Let us evaluate our Physalis species : 4 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (1)- 7 mb.
Let us evaluate Physalis in India. Another genus in which species names have undergone considerable changes. Only two species were described in Flora of British India: Wild Physalis minima (and its one var. indica) and cultivated P. peruviana. As understood now, there are at least four wild species and 2-3 found in cultivation. These can be separated as under:
1. Plants perennial, mostly cultivated, plants villous to pubescent……2
1. Plants annual, mostly wild……..3
2. Fruiting calyx orange to red, corolla white with greenish to yellowish spots, leaf base cuneate, oblique, berry orange red …… P. alkekengi (Chinese Lantern)
2. Fruiting calyx green, corolla yellow with purple blotches at base, leaf base cordate, berry yellow to orange ….. P. peruviana (Cape gooseberry)
3. Fruiting pedicel 3-8 mm long……………………4
3. Fruiting pedicel longer than 10 mm…………..5
4. Corolla less than 6 mm in diam, yellow with purple blotches, anthers yellow, less than 2 mm long, fruiting calyx green, sub globose, less than 2 cm long …….. P. lagascae
4. Corolla more than 1 cm in diam., yellow with purple blotches, anthers bluish-purple, 2-3 mm long, fruiting calyx green, ovoid, 2-3 cm long, berry usually green …….. P. philadelphica (tomatillo)
5. Plants sparsely hairy to glabrescent, without glandular hairs; fruiting calyx ovoid, longer than broad, gradually narrowed at tip, with purple network of veins……… P. angulata
5. Plants densely hairy mixed with glandular hairs …….. 6
6. Stems and leaves villous mixed with sessile glands, leaves prominently dentate from base, corolla with brown spots, anthers purple, fruiting calyx as long as broad, abruptly acuminate at apex, berry orange when mature ……… P. grisea
6. Stems and leaves villous mixed with stalked glands, leaves light green, prominently dentate from middle, corolla with pale green spots, anthers yellow, fruiting calyx longer than broad, gradually acuminate at apex, berry grey green when mature……… P. pruinosa
There are at least two species the members are requested to focus, Physalis joe-diasii, described by Santapau from Maharashtra, which may turn out to be P. angulata, TPL considers it unresolved name, whereas Kew Database a synonym of Physalis halicacabum Crantz. Another species P. lagascae is reported by Raju et al. in Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica 45 (2): 239–245(2007) from Andhra Pradesh, Khammam district, Achuthapuram: 1999-02-14;C. S. Reddy 1331 (KUH); Warangal district, Hanamkonda: 2006-08-02, V. S. Raju 5005 (KUH), the image of fruit also matches description, but no mention corolla patches. There seems to be no other credible image in online databases in India, even uploads on Indian Flora (Facebook) and Flowers of India point to P. pruinosa. Let us all try to locate true P. lagascae in India (images in my collage are taken from “Useful Tropical Plants” images by Ken Fern.
1. P. angulata: Wazirabad, Delhi, August 30, 2009
2. P. lagascae: “Useful Tropical Plants” images by Ken Fern
3. P. grisea: Tikkar Tal Lake, Morni, Haryana, April 10, 2011
4. P. pruinosa: Morni, Haryana, April 10, 2011, Flower image from Flowers of India
5. P. peruviana: Tiger Fall Road, Chakrata, September 18, 2011
6. P. philadelphica (syn: P. ixocarpa): Sunnyvale, California, May 31, 2014
7. P. alkakengi: Fremont, California, 10 October, 2017, flower picture from NatureGate, Luoontoportti, eFlora of Pakistan reports it from Kashmir from 1200-1800 m altitude, also cultivated let us find it.
Perhaps a good project for our Young Researchers. This Paper should be good for further exploration
Regarding ‘Physalis joe-diasii, described by Santapau from Maharashtra, which may turn out to be P. angulata’, myself and … had similar views after examining all the postings in efi site.
Most of the descriptions and plates on which Linnaeus based his species also refer to P. angulata rather than to the small-flowered prostrate plant, usually known as “P. minima” (that we treat here as Physalis lagascae).
The myth of “minima” and “maxima”, the species of Physalis in the Indian Subcontinent (2007) by Vatsavaya S RAJU, C S REDDY & K G RAJARAO (With Keys-Physalis angulata, Physalis grisea, Physalis lagascae & Physalis pruinosa)- 45 (2): 239–245(2007) Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica-
Abstract : The status of the names, Physalis minima L. and P. maxima Mill. (Solanaceae), and their alleged presence on the Indian subcontinent are discussed. The issues of nativity and identity of Linnaean Physalis minima are long-debated while the use of the name P. maxima Mill. and its report from India are recent. The available evidence indicates that the name “P. minima L.” is misapplied to two different elements, viz., P. angulata L. and P. lagascae Roem. & Schult. The name Physalis minima L. may be rejected as nomen confusum, for which the paper provides the primary information. As on today, it is submerged under the synonymy of P. angulata L. The correct name for the widely known P. minima is P. lagascae. The name “P. maxima Mill.” applied to the escape and naturalized weed in the Indian subcontinent and elsewhere is to be substituted by P. pruinosa L., a name misapplied to P. grisea (Waterf.) M.Martínez.
Physalis lagascae: annual; petiole 1-1.5 cm; leaf 2-3 × 1-1.5 cm, base cuneate, often oblique, pedicel ca. 5 mm, pubescent. Calyx 2.5-3 mm, fruiting calys 1-2 cm; corolla ca. 5 mm. anthers light yellow, 1-1.5 mm. Fruiting pedicel less than 1 cm, pendulous.berry globose, ca. 6 mm in diam.
Physalis peruviana: perennial, petiole 2-5 cm; leaf 6-15 × 4-10 cm, densely pubescent, base cordate, pedicel ca. 1.5 cm. Calyx 7-9 mm. fruiting calyx 2.5-4 cm; corolla 12-15 mm; filaments and anthers blue-purple; anthers 3-4 mm long. berry 1-1.5 cm in diam.
Species with description & pictures in Flowers of India as on 24.7.14:
Physalis alkekengi var. franchetii (Masters) Makino (No distribution in India)
Physalis cordata Miller (No distribution in India)
Indian Medicinal Plants: An Illustrated Dictionary edited by C.P. Khare (2007)- Details-
Physalis minima L. (correct name for the widely known P. minima is Physalis lagascae as per The myth of “minima” and “maxima”, the species of Physalis in the Indian Subcontinent (2007) )
The Cyclopædia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia …, Volume 4 By Edward Balfour (1873)- Details-
Minor Fruit Crops of India: Tropical and Subtropical By Bibhas Chandra Mazumdar 92004)- Details-
Flora of Medak District, Andhra Pradesh, India By T. Pullaiah, Chintala Prabhakar, B. Ravi Prasad Rao (1998)- Details-
Physalis minima L. (correct name for the widely known P. minima is Physalis lagascae as per The myth of “minima” and “maxima”, the species of Physalis in the Indian Subcontinent (2007))
Edible Medicinal And Non-Medicinal Plants: Volume 6, Fruits, Volume 6 By T. K. Lim (2013)- Good Details-
Medicinal Plants in Australia Volume 3: Plants, Potions and Poisons, Volume 3 By Cheryll Williams (2008)- Details-
Flora of Ranga Reddi District Andhra Pradesh, India By T. Pullaiah, M. Silar Mohammed (2000)- Details-
Physalis (Solanaceae) : 2 posts by 1 author.
I have updated eFI (efloraofindia) page on Physalis (Pl. click)
Attempts have been made to incorporate most of the species available in India & nearby areas with details & keys directly or through links as far as possible. It’s quite possible that there may be some discrepancy in the accepted names & synonyms taken from other links.
Species discussed so far in efloraofindia are given at the bottom of the page in the form of links against Subpages. On clicking them one can see all the details.
If someone can provide complete list of Indian species with source references it will be wonderful.
Any comments/ corrections are welcome.
You are simply superb and beautiful in your love for nature and nature photography…it has science as a face. I am happy and delighted to see the update on Physalis. Thanks to you mail. Our country is more a literate state as we see do not care for accuracy as educated citizen…..as there is no accountability. I will have a critical look at it and give my feed back. So far I have not spared a few minutes to look into webpages… though occasionally peep into it for vernaculars as the webpages are tempting on Google search. I can be of help in near future.
Regarding Physalis Species : 5 posts by 3 authors.
I want to know about current status of Physalis genus in India.
How many species are growing in India. Please provide me more details regarding Physalis species.
The following may be of some help: Physalis
I think there are more species in India. we need to documented all of them.
you can download this useful paper
Here is the link – Research Gate
Physalis (Solanaceae) page with images of species in efloraofindia : 2 posts by 2 authors.
I request you to pl. go through & point out mistakes, if any. I hope this will aid in identifications in future. If anybody can send images of other species of this genera (for incorporation in the website), if any, or can identify unidentified images, it will be really nice.