cashmere tree, coomb teak, goomar teak, kashmir tree, Malay bush-beech, white beech, white teak • Assamese: gomari • Bengali: গামার gamar, গাম্ভারি gambhari • Gujarati: શેવન shevan • Hindi: भद्रपर्णी bhadraparni, गमहर or गम्हड़ gamhar • Kannada: ಕಾಶ್ಮೀರಿ ಮರ kaashmiri mara, ಶಿವನಿಮರ shivanimara • Khasi: dieng lophiang • Konkani: शिवन shivan, सीनी sini • Malayalam: കുമിഴ് kumizh, കുമ്പിള്‍ kumpil • Manipuri: ৱাঙ wang • Marathi: शिवन or शिवण shivan, थोरशिवणी thorshivani • Mizo: thlanvawng • Naga: imbeh ching • Nepalese: कामरी kamari • Oriya: bhodropornni, butalo, thlanvawng • Punjabi: gumhar • Sanskrit: गम्भारी gambhari, सिन्धुपर्णी sindhuparni, सिन्धुवेषणम् sindhuveshanam, स्तूलत्वचा stulatvacha • Tamil: குமுதை kumutai, கூம்பல் kumpal, பெருங்குமிழ் peru-n-kumil • Telugu: పెద్ద గుముడు టేకు pedda gumudu teku; 
 
g-MEL-in-uh — named for Johann Gottlieb Gmelin, German professor and naturalist
ar-BOR-ee-uh — tree-like
  
 
Native to: s China, Indian sub-continent, Indo-China, Malesia, Philippines
 
Deciduous tree with simple leaves, yellow flowers turning brownish with age in elongated enflorescence; fruit fruit about 2.5-3 cm, turning yellow when ripe.   

Images by tspkumar

TSPNOV2015-82-125: Images of Gmelina arborea (Lamiaceae) : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (7)

It is my pleasure to share few images of Gmelina arborea (Lamiaceae 

Habit: A deciduous tree 

Habitat: Wild, Dry decidous forest  

Sighting: Chikmagalur, Karnataka, about 1000 msl 

Date: 16-02-2015, 05-03-2015, 18-03-2015 and 06-11-2015



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Gmelina arborea [Shivan] flowering: Shivan was also flowering. Sending a few photographs. 


–  A common tree in Mysore especially on the road behind Manasagangothri i.e. SJCE Road.  It has not yet flowered here.


 

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03/05/2011/YRP/01/ Chethalayam, Wayanad.: Now am posting the pictures of tree No. 1 . The picture of the two raw fruits in the earlier thread was also from this tree. I think this should help in identifying the tree.


Yes, this looks like Shivan [Gmelina arborea] but the bark of the tree is a bit different.


Gmelina arborea.  Very common tree in Mysore city.


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Lamiaceae and Verbenaceae Week:Lamiaceae, Gmelina arborea from Delhi: Gmelina arborea Roxb., Hort. bengal. 46. 1814  

Deciduous tree with simple leaves, yellow flowers turning brownish with age in elongated enflorescence; fruit fruit about 2.5-3 cm, turning yellow when ripe.  
Common names: Beechwood, Gmelina, Goomar teak, Kashmir tree, Malay beechwood, White teak, Vemane
Photographed from Delhi University campus.

just to add, in Maharashtra it is famously known as Shivan or Gambhari in Sanskrit.
As the tree wood is white in colour, light in weight and fast growing tree, the famous  wooden toys of Savantwadi (Maharashtra) are made from this plant and also from Pangara (Erythrina species)


 
g-MEL-in-uh — named for Johann Gottlieb Gmelin, German professor and    naturalist 
ar-BOR-ee-uh — tree-like
Mar 23, 2008 at Veermata Jeejabai Bhosale Udyan, Mumbai
commonly known as: Cashmere tree, coomb teak, goomar teak, kashmir tree, Malay bush-beech, white beech, white teak • *Assamese*: gomari • *Bengali*: গামার gamar, গাম্ভারি gambhari • *Gujarati*: શેવન shevan • *Hindi*: भद्रपर्णी bhadraparni, गमहर or गम्हड़ gamhar •*Kannada*: ಕಾಶ್ಮೀರಿ ಮರ kaashmiri mara, ಶಿವನಿಮರ shivanimara • *Khasi*: dieng lophiang • *Konkani*: शिवन shivan, सीनी sini • *Malayalam*: കുമിഴ് kumizh, കുമ്പിള്‍ kumpil • * Manipuri*: ৱাঙ wang • *Marathi*: शिवन or शिवण shivan, थोरशिवणी thorshivani •  *Mizo*: thlanvawng •*Naga*: imbeh ching • *Nepalese*: कामरी kamari • *Oriya *: bhodropornni, butalo, thlanvawng • *Punjabi*: ਫਕਡ਼ਾ phakra • *Sanskrit*: गम्भारी gambhari, सिन्धुपर्णी sindhuparni, सिन्धुवेषणम् sindhuveshanam, स्तूलत्वचा stulatvacha • *Tamil*: குமுதை kumutai, கூம்பல் kumpal, பெருங்குமிழ் peru-n-kumil • *Telugu*: పెద్ద గుముడు టేకు pedda gumudu teku
Native to: s China, Indian sub-continent, Indo-China, Malesia, Philippines
   – [image: Shivan (Marathi: शिवन or शिवण)]<http://www.flickr.com/photos/dinesh_valke/3245746577/>
    … Jan 31, 2009 at Sanjay Gandhi National Park 
   – [image: Phakra (Punjabi: ਫਕਡ਼ਾ)]<http://www.flickr.com/photos/dinesh_valke/3246579032/>
    … Jan 31, 2009 at Sanjay Gandhi National Park
   – [image: Bhadraparni (Hindi: भद्रपर्णी)]<http://www.flickr.com/photos/dinesh_valke/3440358011/>
    … Apr 11, 2009 at Burondi
   – [image: Coomb teak]<http://www.flickr.com/photos/dinesh_valke/3912203871/>
    … Sep 11, 2009 at Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary, Maharashtra
   – [image: Gomari (in Assamese)]<http://www.flickr.com/photos/dinesh_valke/4779818071/>
    … Jul 10, 2010 at Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary, Maharashtra


 

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Gmelina arborea: Planted this as a small seedling 9 years ago and now it is a towering tree nearly 20 meters high. Care taken was watering and pruning. I’ll post the whole tree soon.  
Date/Time- August 2011
Location- Place, Altitude, GPS- Hyderabad
Habitat- Garden/ Urban/ Wild/ Type- Urban
Plant Habit- Tree/ Shrub/ Climber/ Herb- Tree
Height/Length- 18-20 meters
Leaves Type/ Shape/ Size- Simple, braoad-ovate 


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VALMIKI: OBSERVER OF NATURE 47:  Attaching two images of the 47th member of the series. Valmiki mentioned this as KASHMARYA. Scientifically this plant is known as Gmelina arborea. In Hindi it is Gambhar and it is Gamari in Bangla. In the second image a parrot is eating the flowers of the tree. I have recorded parrot eating the fruits of this tree.


 

 

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small tree for id, mm5 08102011:  tree for id
tree with a smooth light colored bark
leaves are about 110mm long
at my place in alibaug

that is what i suspected
it has slyly come up in a corner


Sometimes I am really amazed, how people id a plant with no flowers and just leaves that too in 8 mins. Wow!!! Hats off to …!! I

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Trees of Bangalore – RA – Gmelina arborea – White Kashmir Teak Tree – Gamhar: Gamhar is a beautiful fast growing deciduous tree occurring naturally throughout greater part of India up to 1500 m. It is a fast growing tree, which though grows on different localities and prefers moist fertile valleys with 750-4500 mm rainfall. It does not thrive on ill drained soils and remains stunted on dry, sandy or poor soils; drought also reduces it to a shrubby form. The tree attains moderate to large height up to 30 m with girth of 1.2 to 4.5 m with a clear bole of 9-15 m. It is a treat to see the gamhar tree standing straight with clear bole having branches on top and thick foliage forming a conical crown on the top of the tall stem.  

Bark light grey coloured exfoliating in light coloured patches when old, blaze thick, a chlorophyll layer just under the outer bark, pale yellow white inside.
Flowering takes place during February to April when the tree is more or less leafless whereas fruiting starts from May onwards up to June. Flowers occur in narrow branching clusters at the end of branches. The yellow flower, tinged with brown, is trumpet shaped, 3-4 cm long. The trumpets flare open into a gaping mouth with 5 distinct lobes.
Its blooming Now
 

This one is native Indian tree
Now in Lamiaceae.
Beautiful flowers.


Very beautiful pics …, the tree is majestic and when blooming, this looks superb….

 

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Gmelina arborea:  

Marathi name: Shivan

At Phansad WLS

16March,2012


Sharing the images of Gmelina arborea from Coimbatore:


Very nice pictures including a closeup of the fruit.


Though these trees are seen on roads here I could not take the photographs of the flowers. Either they are dusty as the trees are on the busy road or the season is over.


 

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Ficus sp. ID from Hooghly 20-04-12 SK-3:

Could it be Ficus infectoria (PAKUR in Bengali)?
Species : UNKNOWN
Habit & Habitat : tree, medium size (about 40 ft), roadside plantation
Date : 04-02-12, 2.50 p.m.
Place : Khanpur (Hooghly), WB


This is Shivan [Gmelina arborea] also called Gamari [White Teak]. Please check the archives of this group for my photographs of this.


Yes NOT a Ficus.

Rather Gmelina, we call s Gumhaar in Jharkhand.


Found your photographs at – efi thread. Are those fruit edible?

Affirmative. The fruit are eaten by tribals but have not seen the local villagers doing the same.


 

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SYMBIOSIS : 101:   Attaching the image of the 101st member of the series. In this male of Purple Sunbird is on the flower of Gmelina arborea.


 

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efloraindia: Gmelina arborea images:

Sharing the images of Gmelina arborea from Coimbatore.
Location: NBNP Garden, Anaikatti, Coimbatore Dist.,
Date: 01.12.2011
Habitat: Garden
Habit: Tree


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Some seeds were gifted to us in Maharashtra we sowed them in pots and after 2 yrs transplanted them on the ground. They have, now, after total 5+ yrs grown into huge trees. They bear dirty orange flowers around maWe would like them to be identified.:

Some seeds were gifted to us in Maharashtra we sowed them in pots and after 2 yrs transplanted them on the ground. They have, now, after total 5+ yrs grown into huge trees. Last two years they bore dirty orange flowers around may and small round fruits. They completely shed leaves in winter. We would like request them to be identified please. The picture of the leaf is also here.
Last season we had these yellow cute flowers which also I dont know much about can you please identify.


The tree could be of Gmelina arborea. A picture of flower/ fruit would help confirm the id.


Thank you so much for giving a name to our trees. I have rechecked on the net and the flower pictures match completely so this definitely seems to be Gmelina arboria. The common name in marathi being Shevan. However my trees have a perfectly symmetrical cony /triangular growth and I have yet to see similar pictures on the net.

 

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SYMBIOSIS 118: Attaching the image of the 118th member of the series. In this male of Purple Sunbird is on the flowers of Gmelina arborea. This is Gambhar in Hindi and Gamari in Bangla.


 

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SYMBIOSIS : 321 :  1 image. 1 post by 1 author.

Attaching an image of a female Purple Sunbird on the flower of Gmelina arborea. This tree is GAMARI in Bangla and GAMAR in Hindi.

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Hooghly Today : very fragrant fruits : Attachments (7).  3 posts by 2 authors.

These fruits are fragrant. If these fruits are of Gmelina arborea Roxb. i think i have mixed up two trees. Because last two photos of the leaves (size of SISOO leaves) may belong to some other tree.


yes fruits are of Gmelina arborea Roxb and leaves belongs to Dalbergia sissoo.


Thank you very much Sir for solving the puzzle i myself created! We call this tree গামার (GAAMAAR) in Bengali.


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Gmelina arborea in full bloom! : Attachments (7).  1 post by 1 author.

Gmelina arborea in full bloom in Aiyur, Melagiri Reserve Forest. (posted on 28.2.13).


 

 

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ID for the tree :  Attachments (2). 3 posts by 2 authors.
this one, i saw it in the city near by bangalore. i request for the ID.


It is Gmelina arborea, Shivani mara, (gambhar, gomari, gumhar, kambhari,)

one of the Dasamoola ingredient, having good timber value,
deciduous tree, yellowish flowers


 

 

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OBSERVATION IN NATURE : TASTER : Attachments (1). 1 post by 1 author.
Last few years observation tells me that Rose Ring Parakeet is fond of nectar of different flowers. But other day I observed one Rose Ring Parakeet tasting nectar of Gmelina arborea (GAMARI/ GAMBHAR), as man does. It was sucking the flower to get nectar.


 

 

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Gmelina arborea Roxb. SN April 25 : 3 posts by 2 authors. 2 correct images as above.
Gmelina arborea Roxb., Fam: Verbinaceae,
fast growing deciduous timber tree,
Root is a dasmoola ingredient in Indian system of medicine,
Gamhar, Kashmir tree, white teak, shivani, kumil,
grows well relatively higher altitudes.


Picture 174 is Salmalia malabarica, by mistake I posted here.


 

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2015april_sk32/32 : Gmelina arborea Roxb. : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (4)  


 

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Flora of Madh: Gmelina arborea Roxb. – Leaves : VG-APR-18 : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (4)
Sharing some photographs of the leaves of Gmelina arborea.
The underside has a soft & velvety texture. The deltoid base of the mature leaf blade bears a pair of glands, rather inconspicuous in the trees here [3rd pic]. The glands are absent in the juvenile leaves as seen in the last picture.
Photographed on Madh Hill (North Mumbai) in October 2014. 


very nicely done and useful as a demo to how to take pictures


 

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Sharing some photographs of the buds, flowers, and the unripe fruits of Gmelina arborea
The vegetation around this Gmelina had been nearly cleared as the rolling terrain was being levelled for the impending spell of construction [last pic].
Photographed on Madh Hill (North Mumbai) in March 2015.


very nice set of pictures
i hope the tree was spared for long term?

Thanks for your comments. In the present scenario, I really don’t know if this tree will be spared or not.


 

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Flora of Madh: Gmelina arborea Roxb. – Bark : VG-APR-19 : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (3)
Sharing some photographs of the diagnostic bark of Gmelina arborea
The first two photographs are of the same tree and the last one is of another tree further away.
Photographed on Madh Hill (North Mumbai) in October 2014.


Thanks … for clarifying pics, one can see thin flakes..

 

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Sharing the images of Gmelina arborea from Anaikatti, Coimbatore.


 

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Attached are pictures of Gmelina arborea captured in Mumbai in December 2012.


 

 

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Gmelina arborea
Verbenaceae tree

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Gmelina arborea Roxb. … also placed in Verbenaceae
in Veermata Jijabai Bhonsale Udyan on March 23, 2008

 

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Gmelina arborea Roxb. … also placed in Verbenaceae
in Sanjay Gandhi National Park on January 31, 2009 

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Gmelina arborea Roxb. … also placed in Verbenaceae
along Revdanda – Kashid Road on March 28, 2009 
at Burondi on April 11, 2009 
at Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary on September 12, 2009
at Tungareshwar Wildlife Sanctuary on July 10, 2010
near Lake Pavna on May 1, 2012 

 

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Gmelina arborea Roxb., Hort. bengal. 46. 1814

Deciduous tree with simple leaves, yellow flowers turning brownish with age in elongated inflorescence; fruit about 2.5-3 cm, turning yellow when ripe.
Common names: Beechwood, Gmelina, Goomar teak, Kashmir tree, Malay beechwood, White teak, Vemane
Photographed from Delhi University campus.


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This is a huge tree, recorded from Panipat..
Gmelina arborea


never seen the face od flower such as the one above. thanks for this face on

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Request for Species id. Dewas Madhya Pradesh. : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (5)
Request for species id.
Tree seen in a private compound in Dewas, Madhya Pradesh.


Gmelina arborea


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Flora of Kaiga_Sharing_Gmelina arborea_15102015 PK1 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)
Pl see Attached – When fully ripe, the fruit is valuable in heart disease
due to vata. The roots, fruits and leaves hasve great medicinal value and used in Ayurveda medicine. It can be used as substitute to teak wood.
Date/Time-: 29/05/2015   –    10:30,
Location- Place, Altitude – Kaiga , Uttar Kannada ,Karnataka, 380 mtrs
Habitat- Garden/ Urban/ Wild/ Type-  Wild
Habit- Tree/ Shrub/ Climber/ Herb- Tree
Size – 14mtrs


 

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For ID tree/shrub 220516-SC-01 : 3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (3)

Date/Time- 22 May 2016 , 07.00hrs

Location- Kolkata Suburban, West Bengal, India, 

Habitat- Garden/ Wild

Plant Habit-  Not sure 

Height/Length- Height approx 90cm ( now). 

Leaves Type/ Shape/ Size- images attached.


Gmelina arborea Roxb. [Lamiaceae; ex-Verbenaceae]


Yes, Gmelina arborea



 

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SYMBIOSIS : 908 : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)
Attaching a collage of female Purple Sunbird visiting flowers of Gmelina arborea (GAMARI/ GAMAR).


 

 

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Fwd: SYMBIOSIS : 911 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)
Attaching a collage of Purple Sunbird (Male) visiting flowers of Gmelina arborea (GAMARI/ GAMAR).


 

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Fwd: SYMBIOSIS : 916 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)
Attaching an image in which there are six Chesnut tailed Starling visiting flowers of Gmelina arborea (GAMARI/ GAMAR).

 

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SYMBIOSIS : 912 : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)
Gmelina arborea (GAMAR/ GAMARI) blooms at this time of the year. Number birds visit the flowers for nectar. One species of bird has a peculiar way to get the nectar and this bird is Rose Ring Parakeet. In our childhood we used to suck certain flowers for their nectar this bird gets nectar almost in the same way.

The bird plucks the flower with its beak and suck nectar before the flower is dropped. One can see a yellow carpet of flowers under the tree where Rose Ring Parakeet had a feast. Attaching a collage of Rose Ring Parakeet visiting flowers of Gmelina arborea.

Thanks, …  Nice observation.


 

 

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210717BHAR1 : 5 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (1)
Taken in kolli hills of Eastern ghats.
Locals called it Kummalangkai.
It was at a good height where I could not able to take any snapshot of leaves.
It had pleasant smell similar to that of  Syzygium jambos

Is it a tree or climber? Be specific.. some Litsea ?

These look like the ripe fruit of Gmelina arborea Roxb. [Lamiaceae / ex-Verbenaceae].

 

 

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Fwd: ROSE RING PARAKEET/ GMELINA ARBOREA ( GAMARI ) : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)
Rose ring parakeet sucks nectar from flowers of Gmelina arborea (GAMARI), as a child does. The bird takes the flower in its beak , sucks nectar and discards the flower. This phenomenon was recorded in images and made into a collage. In the collage one can see the bird in action and the discarded flowers in the air.

 

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Fwd: SYMBIOSIS : 1087 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)
Attaching a collage of Bumble bee visiting flowers of Gmelina arborea (GAMARI).

 

 

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Fwd: SYMBIOSIS : 1106 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (1)
Attaching a collage of Rose ring parakeet visiting flowers of Gmelina arborea (GAMARI)
 

 

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in Kolkata recently (22/2/08); flowering in Feb.’07 in Kolkata; At Baidyabati Canal, Bhadreshwar, Hooghly on 05/01/2009; at Shahapur– Aug’09?; at Rani Baug, Mumbai on 18 August ’09; February 16th, 2010/ 10.00 a.m.- Wayanad, Kerala; Phansad WLS Maharashtra: 21Mar,2010- 8.000 am;  Gamhar (White/Kashmir Teak/Sewan)- Gmelina arborea – indiantreepix | Google Groups ….. and they like it. – indiantreepix | Google Groups

 

Gmelina arborea – indiantreepix | Google Groups Gmelina arborea-white teak – indiantreepix | Google Groups PLANT FOR ID 155 SMP OCT 2009 – indiantreepix | Google Groups A Verbenaceae Tree? 241109MK1 – indiantreepix | Google Groups ID request – efloraofindia | Google Groups

 

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Goa, May 2019 :: Tree for ID :: ARK2019-35 : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (5) 
Requesting to please ID this tree captured on a cliff in South Goa May 2019.

Seems to be Gmelina arborea.

 

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Photo from santhoshkumares : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (1)
Any idea of its id? from a cultivated plant from trivandrum!!

… most possibly – Gmelina arborea. Please wait for validating comment(s).


Thank you …, I got a specimen from the concerned and it was identified as Gmelina arborea


 

 

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Nagla forest  … part of Sanjay Gandhi National Park

Date: December 21, 2019 … Altitude: sea level to about 600 ft asl
Gmelina arborea  Roxb.  

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Re: Fruit from Jodhpur : 7 posts by 6 authors. Attachments (7)
Kindly identify this fruit. Mostly it is cultivated.


Gmelina arborea, Lamiaceae member,

The leaves and fruits remind me of Gmelina arborea.


The Id by … is correct. This is known as Shivani tree in Karnataka. This is an important timber yielding tree; also an avenue tree as seen in Mysore. 

The fruit is edible. The plant parts are of medicinal use.

https://ijapr.in/index.php/ijapr/article/view/667


By the by, one of the best postings on the tree depicting the fruits. I have never seen this much fruits here. The tree also attracts birds.


Yes it is Gmelina arborea. Shivan in Marathi


Thanks, … I never new, fruits are edible. I found these to be edible as per PFAF and PROTA
Hi, …, Are they eating these or using for some other purpose?


 

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Id of Fruit – ID21062020SH1 : 6 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (1)- 701 kb. 

Fruit for id pl.
Location – Ambegaon (South Konkan, Maharashtra)
Date – April 2014


I know this tree, but unable to recall the name at this moment.


Gmelina arborea 


Gmelina arborea for sure.  

they are fruits of Gmeliina arborea.


 
References:

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