Phyllanthus amarus Schum.: Seeds ribbed or striate, less than 1.5 mm long; fruiting calyx lobes less than
1.5 mm long, midrib unbranched; style branches scarcely capitate.
 
Differentiated from closely related species in its male and female flowers occurring in adjacent pairs and 5 perianth members in the flower.
 
You will notice that on each branch lower few flowers are male, then one or two nodes may (or may not) have one male and one female (see …338) flower, and most of the upper axils have female flowers. In P. amarus in addition to 5 perianth members, male and female flowers generally occur in the same axils
 
Strictly speaking this plant is P. fraternus having 6 tepals and male and female flowers in separate part of the inflorescence, male in clusters of 2-3 in lower part and female singly in upper part. P. amarus has five tepals and male and female flowers occur in same axils, is also supposed to have smaller leaves. Frankly the two look very similar in habit (the leaves of P. fraternus almost as small as P. amarus towards the end of flowering season). 
 
As per efi thread :
As far as I know, Phyllanthus niruri L. does not occur in India. It is native to tropical Americas (as per GRIN).
The species reported in several Indian literature (incl. FBI) in the past as P. niruri L. is now correctly known as P. amarus Schum.
The latter species is also originally of American origin, but is widely naturalized in many paleotropical countries, including India. 
 

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Images by Sourav Mahmud

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Euphorbiaceae Week: Phyllanthaceae, Phyllanthus amarus from Delhi: Phyllanthus amarus Schumach., Beskr. Guin. pl. 421. 1827 syn: Phyllanthus niruri var. amarus (Schumach. & Thonn.) Leandri
   Recently introduced weed in Delhi, differentiated from closely related species in its male and female flowers occurring in adjacent pairs and 5 perianth members in the flower. 


–  The current accepted name as per Kew Plant List is Phyllanthus amarus Schumach & Thonn. Attaching Type specimen from Kew herbarium.



 

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Phyllanthus amarus:  Phyllanthus amarus growing in JNU campus. In the axil of each leaf there are two flowers, one female and one male; the female flower matures before the male (protogynous). In one of the photos the leaf margins are not entire but shallowly toothed; is it of a different population?      


Yes …, it is Phyllanthus amarus

Good photographs

 

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Searched for Phyllanthus niruri L. and found :-
  1. “…. There is no confusion regarding P. niruri because it doesn’t occur in India. All plants which earlier called in that name are belong to (and to be called as) P. amarus, as we all know….” = https://groups.google.com/d/topic/indiantreepix/uRuNBBRR_3k/discussion
  2. P. amarus in FoP = “…. Similar to Phyllanthus fraternus, but completely glabrous, foliage-leaves smaller (3-6 x 1.5-3 mm), oblong….” = http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=5&taxon_id=242337368
  3. P. amarus in FoC = ” …… leaf blade oblong or elliptic-oblong, 3-8 × 2-4.5 mm……….” = http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=242337368
  4. ” ………… P. fraternus has 6 tepals and the elliptic/obovate leaves will have a narrowed base……. “ = https://groups.google.com/d/topic/indiantreepix/1x7grsFDm6Q/discussion
  5. P. fraternus in FoP = “…….. leaf-blades elliptic-oblong to elliptic-oblanceolate, 5-13 x 1.5-5 mm…” = http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=5&taxon_id=242442520
  6. “…. Phyllanthus fraternus (syn: P. niruri Hook.f. (non Linn.), quite distinct from P. amarus in larger leaves, 6 perianth, 6-10 lobed disc………… ” = https://groups.google.com/d/topic/indiantreepix/vFK2qO-sz18/discussion
  7. another group post = https://groups.google.com/d/topic/indiantreepix/xpGcxOGpkJI/discussion
  8. another = https://groups.google.com/d/topic/indiantreepix/49hDzECkogE/discussion
  9. yet another = https://groups.google.com/d/topic/indiantreepix/c_6anbyYgoc/discussion
  10. In FoI = http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Gulf%20Leaf-Flower.html
Species : UNKNOWN
Habit & Habitat : wild herb, both branched and unbranched, very common on roadside, waste places; height about 1 foot or more; leaves = 10mm x 5 mm (image no. DSCN1627.jpg); tepals = 5 (image no. DSCN1635.jpg)
Date : 8-Sept-12, 2.00 p.m.
Place : Hooghly
Well, as i was recording these images a young water monitor was waiting for me!


Nice pictures … Your visit to the pond might have surprised the young Varanus! Please tell him/her you were clicking Phyllanthus amarus.


Thank you very much. But, if it is Phyllanthus amarus then FoC and FoP both are not much reliable source, specially for leaf sizes, more evident in my grass & Sesbania uploads.


I was digging a bit more on P. niruri L. and P. amarus Schum. & Thonn.
I found a number of papers on medicinal properties of P. niruri L., published by CSIR, some of those are recent publications –
  1. http://www.namahjournal.com/doc/Actual/Phyllanthus-vol-19-iss-3.html
  2. http://www.pharmainfo.net/reviews/phyllanthus-niruri
  3. http://www.slideshare.net/AlexanderDecker/11protective-effect-of-phyllanthus-niruri-on-dmba-croton-oil-mediated-carcinogenic-response-and-oxidative-damage-in-accordance-to-histopathological-studies-in-skin-of-mice
At the same time i kept in my mind what i learned in group threads, that P. niruri L. doesn’t occur in India, even though it had been mentioned in “THE USEFUL PLANTS OF INDIA” ( CSIR publication ). So, i searched more on Phyllanthus species –
  1. Google directed me to an ebook, Phyllanthus Species: Scientific Evaluation and Medicinal Applications” (By Ramadasan Kuttan, K. B. Harikumar) that supports the claim. The same book also describes Phyllanthus amarus Schum. & Thonn. I copy a few words – …. leaf blade 5-9 x 2-4 mm, oblong, obtuse at both ends….” = page 26 & 27 = http://books.google.co.in/books?id=ordQCHqPy9gC&pg=PA31&lpg=PA31&dq=Phyllanthus+niruri+L+species+description&source=bl&ots=i1nPFFuQLy&sig=k06juMKogPFUEK3Puul3nL99k84&hl=en&sa=X&ei=yfF2UOuPB8yqrAfw0IGoCA&ved=0CFIQ6AEwCA#v=onepage&q=Phyllanthus%20niruri%20L%20species%20description&f=false
  2. Another document describes Phyllanthus spp. in Tiruchirappalli district. I copy a few words on Phyllanthus amarus Schum. & Thonn. = “…. stem terete, hispidulous, … leaf tip rounded…” = http://journal-phytology.com/index.php/phyto/article/viewFile/6070/3109
Phyllanthus amarus Schum. & Thonn. in –
  1. FoC = Leaves distichous; stipules linear or linear-lanceolate, green; petioles ca. 0.5 mm; leaf blade oblong or elliptic-oblong, 3-8 × 2-4.5 mm, membranous or thinly papery, base rounded, apex obtuse or rounded and often apiculate = http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=242337368
  2. FoP = Similar to Phyllanthus fraternus, but completely glabrous, foliage-leaves smaller (3-6 x 1.5-3 mm), oblong = http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=5&taxon_id=242337368
  3. Phyllanthus fraternus Webster in FoP = leaf-blades elliptic-oblong to elliptic-oblanceolate, 5-13 x 1.5-5 mm, obtuse or rounded at apex and base = http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=5&taxon_id=242442520
Whom should i follow for the ID of my species? I think my species doesn’t have terete stem, not sure about apices of leaves.


Please check this paper: http://journal-phytology.com/index.php/phyto/article/view/6070/3109
It answers most of your questions. As you can see, leaf character is important, but also features of flowers, fruits etc. to be considered for correct diagnosis.
I still think your plant is Phyllanthus amarus. But, let’s hear from others too…
Please also see the poster published by FRLHT…available at /files


Documents are saying that P. niruri L. is not found in India.
If i could find some morphological description of P. niruri L.!


The following paper includes keys and descriptions of both the species:
A Revision of Phyllanthus (Euphorbiaceae) in the Continental United States

Grady L. Webster Brittonia Vol. 22, No. 1 (Jan. – Mar., 1970), pp. 44-76     


I regret that the doc is not accessible to common people.


I did a big mistake, took wrong interpretation of the term “terete stem”.
This is Phyllanthus amarus Schum. & Thonn.
Attaching some more new pics taken today (12/10/12)


Thanks for the ID confirmation …
I really appreciate your keen interest and devotion.


Me too. Am impressed. knew you dont give up. good for you, … good for us


In addition to above, please note that –
  1. According to The Plant List both Phyllanthus niruri var. amarus (Schumach. & Thonn.) Leandri and Phyllanthus niruri var. scabrellus (Webb) Müll.Arg. are synonyms of Phyllanthus amarus Schumach. & Thonn.
  2. But, according to FoI Phyllanthus niruri var. scabrellus = P. fraternus and Phyllanthus niruri var. amarus = P. amarus.
I spent hours to obtain and grasp info on morphological features of BHUI-AMLA.
 

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Phyllanthus amarus : 4 posts by 4 authors.
Can you please guide me to the differences between Phyllanthus amarus and Phyllanthus niruri
i mean the two are presented at many places interchangeable probably and whatever is present on net is very confusing…


This confusion is widespread, universal and is also not new! Thanks for rekindling!
As far as I know, Phyllanthus niruri L. does not occur in India. It is native to tropical Americas (as per GRIN).
The species reported in several Indian literature (incl. FBI) in the past as P. niruri L. is now correctly known as P. amarus Schum.

The latter species is also originally of American origin, but is widely naturalized in many paleotropical countries, including India.
If you see two different but looking-alike plants in India, then they may be of two different species (P. fraternus, native to India and Pakistan, is often confused with P. amarus).
Please refer to recent studies for more details about species of Phyllanthus in India (given below).
As usual, you can post the pictures of your plants here for id.
Here is a key from Webster’s “Revision of Phyllanthus…”:
Phyllanthus amarus Schum.: Seeds ribbed or striate, less than 1.5 mm long; fruiting calyx lobes less than
1.5 mm long, midrib unbranched; style branches scarcely capitate.

Phyllanthus niruri L.: Seeds verruculose, 1.5 mm long or more; fruiting calyx lobes more than 1.5 mm
long, pinnately veined; style branches with capitate stigmas.

Suggested readings:
1. Chaudhary, L. B. ; Rao, R. R. (2002) Taxonomic study of herbaceous species of Phyllanthus L. (Euphorbiaceae) in India Phytotaxonomy, 2 . 143- 162. ISSN 0972-4206
2. Webster, Grady L. “A revision of Phyllanthus (Euphorbiaceae) in the continental United States.” Brittonia 22.1 (1970): 44-76.


As per my information Phyllanthus niruri is now correctly known as P. fraternus. It has 6 sepals in two whorls (petals are absent). P. amarus has five sepals in one whorl. I have copied below the information sent to me by … some time back. I have also attached some photos of P. amarus growing in JNU campus, Delhi; did not come across any P. fraternus therewhereas in Lodi road, Delhi, I find presence of only  P. fraternus. 


 

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Weed for ID Hyderabad (28-09-2013 NAW 1) : Attachments (3). 9 posts by 5 authors.
Kindly identify this weed growing in an abandoned house in Hyderabad. Shot on 25th Sept.

Leaf (leaflets) about 3-5 mm long. height of plants upto 40 cms. note tiny green balls on the underside of branches.


A Phyllanthus sp.  family Euphorbiaceae


Would this be Phyllanthus amarus?


Most probably Phyllanthus niruri.


efi page on Phyllanthus amarus 
As per efi thread :
As far as I know, Phyllanthus niruri L. does not occur in India. It is native to tropical Americas (as per GRIN).
The species reported in several Indian literature (incl. FBI) in the past as P. niruri L. is now correctly known as P. amarus Schum.

The latter species is also originally of American origin, but is widely naturalized in many paleotropical countries, including India.


It looks like Phyllanthus niruri.


It is Phyllanthus amarus Schum, not P.niruri; P.niruri is american species.


Yes to Phyllanthus amarus!


I do agree with the experts. As far as I know P. niruri and P.amarus are synonyms. 


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Euphorbiaceae Fortnight : 02112013MR13 Phyllanthus amarus from Pune –MR13 : 6 images. 3 posts by 2 authors.

sharing images of Phyllanthus amarus at different places from Pune


Nice photo.


 

 

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Euphorbiaceae fortnight: Phyllanthaceae: Phyllanthus amarus in Hyderabad: NAW02 : Attachments (3). 2 posts by 2 authors.

I had uploaded these pictures earlier for identification, and the species was identified by the group as phyllanthus amarus or phyllanthus niruri which are supposed to be identical except that amarus is of asian origin while niruri is american (the efi page on Phyllanthus amarus)
Maybe this needs to be clarified.


There is no doubt that the photos represent Phyllanthus amarusP. niruri, although treated in some Indian flora, does not occur in India.


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Kindly Id this wild herb growing between the crevices in between the tiles on the ground at Pune
Height/Length- 5-6 cms
Leaves Type/ Shape/ Size- about 4mm by 2mm
Flowers: flowers along the stem, color light green, some look yellow green, flowers were hidden under the leaves.size 1-2 mm
Fruits – green amla like fruits.

Phyllanthus urinaria !!


I think this one is called ‘Bhui awla’ in Marathi


Plant looks to be Phyllanthus sp.
The fruits do not match those of Phyllanthus urinaria.
Fruits of P.urinaria are not smooth but echinate / tuberculate.
May be you can post them again to avail expert opinion in Euphorbiaceae Fortnight.


If there is one male flower and one female flower in each axillary cymule, then it is Phyllanthus amarus.


Thank you … for the Id


  

 

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Requesting identification of this wild herb at Pune.
I had posted this herb earlier for Id at
Previous comments
Phyllanthus urinaria !!   …
Plant looks to be Phyllanthus sp.The fruits do not match those of Phyllanthus urinaria.  …


… looks as if with stunted growth; just guessing: P. amarus or fraternus.


If there is one male flower and one female flower in each axillary cymule, then it is Phyllanthus amarus.


Many thanks … for the Id. 


 

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Phyllanthus amarus Schumach. & Thonn. Is a common wild herb in Pantnagar.


Looks like Phyllanthus amarus.  A close-up is required.


 

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Phyllanthus amarus

At many places in Pune city growing as a weed.

Hope the ID is correct


You are right. Phyllanthus amarus has one male and one female flower per axillary cymule.


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Euphorbiaceae Fortnight: Phyllanthus amarus from Delhi-GS-62 : Attachments (5). 5 posts by 5 authors. 
Phyllanthus amarus Schumach., Beskr. Guin. pl. 421. 1827

syn: Phyllanthus niruri var. amarus (Schumach. & Thonn.) Leandri
Recently introduced weed in Delhi, differentiated from closely related species in its male and female flowers occurring in adjacent pairs and 5 perianth members in the flower.


Many thanks … for sharing this particular photo … Phyllanthus-amarus-Delhi-1.jpg. I am realizing that this top view is unique, tell-tale of P. amarus.


Phyllanthus amarus Schumach. & Thonn., Beskr. Guin. Pl. 421. 1827 & Kongl. Danske Vidensk. Selsk. Skr. 4: 195 -196. 1829. 


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EUPHORBIACEAE FORTNIGHT:: Phyllanthus for id from Panipat NS-53 : Attachments (4).

2 posts by 2 authors.
This herb is also quite common in our area.. please help to id this Phyllanthus species.. can this be P. amarus..
I am not sure how to differentiate this from P. fraternus..


Phyllanthus amarus.


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This one is the last Phyllanthus species I am posting for identification this fortnight.. this also looks different from every other species posted by me… one of the pics enclosed show a comparison between this taxon and the one which I suppose to be Phyllanthus fraternus
Please provide id help..


The first three photos are certainly Phyllanthus amarus. I am not sure about the last photo.


Thanks a lot …, the last picture is a mixed one, P. amarus and P. fraternus….
Now I can certainly distinguish both in the field..


 

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EUPHORBIACEAE FORTNIGHT:: Phyllanthus for id from Panipat NS-63 : Attachments (5).  5 posts by 3 authors.

This Phyllanthus species resembles P. fraternus, still I am not confident looking at the clusters of flowers and fruits..
Please provide id help.. I am sorry if I have repeated some specimens, they look all the same to me and require a minute observation


There is no indication of any pubescece. Hence the safest guess is Phyllanthus amarus.


Many thanks … for this help too… I will try to have a re look…


it is having 5 short acute perianth members, leaf tip nearly obtuse, it is P. amarus only


 

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Heb ID from Bangladesh SM079 : Attachments (1). 6 posts by 4 authors.  

Habit: Herb

Habitat: garden

Flowering: March
Location: Dhaka City


It looks like Phyllanthus niruri


It looks like Phyllanthus debilis to me 🙂


It would be good if you include a close up of leaf and flower/fruit in all your uploads.
P. niruri does not grow in India and species identified with it may belong to P. amarus (5 perianth, stem cylindrical), P. urinaria (6 perianth, stem angular, leaf margin hairy, female flowers towards base, male above), P. debilis (6 perianth, stem angular, leaf margin glabrous, male flowers towards base, female above, leaf tip acute) or P. fraternus (6 perianth, stem angular, leaf margin glabrous, male flowers towards base, female above, leaf tip obtuse). Here is an important paper:
http://journal-phytology.com/index.php/phyto/article/viewfile/6070/3109


Thanks for your very good reply. I will try my best as your important suggestion in-future post. However I have taken past many photos those would not be very close up 


Close up …


The two pictures resemble Phyllanthus amarus.


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Phyllanthus sp. from Assam KD 09 Sept : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (4).  
Attached images are Phyllanthus sp. Please ID the plant.  
Date :09.09.2014
Location: Assam
Family : Euphorbiaceae
Genus & species : Phyllanthus sp.
Habitat: Grows wild
Habit :Herb 


Phyllanthus amarus.


 

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Need id assistance of Phyllanthus sp. : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (1)
I need id assistance of following Phyllanthus sp. collected from Jadavpur Univ. campus, Kolkata on 7.6.2015.


Phyllanthus amarus http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Carry%20Me%20Seed.html


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July2015sk12/14 — Phyllanthus amarus Schumach. & Thonn. : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (4)


Yes, a common species..


One male flower and one female flower per axillary cymule is usually a reliable character to identify this species.


Thank you Sir for the KEY, earlier … also provided this KEY to identify it from Phyllanthus fraternus G. L. Webster.


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Phyllanthus fraternus G.L.Webster ???  : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (5)

Location:  Victoria Memorial Park
                 Kolkata, India
Date: 08 September 2017
Elevation : 25 ft.


No. P. amarus


Thank you …  I guessed so but still could not confirm !
Phyllanthus amarus Schumach. & Thonn.
Nepali Names : भुइँ अमला Bhuin Amalaa / अमला झार Amalaa Jhaar 


 
References:

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