Melanthera biflora (L.) Wild, Kirkia 5: 4. 1965 4 1965. (syn: Acmella biflora (L.) Spreng.; Anthemiopsis macrophylla Bojer ex DC.; Buphthalmum australe Spreng.; Eclipta scabriuscula Wall. [Invalid]; Niebuhria biflora (L.) Britten; Spilanthes peregrina Blanco; Stemmodontia biflora W.Wight (Unresolved); Stemmodontia canescens W.Wight (Unresolved); Verbesina aquatilis Burm.; Verbesina argentea Gaudich.; Verbesina biflora L. .; Verbesina canescens Gaudich.; Verbesina strigulosa Gaudich.; Wedelia argentea (Gaudich.) Merr.; Wedelia aristata Less.;  Wedelia biflora var. canescens Fosberg ..; Wedelia canescens (Gaudich.) Merr.; Wedelia chamissonis Less.; Wedelia glabrata (DC.) Boerl.; Wedelia rechingeriana Muschl. (unresolved); Wedelia scabriuscula (DC.) Engl. ex K.Schum.; Wedelia strigulosa (Gaudich.) K.Schum.; Wedelia tiliifolia Rechinger & Muschl. (unresolved); Wollastonia canescens DC.; Wollastonia glabrata DC.; Wollastonia insularis DC.; Wollastonia scabriuscula DC. ex Decne. .; Wollastonia strigulosa DC. ex Decne. (unresolved); Wollastonia zanzibarensis DC.);

Melanthera biflora,[4] also known as sea daisy, beach daisy and sea ox-eye, (Hindi: Bhringaraaja; Malay: Serunai laut, Pokok serunai; Fijian: Kovekove, Sekava; Maldivian: Mirihi; Samoan: Ateate; Thai: เบญจมาศน้ำเค็ม or ผักคราดทะเล;[5] Tongan: Ate), is a species of flowering plant in the aster family. It is a scandent, rough-looking and fast-growing plant with a wide distribution.

Melanthera biflora is a moderately salt-tolerant plant found in the tropical belt of the Indo-Pacific region, including China, the Indian Subcontinent, Southeast Asia, Queensland, and islands of the Pacific such as Fiji, Niue, Tonga, Samoa and the Cook Islands.

It is found commonly in islands and in coastal areas, although it sometimes occurs inland in neglected and unmanaged plantations as well as in ruderal environments.[6] Together with Portulaca oleracea, Ipomoea pes-caprae and Digitaria ciliaris, Melanthera biflora is usually one of the first species colonizing degraded or altered environments in tropical zones of the planet.[7]

Melanthera biflora is a hardy and somewhat woody, sprawling perennial herb or subshrub. Stems are elongate and branched; they can reach up to 2 m but will bend after reaching a certain height. It can scramble and straggle over the ground or climb leaning on other plants for support. The leaves are ovate, shortly tapering at the base. It produces small yellow flower heads with a diametre of about 8–10 mm. The fruits form a dense head.[8]
Despite the rough appearance of the plant, the leaves are edible.[9][10] In Malaysian cuisine the shoots are eaten cooked as a leaf vegetable and in Langkawi they are eaten raw with chilli and sambal shrimp paste. Leaves also have traditional medicinal uses as poultice or as decoction.[11][12]
Melanthera biflora has traditionally been used as a medicinal plant in many cultures.[13] Leaves are especially valued against stomachache.[10] In Fiji the leaves are used to treat acne.[11] Root extracts have anthelmintic properties[14] and flowers can be used as a purgative.[13]

This plant is also used as fodder for rabbits.

(From Wikipedia on 2.6.16)

Wedelia biflora : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (3)

Flowers of  Wedelia biflora
Marathi name : Solanki
at Alibag-Akshi beach


Wedelia trilobata??? Tanay : 10 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (1)
Is this plant
Wedelia trilobata ??

Found growing in a garden

Not sure, …

The leaves look different. I am uploading mine separately.

Can it be Guizotia abyssinica (but its an erect herb, cultivated for oil seeds)? or any other species of Wedelia? But certainly not Wedelia triloba.

I also dont think this is Wedellia trilobata this was growing in a garden as a creeper just like people grow W trilobata

Please explore Melanthera biflora (syn: Verbesina biflora; Wedelia biflora). Eflora of Taiwan gives 4 varieties.

looks very close to Wedelia biflora

I have also compared the photograph with Wedelia biflora. I also think it may be Wedelia biflora ?

Agree with … id.


Flower for ID. : Attachments (2). 16 posts by 7 authors.

ID of this flowers please?  Shot at Pattambi, Kerala –  June 2010.

Could be Wedelia chinensis, but not very sure

Wedelia chinensis is the call from me too !!

Please check with Wedelia trilobata … commonly spreading weed in Tamil Nadu.

Wedelia chinensis.

The leaves of W. trilobata are quite distinct, three-lobed with broadly winged base. I am uploading W. trilobata for reference.

Could it be Guizotia abyssinica ?

Guizotia abyssinica looks good.

I think more closer to Melanthera biflora

Identification of Asteraceae member : Attachments (2). 4 posts by 3 authors.
Pl. id the attached Jpeg image of the family compositae
Locality: moist places of Barasat Road side (Plane area), West Bengal
Date: 1.7.2013

I may be totally wrong, yet this seems to be a Verbesina (Wedelia) species, for its broad campanulate involucre.

Please check –

Another possibility can be Tithonia species as in—l/ar/asteraceae/asteroideae/heliantheae/tithonia/tithonia-rotundifolia

It is again Melanthera biflora (L.) Wild = Wollastonia biflora (L.) DC, Sir ji.

Please note the phyllaries in the attached picture (magnified) you will see (very faint though, but one is recurved) outer phyllaries are elliptic; as in the illustration by Wight (TOP LEFT CAPITULUM ) – inner phyllaries are triangular-ovate.(KEW)..
Leaf,, only single one uploaded in the thread which is not desirable in most of the asteraceae, is deltoid, can e compared with another illustration and GBIF specimen –

Asteracea Id from Bangladesh_SM_1302 : 6 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (1)

Wedelia urticaefolia?

Synedrella nodiflora ??

Side view for calyx is required.

Not Wedelia urticifolia as per images herein.
Pl. see three closely related species, out of which one may be yours:

If it is reported in Bangladesh, it may be W. urticaeolia DC = W. wallichii Less of Bengal Plants & FBI = POWO

If it is shrubby climber from coastal area, it is most likely W. scandens Clarke of BP = W. biflora DC of FBI = POWO

This is suggestion only, based on your single picture without any description or detailed features


I have doubts about both of these.

It would have been better if you expressed your reason behind your doubt. Since you doubt both the IDs it’s ok with me.

I checked your links along with other resources on net and on efloraofindia and gave my views.
You are right in asking for reasons, which I could not give due shortage of time.

btw, A question was raised, and … replied- efi thread

If it weren’t you I wouldn’t think twice! Yes, you are correct (you often do, but not always!!).
But, before you rejoice, think of it –
(1) If I consider KEW as an authentic site  for information
Wedelia wallichii Less. = Wedelia urticifolia DC. = Lipoblepharis urticifolia subsp. urticifolia
is Native to:

Assam, Cambodia, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Hainan, Jawa, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Northern Territory, Thailand, Vietnam

(no mention of India, meaning Central, Western & Southern India. and KEW considers Asam is outside of India !!!)
(2)  If I consider KEW as an authentic site  for information
Wedelia biflora C.B.Clarke = Indocypraea montana (Blume) Orchard
is Native to:
Assam, Bangladesh, China South-Central, China Southeast, Jawa, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand, Vietnam
(no mention of India, meaning Central, Western & Southern India. and KEW considers Asam is outside of India !!!)
And, finally, yes, I was wrong, you are correct, it is none of the above; this is most probably –Wedelia biflora (L.) DC. = (illustrationsMelanthera biflora (L.) Wild = Wollastonia biflora (L.) DC.
is Native to:
Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Bismarck Archipelago, Cambodia, Caroline Is., Chagos Archipelago, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Comoros, Cook Is., Fiji, Gilbert Is., Hainan, India, Jawa, Kazan-retto, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Malaya, Maldives, Marianas, Marshall Is., Mozambique, Mozambique Channel I, Myanmar, New Caledonia, New South Wales, Nicobar Is., Niue, Norfolk Is., Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Philippines, Queensland, Samoa, South China Sea, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Tonga, Tubuai Is., Tuvalu, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is.

Yes, Sir ji, I understand, that is why I rechecked, without waiting for your reply mail . In future I won’t press for “reasons” I apologize, I know eFI is your dream project and I also want to be a part of this project (that is why I have returned and remain here,, spending resources for hours).

Thanks, …, for the understanding.

I still feel that it may be Calyptocarpus vialis, but image is insufficient to say it definitely.

How about Wollastonia biflora as per FOI and POWO ?

I sent this mail, in the morning at 6.47 AM/,

Oh, Yes. I do not know how I missed it.
Thanks for the id and finally solving it.

It’s your expertise, Sir ji, i salute you

In fact, we should name you as ‘The Great Investigator’.
Once you decide on work on something, you will certainly get it. Shows your great investigating skills.

This herb was spotted in Wild near Elephanta Beach (Andaman & Nicobar– Havelok). Could this be some Wedelia sp..
Date/Time: 19-12-2010 / 01:20PM.

Sphagneticola calendulacea (L.) Pruski

I think looks different as per images at Sphagneticola calendulacea

Some member from Heliantheae, but not getting upto the species.

It is possible that it may be Indocypraea montana as per Research Gate.

But not getting sure as per GBIF specimens from India– onetwo

Finally I think it may be Wollastonia biflora as per FOI and POWO.

These (attached here) two entries of Flora of British India, along with two plates of Icones Plantarum, make a “complex” which covers at least three taxa :-

  1. Indocypraea montana (Blume) Orchard – KEW – POWO
  2. Lipoblepharis urticifolia subsp. urticifoliaPOWO
  3. Wollastonia biflora (L.) DC. – POWO
I don’t know if there is more to the above list.
eFI features the 2nd one of the above list, i.e. Lipoblepharis urticifolia subsp. urticifolia = Wedelia urticifolia DC.- (But KEW doesn’t recognise its presence in Cetntral-Western-Southern-Eastern India, except North-East).
I am uncertain if this specimen from Andaman can be Wollastonia biflora (L.) DC., because IMG_2068 clearly shows different phillaries than the KEW specimen from Sri Lanka, which is similar to Wight Plate number 1.
This specimen has only one type of phyllary – ovate-lanceolate; which maybe similar to –
Please check if any of no.1 and no.2 of the list above can be found in Andaman-Nicobar.
4 attachments

Thanks, …

CoL and FoPI gives distribution of Wedelia urticifolia (Bl.) DC. along with many book references in FoPI. 
Also posted plant looks different from those at Wedelia urticifolia (Herb with solitary heads as per FoPI)
As per keys in Flora of UdupiWollastonia biflora (L.) DC. is a scandent shrub and heads three together at the end, while others (Wedelia trilobata and Wedelia chinensis) are herbs with solitary heads. Posted plant appears more like a shrub and looks different from images at Wedelia urticifolia
To me plant appears to be Wollastonia biflora only as per GBIF specimens from India– one and two (both from Andamans)

Yes, Sir, I missed the head count. But I didn’t miss the presence of epicalyx like bracts (phyllaries) at the base of KEW-specimen capitulum (of W. biflora) which are invisible in the uploaded specimen.



References: The Plant List Ver.1.1 GCC  IPNI  Factsheet  Flowers of India  India Biodiversity Portal  Wikipedia  Useful Tropical Plants 

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *