Exacum anamallayanum Bedd. : Image by Shahina Shanavas, inserted by Gurcharan Singh (Please click link to see details). 

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Exacum lawii C.B.Clarke : Images by Alka Khare (ID Shrikant Ingalhalikar), Prashant Awale (ID Shahina Shnavas), Prashant AwaleDalia (ID Aditya Dharap) and Narendra Joshi (ID Aditya Dharap), inserted by Gurcharan Singh (Please click link to see details and more images).
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Exacum paucisquamum (C.B.Clarke) Klack. : Images by Dinesh Singh Rawat, inserted by Gurcharan Singh (Please click link to see details).

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Exacum pedunculatum L.:  Images by Anurag SharmaMuthu Karthick (ID Vijayasankar Raman), P. SanthanPrasad Dash, inserted by Gurcharan Singh (Please click links to see details and more images).

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Images by Prashant Awale (ID Shahina Shanavas) and Vijayasankar Raman, inserted by Gurcharan Singh (Please click links to see details and more images).

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Exacum pumilum Griseb.Images by Satish NikamPrashant Awale (ID Shahina Shanavas), Prabhu KumarDinesh ValkePrasad Dash and Pravin, inserted by Gurcharan Singh (please click links to see details and more images).

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Exacum sessile L. (SW. India, Sri Lanka as per POWO)
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Exacum tetragonum Roxb.: Images by Shahina ShanavasNirupa (ID Dinesh Valke), Prashant Awale and Pravin, inserted by Gurcharan Singh (Please click links to see details and more images).

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Exacum tetragonum var. grande (Klack.) Shahina & Nampy

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Exacum travancoricum Bedd. (Image by Shahina Shanavas, inserted by Gurcharan Singh (Please click link to see details).

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Images by Subhanjan Kayet (ID Smita Raskar) and Prabhu Kumar, inserted by Gurcharan Singh (Please click links to see details and more images).

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A TAXONOMIC REVISION OF EXACUM L. (GENTIANACEAE – EXACEAE) IN SOUTH INDIA. Shahina & Nampy, Int. J. Advanced Res. 4(3): 1677 (2016)
(Abstract: The paleotropic genus Exacum (Gentianaceae: Exaceae) is revised for South India, recognizing twelve species and one variety. E. wightianum var. uniflorum is synonymized under E. klackenbergii while E. grande is reduced to the variety of E. tetragonum. Nine out of thirteen taxa (75%) are endemic to the southern Western Ghats while one is critically endangered (E. travancoricum), one endangered (E. tetragonum), one vulnerable (E. courtallense) and six are rare (E. anamallayanum, E. atropurpureum, E. klackenbergii, E. lawii, E. tetragonum var. grande and E. wightianum). The problems in the typification of E. courtallense var. laxiflorum are discussed. Detailed taxonomic descriptions, photoplates and a key to the identification of species in South India are provided.)
Keys:
Key to the species of Exacum
1a. Flowers tetramerous …. 2
1b. Flowers pentamerous ……. 7
2a. Leaves with a distinct petiole; calyx wings enlarging in fruit, with prominent veins ….7. E. petiolare
2b. Leaves sessile-subsessile; calyx wings not enlarging in fruit, without prominent veins …..3
3a. Leaf base not amplexicaul; petals bicoloured ….. 10. E. tetragonum
3b. Leaf base amplexicaul; petals single coloured … 11. E. tetragonum var. grande
4a. Calyx winged …….. 5
4b. Calyx without wings ……6
5a. Cymes never clustered, often solitary or 1–3 flowered ……. 8. E. pumilum
5b. Cymes often clustered, 1–5 flowered. …… 6. E. pedunculatum
6a. Flowers sessile-shortly pedicellate, pedicels 0.5–1.5 cm long; central flower drooping …….9. E. sessile
6b. Flowers always long pedicellate, pedicels 2–4.5 cm long; flowers not drooping .…….5. E. lawii
7a. Stems 4-angular, winged; anthers papillate; fruits drooping ….. 13. E. wightianum
7b. Stems terete, woody; anthers not papillate; fruits not drooping …….. 8
8a. Leaves petiolate …… 4. E. klackenbergii
8b. Leaves sessile-subsessile …… 9
9a. Leaf base amplexicaul; lamina coriaceous …… 1. E. anamallayanum
9b. Leaf base not amplexicaul; lamina non coriaceous ……… 10
10a. Anthers rectangular …….. 2. E. atropurpureum
10b. Anthers bottle shaped ……. 11
11a. Habit cushion type; leaves succulent …….. 12. E. travancoricum
11b. Habit non cushion type; leaves not succulent ……. 3. E. courtallense


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Indian Gentianaceae: A Check-list By Sunita Garg (1988)- Brief details-

Exacum walkeri Arn. ex Griseb.
Exacum wightianum Arn. var. uniflorum Henry & Subram.

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Binomial Habit Notes Ref. Distrib.
Exacum anamallayanum Bedd. Herb Western Ghats,
Evergreen Forests
Flora of Tamil
Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Coimbatore,
Dindigul
Exacum atropurpureum Bedd. Herb Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests, Grasslands
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Kanniya kumari,
Tirunelveli
Exacum courtallense Arn. Herb Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests, Grasslands
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Kanniya kumari,
Tirunelveli
Exacum grande Klack. Herb Western
Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Evergreen Forests, Grasslands
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Coimbatore,
Nilgiri, Salem
Exacum lawii Clarke Herb Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests, Grasslands
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Fischer 1921
Coimbatore
Exacum pedunculatum L. Herb Plains
to Low Altitude, Moist Localities
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
All
districts
Exacum petiolare Griseb. Herb Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests, Grasslands
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Coimbatore,
Nilgiri
Exacum pumilum Griseb. Herb Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests, Grasslands
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Coimbatore
Exacum sessile L. Herb Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests, Grasslands
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Coimbatore,
Kanniya kumari, Nilgiri, Tirunelveli
Exacum tetragonum Roxb. Herb Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests, Grasslands
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987; Clarke 1883
Coimbatore,
Nilgiri, Tirunelveli
Exacum travancoricum Bedd. Herb Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests, Grasslands
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Kanniya kumari,
Tirunelveli
Exacum wightianum Arn. var. uniflorum Henry & Subram. Shrub by
Herb
Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests, Grasslands, Endemic
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Tirunelveli
Exacum wightianum Arn. var. wightianum Herb Western
Ghats, Evergreen Forests, Grasslands
Flora
of Tamil Nadu, VOL. II, 1987
Coimbatore,
Dindigul, Nilgiri, Tirunelveli

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Botanical name Synonyms Family Common name
Exacum lawii Gentianaceae Law’s Persian Violet
Exacum pedunculatum Gentianaceae Stalked Persian Violet
Exacum pumilum Gentianaceae Little Persian Violet
Exacum tetragonum Exacum tetragonum var. stylosa, Exacum perottetii, Exacum bicolor Gentianaceae Bicolor Persian Violet
Exacum wightianum Gentianaceae Wight’s Persian Violet

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Exacum tenue (Gentianaceae): A new record for India A.K. Biswal, N.C. Rout1*, N.K. Dhal1 and M.V. Nair2. Rheedea Vol. 21(2) 174-176 2011.
Abstract- Cotylanthera Blume (Exacum L.) is a less known genus in India found mostly in Himalayas (1000 – 2000 m). The rarity of the taxon is reflected from its non-representation in Indian Herbaria including CAL. The genus has confused taxonomists since its discovery till it was found to be nested in genus Exacum L. (Gentianaceae) in early part of this century. There are only four saprophytic and achlorophyllous species reported for the genus from Old World. Exacum tenue (Blume) Klack. is reported here as a new report for Indian Gentianaceae from Similipal, Odisha. Its occurrence in a geographically isolated region from its earlier reported localities is of ecological and phytogeographical significance.

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Gentianaceae: Systematics and Natural History edited by Lena Struwe, Victor A. Albert (2002)- Details


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An Excursion Flora of Central Tamilnadu, India By K. M. Matthew (1995)- Details with keys
Exacum perrottetii Griseb. is a synonym of Exacum tetragonum
Exacum sessile L.

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Flora of Medak District, Andhra Pradesh, India By T. Pullaiah, Chintala Prabhakar, B. Ravi Prasad Rao (1998)- Details-
Exacum pedunculatum

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Biodiversity in India, Volume 4 edited by T. Pullaiah (2006)- Details-

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Flora of Davanagere District, Karnataka, India By B. K. Manjunatha, V. Krishna, T. Pullaiah (2004)- Details-
Exacum carinatum Roxb.is a synonym of Exacum pedunculatum

.

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Forest Plants of Eastern India By Amal Bhusan Chaudhuri (1993)- Brief details-

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Flora of Madhya Pradesh: Chhatarpur and Damoh By G. P. Roy, B. K. Shukla, Bhaskar Datt (1992)- Details-
Exacum pedunculatum


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Exacum : 1 post by 1 author.

I have updated eFI (efloraofindia) page on Exacum

Attempts have been made to incorporate most of the species available in India & nearby areas with details & keys directly or through links as far as possible. It’s quite possible that there may be some discrepancy in the accepted names & synonyms taken from other links.

Species discussed so far in efloraofindia are given at the bottom of the page in the form of links against Subpages. On clicking them one can see all the details.

If someone can provide complete list of Indian species with source references it will be wonderful.

Any comments/ corrections are welcome.


Pl. go through Exacum (‎‎‎‎‎‎‎‎‎‎‎Gentianaceae‎) page with images of species in efloraofindia.

If you find any incorrect identification, pl. let us know. If anybody can send images of other species of this genera (for incorporation in the website), if any, or can identify unidentified images, it will be really nice.


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