Bangladesh; India; Nicobar Is.; Sri Lanka as per Catalogue of life;
After deeply studying all posts in efi site along with Biotik and Pitchandikulam, I found the following key differences to separate the two based on photographs:
Most important is buds are globose in Ixora brachiata and not so in Ixora pavetta.
Leaf base is attenuate to cuneate or acute, in Ixora brachiata and rounded in Ixora pavetta.
Leaf apex is obtuse to subacute in Ixora brachiata and is acute to apiculate in Ixora pavetta.
Fruits are reddish when ripe in Ixora brachiata and black-coloured when ripe in Ixora pavetta.
Ixora brachiata is endemic to Western Ghats while Ixora pavetta is native to India, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh and is also cultivated.
Small Flowered Ixora, Torch tree, Torchwood ixora • Hindi: Jilpai, kotagandhal, लोहाजंगिन Lohajangin, मशाल का झाड़ Mashal-ka-jhar • Marathi: गोरवीकटगी goravikatagi, माकडी maakadi, रायकुरा raikura • Tamil: சுளுந்து culuntu, கோரான் koran • Malayalam: Soochimulla • Telugu: కొరవి koravi • Kannada: ಗೊರವಿ goravi, ಕೊರವಿ koravi • Konkani: Kurati • Sanskrit: Nemali, Nevali;

Small Tree for ID : Ixora Species : Lalbagh,Bangalore : 140618 : AK-10 : 8 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (3)
A small tree seen earlier in Lalbagh.
Probably Ixora Species.

Pl check for Ixora pavetta ?

I also feel closer to images at Ixora pavetta Andr. as per comparative images at Ixora

For me ‘Yes’.


Small Tree For ID : Lalbagh,Bangalore : 21APR16 : AK-20 : 20/20 : 5 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (2)
Small tree seen on 28/3/16
Ixora Species?

Ixora arboria

is it ixora parviflora?

Ixora species species in eFloraofindia (with details/ keys from published papers/ regional floras/ FRLHT/ FOI/ Biotik/ efloras/ books etc., where ever available on net) 

I think it matches with images at Ixora pavetta (Wild & Cultivated) & it agrees with … as both are syn. of Ixora pavetta (Wild & Cultivated)


12022012 TBN Plant for id from Alagarkoil:

Please identify this plant , details as follows :
Date: 18.2.11
Habitat: Wild
Habit: Small tree
Height:10 feet
Leaves :as in picture
flowers and fruits as depicted
Tamil name: not known
Please do the needful,

Looks Any Rubiaceae member

Looks very similar to Ixora brachiata (family: Rubiaceae)

First I too thought the same but the Corolla tube looks bit longer. In case of I. brachiata it is usually shorter, around 5 to 6 mm.

Wow, a plant from Alagar Kovil forests, I think this is the first upload of a plant species from this pristine forests near Madurai in Tamil Nadu.
Could it be Ixora parviflora, “the torch tree.
… got it right about the length of the corolla tube.

Yes …, …  is the first one sending the pictures from that place. Even I couldn’t make trip to there where my home is hardly 10km away.
I also think that this is I.parviflora.

Very nice to know that … is from near Alagar Kovil.
I had a chance to visit Alagar Kovil when I did my MSc there in Madurai (SN College, Perumgudi) and the place is simply amazing.
I am happy to see an upload from that pristine area and I hope to see more from Alagar Kovil.

We are awaiting much more uploads from Alagarkoil. I am pretty sure that you will show us many new and unique plants from that area.
I remember seeing a rare Habenaria (a ground orchid with white flowers) at the top, after the koil, where we get a slight open area with grasses and some trees intermixed. I remember that I could see a nice valley immediately after the place where I saw that Habenaria. My teachers were very particular about no collection because of permission issues and that time nobody had a camera. I still remember that flower that I never ever seen after that. I would be happy to see that Habenaria.

Note- Refrences for this being taken as Ixora parviflora Vahl & not Ixora parviflora Lam.: Indian Medicinal Plants: An Illustrated Dictionary By C.P. Khare, World Checklist of selected Plant Families, Flora of Pakistan

Thanks for sharing the nice pictures. Are all these photographs from the same plant. The 1st, 4th and 5th look some what different.
Perhaps I am confused.

I think it should be Ixora pavetta as per keys, details and images herein and as per discussions at Differences- Ixora pavetta and Ixora brachiata


24012013 BRS 441:
Pl. find the attached file contain photo for id. confirmation.
Location: Pichandikulam, Vilupuram Dist.,
Date: 24.01.2013
habitat: Garden
Habit: Tree.

Ixora brachiata, Rubiaceae

Ixora brachiata for me too..

I think it should be Ixora pavetta as per keys, details and images herein and as per discussions at Differences- Ixora pavetta and Ixora brachiata


Flowering tree with fragrant flowers id help:
Can you please help with the id of this flowering tree? The scent was similar to night queen, but the flowers were on a smallish tree about 5mtrs high. Please see attached pics.

Ixora pavetta, Andrews <=> Torch Tree

This is Lokhandi [Ixora brachiata]. My photographs of this are available at this link

Thank you …, The best match I could get with a field guide was also Ixora brachiata.

Ixora brachiata

I think it should be Ixora pavetta as per keys, details and images herein and as per discussions at Differences- Ixora pavetta and Ixora brachiata


Requesting ID of the small plant: 23032013: ARK-01 : 4 images. 4 posts by 3 authors.

Requesting ID of this plant
Captured in Jijamata Udyan, Mumbai in Mar 2013
Was told its name was ‘Lokhandi’ in Marathi

This is a species of Ixora. The earlier post by … is Lokhandi [I.brachiata].

Ixora brachiata? or I. arborea?

Thank you … for leads.
I compared these pics with the one posted by … below as even these had been clicked at Jijamata Udyan:
Based on the above post I concluded that this is Ixora bracheata.
Any other possibilty??

I think it should be Ixora pavetta as per keys, details and images herein and as per discussions at Differences- Ixora pavetta and Ixora brachiata


Fwd: Ixora brachiata for confirmation : Attachments (6). 2 posts by 2 authors.

I am in the process of propagating an Ixora species which I believe is the Western Ghats Ixora brachiata. Since I only know of two possible plants in South Florida (Miami), one of which I no longer have access, and I have found no one locally with specific knowledge of this species, it has been difficult confirming that my plants are indeed I. brachiata.
The flowers from Plant 1 are pinkish white and pungently fragrant and the plant was grown under shade to about 3 feet high. I have no further information, pictures, or access to this plant. Plant 2 has very similar flower structure with little to no pink, but his plant is about 10 feet high and growing in full sun. It recently flowered profusely and now the panicles bear green fruits. The fruits will turn dark red then black. The flowers in this second plant are also fragrant and brown quickly; insect activity from flower to fruit is heavy. The flower tube is short (compared to I. coccinea) and the petals are reflexed in both plants.
If you could kindly identify the plants from the attached images, I would be very grateful for your time and expertise.

Yes, it is Ixora brachiata

I think it should be Ixora pavetta as per keys, details and images herein and as per discussions at Differences- Ixora pavetta and Ixora brachiata

Flora of Madh: Ixora brachiata Roxb. – Flowers : VG-APR-23 : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (2)
Ixora brachiata is a unique species in that the flowers of this tree are “the smallest of the genus, and the only one with globose buds” [The Flora of British India by JD Hooker, vol. 3, p. 142, L. Reeve & Co., London, 1882]. The tree here is about 25 feet tall.
Photographed on Madh Hill (North Mumbai) in March 2015.

very nice
you must have taken the trunk/ bark
could i see it please?

Thanks. This tree is growing on a steep slope and I couldn’t photograph the trunk. The pictures I’ve posted are from the upper layer.

I think it should be Ixora pavetta as per keys, details and images herein and as per discussions at Differences- Ixora pavetta and Ixora brachiata


ixora brachyata:
ixora brachyata
is flowering everywhere and spreading its delightful though gentle perfume all over the farm
my place in alibaug yesterday

I think it should be Ixora pavetta as per keys, details and images herein and as per discussions at Differences- Ixora pavetta and Ixora brachiata


Tree for ID : 210611 : AK-2:
Taken at Jijamata Udyan, Mumbai on the 10th of April, 2008.
A medium sized tree.
Ixora sp?

I think it should be Ixora pavetta as per keys, details and images herein and as per discussions at Differences- Ixora pavetta and Ixora brachiata


Pleases Identify this tree from Jijamata Udyan Mumbai IDJU01:
Location- Jijamata Udyan, Mumbai, Maharashtra   Altitude: Sea level
Habitat- Garden
Plant Habit- Large Tree
Height/Length- 20mtr approx
Leaves Type/ Shape/ Size- as seen in photo
Inflorescence Type/ Size- as seen in photo
Flowers Size/ Colour/ Calyx/ Bracts-as seen in photo
Fruits Type/ Shape/ Size Seeds- not found

Ixora … could be bracheata OR pavetta.

It could be Ixora sp. A good picture of inflorescence/flower and leaf would help in species id.

Ixora or Pavetta species.  Characters of the flowers (floral arrangement) and the foliage are needed for ID. Also find out whether it is fragrant.

Its Ixora bracheata

I think it should be Ixora pavetta as per keys, details and images herein and as per discussions at Differences- Ixora pavetta and Ixora brachiata

Yes. … ID is correct

BRS 010418 001 for id. : 4 posts by 3 authors. 3 images.
I have attached photos for id. Confirmation.
Location – Anaikatti
MSL- 600 
Date-night 01.04.2018
Habit- Tree
Habitat- Garden

May be Ixora pavetta.

Looks different from images at Ixora pavetta Andr.

Closet I can go as per comparative images at Ixora‎ is Ixora brachiata Roxb.

I think it should be Ixora pavetta as per keys, details and images herein and as per discussions at Differences- Ixora pavetta and Ixora brachiata


Ixora for ID : Muscat,Oman : 030512 : AK-2:
A small, cultivated, garden tree.

Flowering season almost over, very few flowers and lots of fruits like round berries seen.
Pictures taken in Muscat on the 27th of April,12.
Height of tree about 6-7 feet.
Ixora brachiata?
Kindly confirm id.

yes it is Ixora brachiata Roxb.

I think it should be Ixora pavetta as per keys, details and images herein and as per discussions at Differences- Ixora pavetta and Ixora brachiata

Thanks for the correction.
I can post more pictures if required.

so do you have pictures of the leaves: base and apex and buds

Already posted in a new thread since … corrected the Species id.



Ixora brachiata—-for sharing and validation:
Pics of fruits of Gorbale taken at amby valley rd lonavala/ mulshi pune in may 12.

Thank you …! Are these edible?

Yes it tasted sweetish to me

I think it should be Ixora pavetta as per keys, details and images herein and as per discussions at Differences- Ixora pavetta and Ixora brachiate

[EfloraofIndia_Rubiaceae week_ 060212PD04_Tarenna asiatica ?_Flora of Odisha]:
please validate wheather this is Tarenna asiatica ?
place of collection: Ranpur
habit: Small tree
habitat: Wild in hilly slopes
Altitude: 400 m above msl

Can appreciate the photographs though in a position to validate identification

So far i had not seen Tarenna asiatica. Photographs are good but not sure about the ID. Lets wait for further inputs. Do U have some more photographs of this showing front view etc..

I too am doubtful about the id. I have a feeling of Ixora brachiata. How big was the tree?

Thanks a lot … … thanks for posible ID. I have one more picture. Since the photograph was taken by my field asistant, i dont have much idea. But the tree is up to 3 m in height.

In Tarenna the flowers are 5-merous Stigma mostly stigma fusiform or linear, sulcate or striate, shortly 2-lobed at apex (flora of China)http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=132320 .
Here my guess is either Ixora brachiata or I. nigricans

Thanks … and … for correcting me. This is Ixora brachiata. I have documented T. asiatica during my field survey in November, 12. Thanks … for reposting the plant which has clear the confusion.

I think Ixora brachiata has globose flower buds. These look rather more elongated in shape. Some of the Ixora spp are quite similar.

I just looked up my notes. It could be I. pavetta (syn. I. arborea). This species is found in hilly rocky places and also near streams.

I think it should be Ixora pavetta as per keys, details and images herein and as per discussions at Differences- Ixora pavetta and Ixora brachiata


Shilondha SGNP, Jun 2014 :: Requesting ID of this tree :: 26JUN14 :: ARK-48 : 5 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (4).
Requesting to please ID this tree captured in Shilondha, SGNP, Mumbai in June 2014.

Ixora parviflora?

Ixora parviflora to me

Buchanania lanzan??? : 9 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (4)
Buchanania lanzan???
Flowering: April
Taken from: Rajshahi ,Bangladesh
Date: 9/4/16

Negative. This is a species of Ixora. Flowering is over and fruiting has just commenced. Please compare this with another species Ixora brachiata at these links

efi page on Ixora brachiata

this is not Buchnania sp for sure.. yea it is Ixora species.

Was it planted as it is endemic to western Ghats as per Biotik though images seems to match with Ixora brachiata ?

The plant found in Rajshahi college, Rajshahi, Bangladesh. Yet not sure, but my assumption is it could be planted

I think in that case it is more likely to be Ixora pavetta Andr., a widely cultivated species.

Please identify this small tree:
please identify this tree.
clicked on 13 June, 2011, 3:15 pm
habitat- at  a park
in sector 36 , Chandigarh
    leaves- thick leathery and large, SOMEWHAT similar to that of Manilkara hexandra but much larger with a small petiole and notched base, fresh leaves soft, rust colured as shown
flowers white, very small in a dense inflorescence, fragrant, bifid stigma protruding out. petals– we-cant-recurve-more-than-that type.
fruits- sweet, green turning to reddish and then deep blue or purple when fully ripe.
bark- as shown, light grey coloured

Most probably Ixora pavetta of Rubiaceae.

I too think that this could be Ixora pavetta 

It is a species of Ixora of Rubiaceae family. Let us wait the flower to open to confirm the id.

I think it is ixora brachiata
I will attach the flower

Would you please upload the picture of inflorescence

I have put more photos on this site

It looks like Ixora pavetta to me.
efi thread
efi thread

Ixora pavetta Andr. SN Feb-15 :  Attachments (1).  1 post by 1 author.
Ixora pavetta Andr., (= I. Parviflora Vahl.), Fam: Rubiaceae
shrub, small tree
Flowering, 27/02/2011, South Chennai, scrub jungle.


MS/4/3/2018 – ID of the tree : 8 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (8)
Please ID the tree. Photographs taken in a park in Mysore during  2013.

Thanks, … Pl. check Ixora

I think Ixora arboria

I will go with Ixora pavetta only.

Thanks … I agree with your ID.

Ixora pavetta : For validation : Muscat : 09OCT19 : AK-07 : 5 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (5)
This has been corrected by you as Ixora pavetta.
These are additional pictures of the same plant as in
Ixora for ID : Muscat,Oman : 030512 : AK-2

Yes. Beautiful presentation, …

Thanks for validation and appreciation.
You need the perfect light and a little time on hand for such pictures.

second pic has the tell tale matchstick buds

ANMAR01/01 Please identify this Ixora sp. : 15 posts by 5 authors. Attachments (6)
Both Biotik and JCB say that I. brachiata is endemic to western ghats but this was found in a scrub forest within Bangalore. Could it be another species?
Family: Rubiaceae
Date: 1st March 2015
Place: Turahalli, Bangalore, Karnataka

Habit: Short tree

efi page on Ixora brachiata

Ixora  species in eFIoraofindia (with details/ keys from published papers/ regional floras/ FRLHT/ FOI/ efloras/ books etc., where ever available)

I think it is Ixora pavetta

Thank you ma’am. How is I. pavetta specifically identified?

I. pavetta has slightly larger flowers and the buds are elliptic. I could see what appear to be a few buds in one of your photos.
In I. brachiata the buds are globose. The flowering season of I. brachiata seems to be shorter, at least in Sahyadris, and more restricted to the winter months.
Without the 2 plants side by side it is not easy to distinguish them from one another.
Experts please comment.

a couple of years ago … has discussed it at length.. search for his name and Ixora and also pavetta
you’ll find it

Thank you very much for explaining ma’am. Here is a cropped photo with a couple of buds visible. Attachments (1)

Thank you ma’am. I did that. I don’t know if I found the right one but what i did find seems to be different from what I photographed last week.
…, the corolla and the inflorescence seems to be different inthis!

It certainly is quite different!  The plant in the photos is one I’ve only seen in cultivation, whereas I. pavetta syn. I. parviflora has a wide distribution in India in the wild.
Please refer to Dr Almeida’s Fl of Maharashtra vol 3 p.25 and photo No. 7, and the description in Cooke’s Flora and you may decide for yourself.

Thank you so much for the clarification ma’am.
Could you please attach the photos of those sheets when possible? My college does not allow UG students into the PG library. :-/

I hope these will be helpful.
Also please have a look at http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/show/31460, and if you get a chance see Pradip Krishen’s Jungle Trees of Central India
Attachments (3)

Thank you very much ma’am. They were very helpful.
And yes, I will pop by a nearby bookstore and take a look at the book by Pradip Kishen.

eFI data relating both the concerned species is very confusing, be it nature of inflorescence, shape of buds, or flowering season. Distribution is very important factor.
I agree with … on ID, but not on points raised to justify the ID, simply because it contradicts the identification of several other threads.
So, I would rather like to wait for … to know the actual ID of this species.

I guess Ixora pavetta Andrews !

Thanks …, looks good ID.


Rubiaceae Week: Ixora pavetta from Arsikere, Karnataka:
it was delight to see these flowers in bloom.. had a lovely fragrance.

If I am not wrong, it should be Pavetta tomentosa, the style and stigma are clearly protruding.
Please comment

let us wait for others to comment. Actually I have not seen Pavetta personally.

Ixora pavetta Andrews ?? IBP


Ixora for ID SMPAPR06 : 4 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (3)

A large roadside tree near University of Pune.
Probably planted and now due to road widening it is there on footpath
Leaves obovate.
Details of the flowers and buds is visible.

Rubiaceae family. Please check for Coptosperma/ Tarenna

I think maybe Ixora pavetta as per images and details herein. 


Pench NP, MP, March 2022 :: Ixora pavetta for validation :: ARK2022-073: 3 high res. images.

Ixora pavetta
This was clicked inside the Pench National Park, MP in March 2022.
The evening air was filled with its heady fragrance, most of the trees in the park were in full bloom.
Could not take better pictures since one is not allowed to alight from the jeep when inside the park.
Requested to please validate.

Yes, appears close to images at Ixora pavetta

22/04/1- Bandhavgarh National Park; Tree for ID – efloraofindia | Google Groups



identification no 141012sn2:
Kindly Id this Plant. I think these are fruits of Ixora bracteata. I am quite certain though some niggling doubt.
Kindly validate or otherwise.

height:about7-8 ft
other info:fruits tasted sweetish

May be Ixora pavetta Andr.


Swamy /2023/ 110 – Ixora brachiata: 3 images.
I am forwarding herewith the photographs of  Ixora brachiata. Photographed during February 1st week in Chennai by a friend.

Flowers fragrant / sweet scented.

I think it is I.pavetta as per these images and keys at


Regarding Identification of the Ixora sp. collected from Similipal Odisha: 5 images.


Regarding the identification of the Sp. collected from Nayagargh Odisha on Sept 2023: 4 high res. images.

This is Ixora


I think close to images at






Catalogue of life  The Plant List Ver. 1.1  WCSP  GRIN  Flora of Pakistan  Dinesh Valke’s Flickr Post  Flowers of India  Wikipedia  Wikimedia Commons  Indian Medicinal Plants: An Illustrated Dictionary By C.P. Khare  Flickr – Photo Sharing!  Aluka  Pitchandikulam

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