflets (palmately arranged, gap on one side).
2. Leaves with pedate leaflets (not arising from same point, especially side leaflets)
3. Leaves with radiate leaflets (uniformly spreading from center).
There are three prominent species belong to the last group in Himalayas: A. erubescence and A. consaguineum with much narrower segments less than 1.5 cm broad, and latter with usually more than 11 leaflets. A. concinnum is easily differentiated by its broader (more than 1.5 cm) leaflets and green spathe with white longitudinal stripes and 2-7 cm long apical tail, the green spadix slightly emerging from spathe.
Arisaema page (Araceae) with images of species in efloraofindia : 1 post by 1 author.
If you find any mis-identification, pl. let us know.