Images by Prashant Awale (Id by Mayur Nandikar) & Anurag N Sharma (Inserted by J.M.Garg) (For more images & complete details, click on the links) 


Murdannia divergens (C.B.Clarke) G.Brückn.



Murdannia fadeniana Nampy & Joby (India (Kerala) as per POWO)


Murdannia gigantea (Vahl) G.Brückn.




Murdannia loriformis (Hassk.) R.S.Rao & Kammathy ?-  Apparently look likes Murdannia loriformisM. simplex has little robust habit. Need basal leaves pictures for confirm its ID.

Murdannia nimmoniana (J. Graham) Bole & M. R. Almeida var. juncoides (Wight) Nandikar & Gurav – Endemic species, allied to Murdannia semiteres but differs in perennial habit with bulbous base and seed with flaky material on testa.

Murdannia nimmoniana (J. Graham) Bole & M. R. Almeida var. nimmoniana (syn. Murdannia semiteres (Dalzell) Santapau)

Murdannia pauciflora (G.Brückn.) G.Brückn. – Basic difference between these two plants are Murdannia lanuginosa- Typical plant of laterite soil or either found on high altitude. Root fusiform tuberous. Leaves linear to linear lanceolate with broad base, compactly arranged, margin undulate. Seeds trigonus, bi-seriate.  Murdannia pauciflora Syn Murdannia wightii- Commonly found undergrowth of forest and along the road sides in Ghats (towards south). Root fibrous, Leaves ovate, margin entire. Seeds uniseriate and squarish to rectangular in Shape.




Revision of the genus Murdannia (Commelinaceae) in India Mayur D. Nandikar & Rajaram V. Gurav- Phytodiversity 2015: Vol. 2 (1): 56-112-
Abstract : A taxonomic revision of the genus Murdannia (Commelinaceae) in India is presented based on field and herbarium studies. Twenty-seven of the fifty-five species in the genus are recognized and it becomes the first largest genus in Indian Commelinaceae. Detailed descriptions of all species including key, illustrations, distributions, specimen citations, colour photoplates and SEM photographs of seeds are provided. Lectotypifications of eight binomials, one neotypification, two new statuses and one new variety described during this work are also dealt with.
Species (Distribution)
1. Murdannia assamica Nampy & A. Ancy (So far known only from Goalpara District in Assam, apparently endemic to India)
2. Murdannia blumei (Hassk.) Brenan (Northeast India: Assam, West Bengal (Banerjee, 1993); rare in Sri Lanka (Faden, 2000). However, besides India it occurs in East Africa: Kenya.)
3. Murdannia brownii Nandikar & Gurav  (Endemic to the northern Western Ghats of India: Karnataka and Maharashtra)
4. Murdannia crocea (Griff.) Faden subsp. ochracea (Dalzell) Faden (Endemic to the Western Ghats of Peninsular India: Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu)
5. Murdannia dimorpha (Dalzell) G. Brückn. (Apparently endemic to India: Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu)
6. Murdannia divergens (C.B. Clarke) G. Brückn (Eastern India: Assam, Himachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Uttarakhand; Myanmar, Bhutan)
7. Murdannia edulis (Stokes) Faden (India: Assam, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu; Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Thailand, Taiwan, Vietnam)
8. Murdannia esculenta (Wall. ex C.B. Clarke) Rolla Rao & Kammathy (India: Kerala and Tamil Nadu; Sri Lanka and Thiland (Grant, 1912)) 
9. Murdannia fadeniana Nampy & Joby (Apparently endemic to the southern Western Ghats of India: Kerala and Tamil Nadu.) 
10. Murdannia gigantea (Vahl) G. Brückn. (India: Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Tamil Nadu; Sri Lanka, Australia and Madagascar)
11. Murdannia hookeri (C.B. Clarke) G. Brückn. (India: Meghalaya; East Asia)
12. Murdannia japonica (Thunb.) Faden (India: Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Orissa, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Jharkhand; East Asia)
13. Murdannia lanceolata (Wight) Kammathy (India: Tamil Nadu; Sri Lanka) 
14. Murdannia lanuginosa (Wall. ex C.B. Clarke) G. Brückn. (Endemic to the Western Ghats: Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra)
15. Murdannia loriformis (Hassk.) R.S.Rao & Kammathy (India: Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu; Tropical Asia to Malaysia (Faden 2000))
16. Murdannia nimmoniana (J. Graham) Bole & M. R. Almeida (Peninsular India and East Africa)
   1a. var. juncoides (Wight) Nandikar & Gurav comb. & stat. nov. (syn: Murdannia juncoides (Wight) Rao and Kammathy) (Apparently endemic to the Western Ghats of India: Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu)
   1b. var. sahyadrica (Ancy and Nampy) Nandikar comb. & stat. nov. (syn. Murdannia sahyadrica Ancy & Nampy) (Endemic to the Western Ghats: Maharashtra)
   1c. var. nimmoniana (syn: Murdannia semiteres (Dalzell) Santapau) (India: Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu; East Africa)
17. Murdannia nudiflora (L.) Brenan (Throughout India; Tropical Asia to Malaysia; naturalized in West Africa, southeastern United States and the West Indies to Brazil)
18. Murdannia pauciflora G. Brückn. (India: Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu; Myanmar (Kee 5839(P)) and Indonesia (H.Zollinger 3312 (P)))
19. Murdannia saddlepeakensis M. V. Ramana & Nandikar (Murdannia saddlepeakensis currently known only from the type locality Saddle Peak National Park, North Andaman Islands, India)
20. Murdannia satheeshiana Joby, Nisha & Unni (Apparently endemic to southern India: Kerala)
21. Murdannia simplex (Vahl) Brenan (It commonly occurs at high to medium altitude lateritic ranges of the Western Ghats and hill slopes)
22. Murdannia spirata (L.) G.Brückn. (Murdannia spirata is Indo-Malayan species with a distribution extending from Pacific Islands (Samoa) to India. In India, it is widely distributed throughout the country)
   1a. var. flavanthera Nandikar & Gurav var. nov. (It appears to be endemic to India: Orissa)
   1b. var. spirata (Throughout India) 23. Murdannia striatipetala Faden (India: Tamil Nadu; Sri Lanka) 
23. Murdannia striatipetala Faden (India: Tamil Nadu; Sri Lanka)
24. Murdannia triquetra (Wall. ex C.B. Clarke) G. Brückn. (India: Arunachal Pradesh, Assam; south East Asia)
25. Murdannia vaginata (L.) G. Brückn (Throughout India; Myanmar (Kurz 2645 (CAL)), Sri Lanka, Australia)
26. Murdannia versicolor (Dalzell) G.Brückn. (India: Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu; Myanmar (Kurz 2644) and Philippines (Reillo 19171; Ramos 1980 (P)))
27. Murdannia zeylanica (C.B. Clarke) G. Brückn. (Southern India: Kerala, Tamil Nadu; Sri Lanka)
Keys to species for the genus Murdannia in India
1. Leaves filiform; stamens and staminodes (both) glabrous, fused…. …Murdannia nimmoniana
– Leaves not filiform; stamens and staminodes (at least one of them) bearded, free… 2
2. Thyrses axillary; 1–7 flowered …… 3
– Thyrses terminal or terminal and axillary; >7 flowered ………. 10
3. Roots tuberous; leaves ribbed, linear–lanceolate….... M. lanuginose
– Roots fibrous; leaves no tribbed, lanceolate, linear–lanceolate or narrowly elliptic, linear–oblong…4
4. Seeds bi-seriate………..5
– Seeds uni-seriate……….. 6
5. Flowers white to pink or mauve……….M. blumei
– Flowers ochre-yellow……..…M. crocea
6. Plants puberulous; seeds with ventral pit filled with farinose granule…….. M. satheeshiana
– Plants glabrous; without ventral pit…..…. 7
7. Pedicel recurved in fruit; capsule linear-ellipsoid………. M. pauciflora
– Pedicel erect in fruit; capsule ovoid–ellipsoid….…… 8
8 Flowers pink or blue-purple coloured; seeds 3 per locule……….. M. triquetra
– Flowers ochre-yellow, brick red to flesh coloured; seeds >4 per locule……… 9
9 Flowers brick red coloured; seeds 4–5 per locule…….. M. brownie
– Flowers ochre-yellow coloured; seeds 7–9 per locule….… M. versicolor
10. Inflorescences lax thyrses; fertile stamens 3; seeds>2 per locule……… 11
– Inflorescences appressed thyrses; fertile stamens 2; seeds 1–2 per locule…… 21
11. Seedsbi-seriate………… 12
– Seeds uni-seriate…………. 13
12. Seeds 10–16 per locule, embryotega in deep pit…… M. fadeniana
– Seeds 18–20 per locule, embryotega raised on areolate surface……. M. lanceolata
13. Flowering scape without leaves ……..… M. edulis
– Flowering scape with leaves………14
14. Roots tuberous……M. divergens
– Roots thickened fibrous or thin fibrous……… 15
15. Plants without definite base (with or without definite base in M. spirata)…….. 16
– Plants with definite base…..…18
16. Prostrate herbs with erect flowering shoot; petals blue or lilac or lavender, with or without faint
to dark blue veins…….… M. spirata
– Erect to ascending herbs; petals white or faint purple, without veins……… 17
17. Stemswithswollen nodes; capsule apiculate at apex; seed testa plane without warts………..…M. hookeri
– Stems without swollen nodes;capsule not apiculate at apex; seed testa with raised warts.. ……M.zeylanica
18. Petals with dark contrasting veins………. M. striatipetala
– Petals without dark contrasting veins……… 19
19. Seeds with large mid-ventral pit….… M. dimorpha
– Seeds without mid-ventral it….….20
20. Leaves oblong to ensiform; petals clawed…….…M. japonica
– Leaves elliptic to oblong or lanceolate; petals not clawed………. M. esculenta
21. Seed 1 per locule, ellipsoid, embryotega dorsal………….. 22
– Seeds 2 per locule, ovoid to ellipsoid, embryotega semidorsal……… 24
22. Flowers enclosed in prominently ribbed bracts..…..…… M. vaginata
– Flowers not enclosed in prominently ribbed bracts.… ………. 23
23. Perennial herb; roots thickened fibrous; leaves rosette ……… M. saddlepeakensis
– Annual herb; root fibrous; leaves cauline………. M. assamica
24. Plants with cauline leaves………. M. nudiflora
– Plants with basal rosette……….25
25. Flowering shoots terminal in rosette; seeds ovoid to ellipsoid, 2.5–4×2–2.5mm…… M. gigantea
– Flowering shoots lateral in rosette; seeds ovoid to obovoid, 1.6–2×1.5mm……26
26. Pedicels 3–5 mm long; flowers 12–15 mm wide; capsule ovoid to sub-globbose, 5×3.5 mm………M.simplex
– Pedicels 2–3 mm long; flowers 9–12 mm wide; capsule ovoid, 4–5×2.5 mm…… M. loriformis

Taxonomic revision of the genus Murdannia royle – Online  by Anna Ancy Antony A (2013) (Under Dr. Santhosh Nampy)- Thesis-
Details with keys


Flora of Medak District, Andhra Pradesh, India By T. Pullaiah, Chintala Prabhakar, B. Ravi Prasad Rao (1998- Description & Keys–  
Murdannia semiteres (syn. of Murdannia nimmoniana var. nimmoniana
Murdannia nodiflora &
Murdannia spirata)


Flora of Eastern Karnataka, Volume 2 By N. P. Singh (1988- – Description & Keys–  
Murdannia semiteres (syn. of Murdannia nimmoniana var. nimmoniana
Murdannia nodiflora,
Murdannia versicolor &
Murdannia spirata)


Aquatic and Semi-aquatic Plants of the Lower Ganga Delta: Its Taxonomy … By Kumudranjan Naskar (1990- – Description & Keys–  
Murdannia nodiflora,



Murdannia (Commelinaceae) : 1 post by 1 author.
I have updated eFI (efloraofindia) page on Murdannia (Pl. click) in line with Revision of the genus Murdannia (Commelinaceae) in India Mayur D. Nandikar & Rajaram V. Gurav- Phytodiversity 2015: Vol. 2 (1): 56-112.

Species discussed so far in efloraofindia are given at the bottom of the page in the form of links against Subpages. On clicking them one can see all the details.

Any comments/ corrections are welcome. Thanks a lot, Mayur ji, in this matter.


Fwd: Taxonomic Revision of the genus Murdannia (Commelinaceae) in India has been published : 5 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (1)- Phytodiversity+Murdannia+Nandikar NGCPR.pdf – 7 MB  
One of our research article on the genus Murdannia in India got published in the Journal Phytodiversity.
One new variety has been published with few new combinations.
Please find publication attached herewith. 

Thanks, … What you are doing is simply wonderful. Many kudos to you.

May I use the keys at efi genera page ?

Yes you can!

Very good and important work …! Congratulation to both of you.