Solanum nigrum L., Sp. pl. 1:186. 1753;
 
Kakmachi, European Black Nightshade, Duscle, Garden Nightshade, Hound’s Berry, Petty Morel, Small-fruited black nightshade or popolo, Deadly Nightshade, Black-berry night shade, Nightshade, Poisonberry • Manipuri: লৈপুঙখাংগ Leipungkhangga • Tamil: மணதக்காளி Manatakkali • Hindi: Mokoi मोकोय • Malayalam: Mulaku-thakkali • Telugu: Kasaka • Marathi: Laghukavali • Urdu: Makoya मकोया ;

Solanum villosum (left), Solanum americanum (middle) & Solanum nigrum (right)

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Solanum americanum, solanum nigrum & Solanum villosum5 images.

Pictures were taken today from same place, these three species growing here as weeds. Earlier I thought we had only two, no S. americanum Mill., but the eFI and FoC KEY tells me otherwise.  
Although The Plant List treats S. nigrum and S. americanum as synonyms, seeing so many errors in this database I prefer to follow GRIN and eFlora of China, wherever available, since both treat them distinct with following differences
S. americanum: Flowers less than 5 mm across; anthers 1-1.5 mm long; berries 6-7 mm in diam, shining black; fruiting calyx reflexed; seeds 1-1.5 mm long
S. nigrum: Flowers 7-10 mm across, anthers 2-3 mm long; berries 7-9 mm in diam, dull black; fruiting calyx appressed or slightly deflexed; seeds 1.7-2.5 mm long
 
For a long time S. americanum and S. nigrum were treated at distinct species, former characterised by smaller flowers (less than 5 mm across), smaller anthers (1-1.5 mm long) smaller (6-7 mm) shining black berries, and latter by larger flowers (6-9 mm across), longer anthers (2-3 mm) and larger (7-9 mm) dull black, purple or yellowish-green berries. Both species are distinct from S. villosum in inflorescence with usually more than 6 flowers, longer peduncles (1.5-3 cm in fruit).
 
A delicious leafy vegetable. The fruits can be dipped in curds and salt and then sundried. This will keep for long time and the sundried fruits can be fried in oil and used as a sidedish with rice (what we call ‘kondattum’ in Malayalam). These fried fruits are also used to make a delicious curry with tamarind (‘rasam’);
 
Dried fruits fried in oil or ghee cure ulcers. But I find the juice extract from the leaves work better in curing mouth and stomach ulcers. Raw leaves are ground with water and the extract is taken orally on an empty stomach. (But I have taken it at other times as well and I feel the result is the same). After one intake itself there will be a remarkable difference. Some people take the extract with coconut milk;
 
In our chilhood ripe fruits of this were our most sought after fruit in wild. Tasting like a sharper tomato, more sweet. We called it Kachmach;
 
As you said its a very good leaf-vegetable. And the dried fruits (while coming to usa i had brought some and using now and then!) are used to prepare ‘kaara kuzhambu’ or ‘vaththa kuzhambu’, a slightly bitterly delicious;
 
The ripe fruits are eaten raw, used in pies and preserves and in making jam;  


Solanum nigrum (European black nightshade or locally just black nightshade, duscle, garden nightshade, hound’s berry, petty morel, wonder berry, small-fruited black nightshade or popolo) is a species in the Solanum genus, native to Eurasia and introduced in the Americas, Australasia and South Africa 
Parts of this plant can be highly toxic to livestock and humans, and it’s considered a weed. Nonetheless, ripe berries and cooked leaves of edible strains are used as food in some locales; and plant parts are used as a traditional medicine.  
Black nightshade is a fairly common herb or short-lived perennial shrub, found in many wooded areas, as well as disturbed habitats. It has a height of 30 to 120 cm (12 to 48 in), leaves 4 to 7.5 cm (1.5 to 3 in) long and 2 to 5 cm (1 to 2.5 in) wide; ovate to heart-shaped, with wavy or large-toothed edges; both surfaces hairy or hairless; petiole 1 to 3 cm (0.5 to 1 in) long with a winged upper portion. The flowers have petals greenish to whitish, recurved when aged and surround prominent bright yellow anthers. The berry is mostly 6 to 8 mm (0.3 to 0.8 in) diam., dull black or purple-black.[6] In India, another strain is found with berries that turn red when ripe.[7] 
The Solanum nigrum complex — also known as Solanum L. section Solanum — is the group of black nightshade species; characterized by their lack of prickles and stellate hairs, their white flowers and their green or black fruits arranged in an umbelliform fashion.[8] The Solanum species in this group can be taxonomically confused, moreso by intermediate forms and hybridization between the species.[3] Some of the major species within the Solanum nigrum complex are: Solanum nigrum, S. americanum, S. douglasii, S. opacum, S. ptychanthum, S.retroflexum, S. sarrachoides, S. scabrum, and S. villosum  
In India, the berries are casually grown and eaten; but not cultivated for commercial use. In South India, the leaves and berries are routinely consumed as food after cooking with tamarind, onion, and cumin seeds.[19] The berries are referred to as “fragrant tomato.” Although not very popular across much of its growing region, the fruit and dish are common in Tamil Nadu (மணத்தக்காளி in Tamil),[20] Kerala, Southern Andhra Pradesh and Southern Karnataka. 
(From Wikipedia on 19.7.14) 


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Fruits & Vegetables Week: RVS-9: Solanum nigrum, from Sirumalai hills, TN. Ripe fruits edible and the leaves and unripe fruits used as vegetable.


-‘Manattakkali‘ in Malayalam. A delicious leafy vegetable. The fruits can be dipped in curds and salt and then sundried. This will keep for long time and the sundried fruits can be fried in oil and used as a sidedish with rice (what we call ‘kondattum’ in Malayalam). These fried fruits are also used to make a delicious curry with tamarind (‘rasam’).



-‘Manathakkaali‘ in Tamil as well.  .. is right.  Dried fruits fried in oil or ghee cure ulcers. But I find the juice extract from the leaves work better in curing mouth and stomach ulcers. Raw leaves are ground with water and the extract is taken orally on an empty stomach. (But I have taken it at other times as well and I feel the result is the same).  After one intake itself there will be a remarkable difference. Some people take the extract with coconut milk.


-In our chilhood ripe fruits of this were our most sought after fruit in wild. Tasting like a sharper tomato, more sweet. We called it Kachmach.


-as you said its a very good leaf-vegetable. And the dried fruits (while coming to usa i had brought some and using now and then!) are used to prepare ‘kaara kuzhambu’ or ‘vaththa kuzhambu’, a slightly bitterly delicious. .. Yes our traditional medicinal formulations are again and again proved effective. We are fortunate to have such a great wealth.  


 
Fruits & Vegetables Week: Solanum nigrum, the black nightshade: Solanum nigrum, the black nightshade, a wild herb common in wastelands, cultivated fields, roadsides. The ripe fruits are eaten raw, used in pies and preserves and in making jam.  


Herb: 30cm height
Leaf: c.5 X 4 cm
Flowers: c. 1.5cm across; white
Fruits: c. 0.8cm across
Date: 05 Dec 2010
Time: 5:30PM
Location: Ooty town; Nilgiris, TN
First I thought this to be a Nicandra sp., but the flowers are smaller.
Sorry for the poor pics, I cant make it in poor evening light.


Solanum nigrum we call it “kakmachi‘ in bengali 


    

 

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Last month i posted two sets of Solanum sp. both of which were identified as Solanum villosum.
Is this the Solanum nigrum L. what was eluding me since then?
Species : UNKNOWN
Habit & Habitat : wild herb, roadside
Date : 30.03.2012, 10.30 a.m.
Place : Garalgacha (Hooghly), WB


Yes …, Solanum nigrum


 

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efloraofindia:”For Id 01122011MR1’’ ?Solanum americanum Pune:

Nov 2011
Kindly Id this wild plant of height 4-5 cms at Pune

?Solanum americanum

I waited for the berries to appear but today I found that


the plant is no more where I found it.


Yes now considered as synonym of Solanum nigrum


 

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Solanum nigrum: Solanum nigrum, over the past few weeks

alibaug


request for plant id: habitat-roadside,garden….place- ambala cantt: please help me to identify this plant..
Descriptions:
Place: ambala cantt
month: december
habitat: roadside and garden
habit: climber
stem: weak
flower: small,white
fruit: green and dark purple coloured small berries


 

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Solanum americanum Mill. from Kamrup district, Assam :  Attachments (5). 1 post by 1 author.
Attached images are Solanum americanum Mill. (Syn. S. nigrum L.) collected from Kamrup district, Assam.
Date :10.04.2013
Location: Kamrup district
Family : Solanaceae
Genus & species : Solanum americanum Mill. (Syn. S. nigrum L.)
Habitat: Grows wild on road side
Habit : Herb
Flower : White 


 

 

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Fwd: Solanum americanum (syn. S. nigrum). Please validate : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (4).
Thank you Sir for your valuable information about Solanum nigrum and S. vilosum. Sir, are Solanum americanum & S. nigrum two distinct species? According to Plant list and also efl group S. nigrum is a synonym of Solanum americanum. Please clarify. I attached here the images of Solanum americanum (syn. S. nigrum ). Please validate.


S. nigrum L.


The Plant List seems to be creating more problems than solving. GRIN as well as Flora of China (Which I rel more), even Tropicos (a very reliable database) and many others treat them distinct. Your plant looks like S. americanum, but I would like you to check the size of flowers and ripe fruits. Once we know which is our plant, its taxonomic status is secondary.

S. americanum: Flowers 4-5 mm across; fruit 6-8 mm in diam, shiny black; anthers shorter than 1.5 mm
S. nigrum: Flowers 8-10 mm across; fruit 8-10 mm across, dull black; anthers 2.5-3 mm long


Yes it is Solanum nigrum only


  

 

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Jan2015sk06 – Solanum nigrum L. : 5 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (8).   
2.5 ft wild herb, photographed today (15.1.15).


Excellent photos. Many uses in traditional system of medicine.


 

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Although The Plant List treats S. nigrum and S. americanum as synonyms, seeing so many errors in this database I prefer to follow GRIN and eFlora of China, wherever available, since both treat them distinct with following differences

S. americanum: Flowers less than 5 mm across; anthers 1-1.5 mm long; berries 6-7 mm in diam, shining black; fruiting calyx reflexed; seeds 1-1.5 mm long
S. nigrum: Flowers 7-10 mm across, anthers 2-3 mm long; berries 7-9 mm in diam, dull black; fruiting calyx appressed or slightly deflexed; seeds 1.7-2.5 mm long  
Solanum nigrum L., Sp. Pl. 1: 186. 1753.
Branched annual herb pubescent; leaf ovate, 5-10 cm long, cuneate at base, entire to coarsely dentate, petiole up to 5 cm long; flowers white, 7-10 mm across, in extraaxillary umbellate cymes of usually more than 5 flowers; peduncle 2-4 cm long; pedicel 8-12 mm long, strongly deflexed in fruit; calyx lobes appressed to berry or slightly deflexed; corolla spreading; anthers 2.5-3.5 mm long; ripe berry dull black, 7-9 mm in diam; seeds 2 mm long
Photographed from Kashmir


 

 

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Sharing the images of Solanum nigrum from Chennai.


 

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Solanaceae Fortnight: Feb2015sk03/20: Solanum sp.? : 9 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (7)  

This is a third common wild herb, I find here growing alongside S. americanum and S. villosum.
It can grow upto 4ft.
So long I thought as I have learned in this group that it is Solanum nigrum L.
But recently one of my very favourite and very respected teacher suggests it may not be Solanum nigrum L. at all.
My earlier upload


Since fruiting calyx is strongly reflexed I request you to confirm two things:
diam of flower
diam of ripe fruit 
this should help in deciding between S. nigrum and S. americanum


I have taken leave today, suffering from fever since yesterday, not much though. I take this opportunity to upload a few more photographs. The set attached here is from same individual herb.
The first three photographs were recorded on the 7-Feb-2015 (last week) and the rest with stats a little while ago. (13.2.15)
It is interesting to note that this plant has inconspicuously dentate ridged stem.
There is a document elaborating Solanum nigrum and allied species, with KEY and photographs, illustrations-
Attachments (7) 


I think both flower size and berry confirm S. nigrum.

I am also consulting this very paper.


Yes Sir, as per that paper it should be S. nigrum … but I will note more uploads of this species from other members. I have seen your uploads of both nigrum and villosum.


It is Solanum indicumMakoi, KAKMACHI.


Thank you Sir. There is an article about Solanum indicum by … which informs S. indicum represents three species, namely 1) S. anguivi 2) S. violaceum and 3) S. erianthum .
The write up can be seen at – efi thread.
I have the violaceum and  erianthum, I will upload later. I am yet to find the S. anguivi.

I used to eat makoi while playing in my childhood.


Thank you Madam, I didn’t know these fruits are edible.


Please throw some light on the claim that – Solanum nigrum L. is a prickly herb.


 

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Solanaceae Fortnight:: Solanum nigrum L.-NS Feb 38/38 : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (7)
This is a summer flowering, less frequent species of Solanum, quite distinct from Solanum americanum Mill. in number and texture of berries, fruiting calyx, flower color, smooth and angled stem..
I think, these pics belong to Solanum nigrum L.

Another super duper set Sir.

It is very interesting to see this set where number of flowers (=fruits) per inflorescence is more than 10 – this goes against the claim of the species description in pdf Link.

 

 

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A few pictures of Solanum nigrum.
Photographed on 3 May 2012 from my garden. 
Known as മണിത്തക്കാളി ‘Manithakkali’ in Malayalam meaning ‘tiny tomato’.


 

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Hooghly-skMAY11/12 Solanum nigrum L. : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (6)
It is summer and the species is still flowering+fruiting


 

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Solanum nigrum L. (accepted name) : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (5)

Location: Soureni, Mirik, India
Date: 21 April 2017
Altitude: 4400 ft. 

Nepali Names : कालो बिहीं  Kaalo Biheen  / क्वाँइ Kwaai / जंगली बिहीं  Jangalee Biheen   

 

 

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Solanum nigrum L. : 6 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (6)- around 400 kb each.
Location: Nagarkot, Nepal
Altitude : 6000 ft.
Date: 18 July 2018

Habit : Wild   


गुजराती,पीलुडी
काकमाची

at Bhadreshwar, Hooghly, West Bengal on 11/11/2007; at Satara, in the month of March’ 08; Sonepat, Haryana, 5th April 09; Lohari Panipat- May’10?; Balgarden, Srinagar on June 15, 25, 2010; PLANT FOR IDENTIFICATION -30 – indiantreepix | Google Groups For Identification – indiantreepix | Google Groups

 

http://groups.google.co.in/group/indiantreepix/browse_thread/thread/2b103711c34ee71c?hl=en
 


Solanum americanum & Solanum nigrum– differences;

 

 

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near Hanuman Tekdi, Pune– Oct.’10; Solanaceae member – efloraofindia | Google Groups


 

 

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SOLANUM NIGRAM : 3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (1)
Attaching a collage of Solanum nigrum (BLACK NIGHTSHADE/ KAKMACHI)

 

Need Help in ID: Specimen 02 : Small White Flower : 5 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (1)- 2 Mb. 
These two wild shrubs are flourishing in Aramnagar, Versova, Mumbai.
Need help in identifying it..
The white flower is roughly 6-7mm in diameter.
(Is there a good book on identifying wild shrubs of Maharashtra?)
Both photographed today, May 21, 2019.


Solanum nigrum L. ??

… said is correct. am also agree with them.

Solanum nigrum
An important medicinal plant

  

 

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Solanum nigrum L. : 2 posts by 1 author. Attachments (9)- around 550 kb each. 
Location: Sundarijal, Kathmandu
Date: 30 July  2019
Elevation: 16764 m.

Habit : Wild  


Plant ID? : 6 posts by 2 authors. 3 images- 1 to 2 mb each.

Found near Najafgarh


Solanum sp.


Solanum nigrum L. !


Yes, thanks …


 

References:
Flora of Medak District, Andhra Pradesh, India By T. Pullaiah, Chintala Prabhakar, B. Ravi Prasad Rao (1998)

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