.
Tropical soda apple, Sodom apple;
.
The species is distinct from other woody species of the genus in its medium sized white flowers with narrow corolla lobes about 8-10 mm long, flowers 1-5 in a cluster and 2-3 cm across pale yellow berries.
The prickles are of two types: most on the stem with broad base curved at tip and up to 5 mm long. and some needle like straight prickles. In addition the surface of leaf along the veins is covered with straight long prickles up to 2 cm long.
The leaves are sometimes in unequal pairs, irregular-lobed with 3-5 rounded lobes, lobes usually reaching middle or so, glandular and stellate hairy.
The flowers cluster is borne on a short cluster, usually on under side. Usually only one flower in the cluster matures into a 2-4 cm long berry, mostly pale yellow in colour.
.
Somewhat similar to S. capsicoides (syn: S. aculeatissimum) in longer prickles, but latter has much more longer prickles often reaching 2 cm and much less hairy leaves often lustrous in appearance, berries yellow (S. aculeatissimum) or orange red (S. capsicoides (s. str.). S. viarum has typically young berries with white and green patches, mature yellow, leaves much densely hairy, and shorter mixed straight and curved prickles.
This tropical soda apple, a native of America is becoming common in many parts of the world ascending in Himalayas to 2600 m. 
.
With the merger of Solanum aculeatissimum with S. capsicoides (as per Kew Plant list) the latter species can now have both pale yellow, orange red or red fruits even in ripe stage. What I know about these two (when they were considered separate species) that their leaves are more greener, somewhat shining and prickles are much longer (up to 2 cm long as against only 5 mm long in S. viarum).
.
Solanum viarum                                         Solanum anguivi
Prickcle on stem recurved or needle-like     prickles up to 10 mm long,
up to 5 mm long                                         slightly recurved or erect
Petiole 3-7 cm, with flat straight prickles    Petiole up to 2.5 cm,
Leaves unequal pairs, 3-5 lobed                  Leaves oblong-ovate, repand
Flowers in 1-5 fld racemes                          Flowers 4-15, in extraaxillary cymes,
white or green                                             flowers bluish-purple
Berry glabrous, pale yellow, 2-3 cm            Berry glabrous, yellow, 8-10 mm
.

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Thorny Solanum shrub for ID :: MK007 SEP2016 : 2 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (7)
Please help in identification of this prickly Solanum species. It is seen on the floor of Deciduous forests and the shrub is slightly scandant.
Location: Mudumalai TR, Nilgiris, TN
Elev.: 900 m asl
Date: 10 August 2016

Solanum viarum..


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Solanum viarum Dunal ?? : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (4)
Location: Godawari, Nepal
Altitude: 5000 ft.
Date: 10 January 2017

Attachments (2)



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Solanum viarum Dunal ?? : 4 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (4)
Location: Godawari, Nepal
Altitude: 5000 ft.
Date: 10 January 2017

I also think matches with images at Solanum viarum


Thank you …! Nepali Name : बन भाण्टा  Ban Bhaantaa



Your plant looks much different from S. viarum uploaded by me and by … Yours has much longer prickles and importantly more greener and less hairy leaves. Could we consider S. capsicoides (incl. aculeatissimum which has pale yellow fruits).


S. aculeatissimum looks very different, espl. the stems densely clothed with purple spines.
(Zimbabwe Flora)
As you know, S. capsicoides has deep orange (ripe) fruits, whereas, all our plants bear similar yellow fruits.
Top tropicals.
Let’s keep exploring…


There is a lot of similarity between the pictures uploaded by me and that is uploaded by … To me it looks like Solanum viarum. It can not be Solanum capsicoides because, the ripe fruit of Solanum capsicoide turns slightly yellow before turning red. Whereas the fruits in the pictures uploaded by … is purely yellow. Moreover my picture of Solanum capsicoides has more densely covered spines.
This though is the opinion of a lay person.


Thanks for sharing the information. With the merger of Solanum aculeatissimum with S. capsicoides (as per Kew Plant list) the latter species can now have both pale yellow, orange red or red fruits even in ripe stage. What I know about these two (when they were considered separate species) that their leaves are more greener, somewhat shining and prickles are much longer (up to 2 cm long as against only 5 mm long in S. viarum). Let us explore this further. I have yet to change my information in the website where S. capsicoides and S. aculeatissimum are treated as separate.


The fruits of S capsicoides first of all turn reddish yellow and later turn into red as it fully ripens. If you go through my uploading last year, you will see the pictures posted from time to time as it matures and ripens. The same fruit turns first into yellow and then as it ripens it turns into red gradually. Next, I have uploaded pictures of S Viarum that has prickles that are around 12 mm and more. If it is ok, I will upload some more pictures of S. Viarum in this thread.


Solanum viarum from me too.


It is Solanum Viarum, Solanum torvum is much smaller. about 10 or 12 mm in diameter, this is at least 25 mm. Solanum torvum do is light green and does not have the lines on the raw fruit. Moreover, the leaves do not have such long and sharp spines on them.
Attaching my pictures of S viarum


Yes Solanum viarum



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Solanaceae Week: Solanum aculeatissimum PKFEB05/05 : 5 posts by 5 authors. Attachments (3)

Solanum aculeatissimum Jacq. collected from Wayanadu and Idukki


Thanks for this upload, … Nice pictures. Helpful to know that this plant and S. viarum have similar variegation on fruit.


Resembles Solanum viarum very closely..



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Solanum Viarum : Date & Time 22 October 2010
Location: Place, Altitude, GPS  Chethalayam, Wayanad.
Habitat: Garden, Urban, Wild Type:      Wild
Plant Habit: Tree, Shrub, Climber, Herb shrub
Height, Length. 2.5’
Leaves Type, Shape, Size        Irregular with spines
Inflorescence Type Size
Flowers Size Colour Calyx Bracts-       White
Fruits Type, Shape, Size Seeds  Round 25 mm


-In Malayalam we call it Kattuvazuthana” meaning wild brinjal.


Solanum viarum (syn: Solanum khasianum Cl. var. chatterjeanum S. Gupta): TROPICAL SODA APPLESmall shrub with glandular hairs; prickles up to 5 mm long, curved as well straight; infl 1-5 fld, peduncle reduced; corolla white; berry pale yellow, 2-3 cm across. Link


-Here is some characters of S. viarum from Flora of china:
armed with recurved prickles 2-5 × 1-5(-8) mm and sometimes with needlelike prickles 1-4 mm……..Corolla white or green…………………pale yellow, globose, 2-3 cm in diam.
Even the key in Flora of China separates S. viarum and other species on the basis of pale yellow fruit.
There are numerous photographs on net with pale yellow fruits, none with red

– Babu & Hepper. 1978. Taxonomy and nomenclature of Solanum khasianum and    some of its relatives. Kew Bull. 34:409.
– Babu. 1971. The identity of Solanum khasianum Cl. var. chatterjeeanum    Sen Gupta (Solanaceae). J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 67:610.



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Bot. name: Solanum viarum  (syn. = Solanum khasianum)
Common name:  Tropical Soda Apple
Location:  near Ramghal (Helwak region), Maharashtra .


–   Solanum khasianum is synonym of S. capsicoides (incl. S. acutissimum)

The synonym of S. viarum Dunal is Solanum khasianum var. chatterjeeanum  Sengupta <http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl/record/tro-29603737>



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Solanaceae Fortnight:: Solanum viarum-NS Feb 53/53 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (5)
This sub-erect to spreading species of Solanum was recorded from Chakrata, Uttarakhand and Morni Hills, Haryana..
Solanum viarum

Solanum viarum from Munnar.



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ID Please : 3 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (2)

Kindly help me identification of Solanum L. species.


Solanum species in eFloraofindia (with details/ keys from published papers/ regional floras/ FRLHT/ FOI/ Biotik/ efloras/ books etc., where ever available)


It should be Solanum viarum Dunal as per KEY in our database. Please check the distribution of the species in Rajasthan.


.


Solanaceae Week: Solanum viarum from Kullu-Manali: Solanum viarum Dunal in A. de Candolle, Prodr. 13(1): 240. 1852. syn: Solanum khasianum C. B. Clarke var. chatterjeeanum Sen Gupta.
This tropical soda apple, a native of America is becoming common in many parts of the world ascending in Himalayas to 2600 m. 
Somewhat similar to S. capsicoides (syn: S. aculeatissimum) in longer prickles, but latter has much more longer prickles often reaching 2 cm and much less hairy leaves often lustrous in appearance, berries yellow (S. aculeatissimum) or orange red (S. capsicoides (s. str.). S. viarum has typically young berries with white and green patches, mature yellow, leaves much densely hairy, and shorter mixed straight and curved prickles.
Photographed from Kullu and Manali in October, 2009.



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Soalnaceae Week- Solanum viarum from Morni Hills: This picture was again taken from Morni hills in Panchkula of Haryana in October 2010. Though already uploaded, yet I wished to share mine.



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Solanaceae Week: Solanum viarum from Morni Hill tract: Solanum viarum Dunal, A. L. P. P. de Candolle, Prodr. 13(1):240. 1852 syn: Solanum khasianum var. chatterjeeanum Sengupta
The morni trip helped me to understand Solanum viarum more closely, a plant on which there has been considerable discussion on our group.
The species is distinct from other woody species of the genus in its medium sized white flowers with narrow corolla lobes about 8-10 mm long, flowers 1-5 in a cluster and 2-3 cm across pale yellow berries.
The prickles are of two types: most on the stem with broad base curved at tip and up to 5 mm long. and some needle like straight prickles. In addition the surface of leaf along the veins is covered with straight long prickles up to 2 cm long.
The leaves are sometimes in unequal pairs, irregular-lobed with 3-5 rounded lobes, lobes usually reaching middle or so, glandular and stellate hairy 
The flowers cluster is borne on a short cluster, usually on under side. Usually only one flower in the cluster matures into a 2-4 cm long berry, mostly pale yellow in colour.
The plant was found growing at altitude of about 700 m in the Morni Hill tract.



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Kalatope id al190611a: A plant with thorns on the leaves… reminded me of a Harry Potter movie
where there is such a plant…

Location Kalatope, Chamba
Altitude 2100 mts
Habit herb
Habitat wild
Plant Height 16-18 inches

I think Solanum viarum
S. virginianum
(syn: S.xanthocarpum) has larger blusish-purple flowers, glabrous upper leaf surface and longer straight prickles.


.


Solanaceae Week- Solanum viarum- PKA2: Bot. name: Solanum viarum (syn. = Solanum khasianum)
Common name:  Tropical Soda Apple
Location:  near Ramghal (Helwak region), Maharashtra .

Solanum khasianum is synonym of S. capsicoides (incl. S. acutissimum)
The synonym of S. viarum Dunal is Solanum khasianum var. chatterjeeanum
Sengupta <http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl/record/tro-29603737>

It is Kachri or makoi.


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Pl. find the attached file contain photos for id. request.
Date/Time-Location- 06.10.2011, Munnar
Place, Altitude, GPS- The Lakkom Falls, (Approx. 1600 MSL)
Habitat- Wild
Plant Habit- Shrub

Perhaps flowers would help, but tentatively Solanum viarum



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Solanum for identification 100812MK01:

Please help me to identify this Solanum shrub. It is found as a weed in tea estates in valparai region of western ghats. The shrub is about one metre high.
Leaves: 15-20cm longer; prickles in veins; young prickles broader at base but mature ones not
Flower: white; 2.5cm across
Fruit: 5-6cm across; yellow when mature
Date: 28 July 2012
Place: Valparai, TN
Habitat: open fallow land and also near forest edge
Alt.: 1080 m asl

I hope Solanum viarum /species/m—z/s/solanaceae/solanum


May i know how Solanum khasianum C.B.Clarke differ from Solanum viarum ?? since in your provided link there is no key for identity of S.Khasianum and S.aculeatissimum???? Solanum khasianum C. B. Clarke is synonym of Solanum aculeatissimum Jacq.


Thanks … for reminding me

In fact this part of the key needs some changes. Recently I photographed S. chrysotrichum, (often confused with S. hispidum) from Pathankot. I would soon be adding both to the key.



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VoF Week: Solanum virum from Govindghat Fhngriya trek:  Solanum virum from Govindghat Ghangriya trek


Yes … Nice photographs.



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ID request-260212-PKA1 :  Attachments (6).  2 posts by 2 authors.

Seen this Solanaceae sp. along the road side at Anshi WLS, Karnataka. Could this be Solanum viarum??
Date / time: 21-02-2012 / 02:45PM
Location: Anshi, Karnataka

Habitat: Seen in wild but this could be some sort of garden escape?


I think yes Solanum viarum



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Solanum viarum Dunal from Kamrup district, Assam :  Attachments (6).  2 posts by 2 authors.
Attached images are Solanum viarum Dunal collected from Kamrup district, Assam
Date : 24.06.2013
Location: Kamrup district
Family : Solanaceae
Genus & species :Solanum viarum Dunal
Habitat: Grows wild .
Habit : under shrub
Flower : white

Fruits :Green with white patches( when young), Yellow when ripe


Very well illustrated upload



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Solanum For ID : Uttarakhand : 240413 : AK-3 :  Attachments (1). 8 posts by 4 authors.

Solanum plant with spikes and yellow fruit growing wild in the Nainital area.

Picture taken on 23/3/13.

Kindly id.


Can be Solanum incanum..


Solanum incanum found in Oman looks very different.


Solanum viarum, one of the most common shrubby Solanum with straight prickles, white flowers, and mottled green pods turning yellow when mature and 2-3 cm in diameter.


Thanks a lot for identifying my Solanum from Uttarakhand.


Solanum aculeatissimum Jacq.


Solanum viarum to me.


It seems Solanum aculeatissimum Jacq. (= Solanum khasianum C.B. Clarke)


Solanum khasianum


This is Solanum viarum Dunal .. for sure, I agree with …

No doubt, as … said, this is also known as…  Solanum khasianum var. chatterjeeanum Sengupta



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Solanum viarum Dunal in A. de Candolle, Prodr. 13(1): 240. 1852.

syn: Solanum khasianum C. B. Clarke var. chatterjeeanum Sen Gupta.
This tropical soda apple, a native of America is becoming common in many parts of the world ascending in Himalayas to 2600 m. Somewhat similar to S. capsicoides (syn: S. aculeatissimum) in longer prickles, but latter has much more longer prickles often reaching 2 cm and much less hairy leaves often lustrous in appearance, berries yellow (S. aculeatissimum) or orange red (S. capsicoides (s. str.). S. viarum has typically young berries with white and green patches, mature yellow, leaves much densely hairy, and shorter mixed straight and curved prickles.

Photographed from Kullu and Manali in October, 2009.


Yes, this is quite common in dry patches along roadsides in hills..



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Solanum viarum Dunal, A. L. P. P. de Candolle, Prodr. 13(1):240. 1852

syn: Solanum khasianum var. chatterjeeanum Sengupta

The morni trip helped me to understand Solanum viarum more closely, a plant on which there has been considerable discussion on our group. The species is distinct from other woody species of the genus in its medium sized white flowers with narrow corolla lobes about 8-10 mm long, flowers 1-5 in a cluster and 2-3 cm across pale yellow berries.
The prickles are of two types: most on the stem with broad base curved at tip and up to 5 mm long. and some needle like straight prickles. In addition the surface of leaf along the veins is covered with straight long prickles up to 2 cm long.
The leaves are sometimes in unequal pairs, irregular-lobed with 3-5 rounded lobes, lobes usually reaching middle or so, glandular and stellate hairy
The flowers cluster is borne on a short cluster, usually on under side. Usually only one flower in the cluster matures into a 2-4 cm long berry, mostly pale yellow in colour.

The plant was found growing at altitude of about 700 m in the Morni Hill tract.


Nice pics and related memories..



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Attached images are Solanum viarum Dunal.



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Solanum viarum Dunal

at National Highway No. 49 on June 3, 2014


Very good photographs again …



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Solanum viarum Dunal

at Cauvery Nisargadhama on March 31, 2011


Beautiful upload seems to be Solanum viarum



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Came across this plant near Ramghal (Helwak region).
Bot. name: Solanum viarum (Tropical Soda Apple).

Yes, nicely depicted..


Seen this Solanaceae sp. along the road side at Anshi WLS, Karnataka.
Bot. name: Solanum viarum

fully open flower looks like a harlequin cap… loved it


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Solanum viarum Dunal : 3 posts by 2 authors. Attachments (5) – around 550 kb each.
Location:  Nagarkot
Date: 21 August 2018
Elevation:7000 ft.
Habit : Wild



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Plant for validation :: Shimla, Dec 2018 :: ARK2019-02 : 9 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (6)
Seen this plant in a wasteland near our hotel near Shimla in Dec 2018.
Is this Solanum capsicoides? Thought of S. virginianum, but seems to be less thorny.

Requested to please provide ID.


likely


It’s Solanum viarum


Thank you … for the ID…


can you tell me whats the difference? my own learning, humbly


What I understood, was 2 types of thorns – crooked with broad base as well as straight long ones alongwith yellow fruits with white patches.


… in Solanum capsicoides the thorns are little longer reaching 2cms, the leaves are not hairy and fruits turns red when ripe whereas in Solanum viarum the thorns are comparatively shorter, leaves covered with dense hairs and unripe fruit is pale green with darker markings and turns only yellow when ripe.


Thanks Ashutosh thats very well explained. i get it now. is there a key for the Solanum species that grow/ are found in India that have thorns on the leaves and have small round berries.

i am asking because in Ayurveda they use Kantakari Solanum xanthocarpum
two separate plant list pages urls give synonyms as :
I have seen as an observer only that whenever the tribal procurers are asked for harvesting Kantakari in the wild/native state. they bring in
what looked often like these pictures that ALk showed here.
I need some clarification.
Ayurvedic texts and papers say KAntakari is supposed to be: Solanum xanthocarpum

that’s very nice to know. thank you for showing these cases. see … response too.


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Solanum for ID : Coorg: 27JUL19 : 5 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (2)- around 750 kb each.
Need an ID for the plant in the attached pictures. Photos taken at Coorg on 27 July 2019

Please check Solanum viarum


Thanks, …, for the id.
To me also appears close to images at Solanum viarum


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Solanum viarum/ABOCT08 : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (2).

Another weed that is of concern here like in many other parts of the world is Solanum viarum or the Tropical Soda Apple. Believed to be native to parts of South America, this plant produces fruit that is toxic to humans. But the cattle eat it and spread the seed through their faeces. The fruit turns yellow as it ages. There are a large number of these plants here competing well with the native wild plants.

Tropical Soda Apple (Solanum viarum)
Mcleodganj, Dharamshala, HP

1750m, 07 Oct 14


I think yes

Good photographs


Nice pictures! Though originally from American Tropics it has invaded many temperate areas in Western Himalaya; the weed seems winning over native flora which is sensitive to anthropogenic disturbances.


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Cedar Pollen/ABOCT12 : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (3).

The yellow-green pollen is everywhere covering all available surfaces. Here are a few images from today. Tropical Soda Apple and Water Willow are seen in the first two pictures.

Mcleodganj, Dharamshala, HP

1750m


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Solanum viarum/ABJAN04 : 2 posts by 2 authors.

I found a half-eaten fruit of Solanum viarum (a few days ago when I found goat kids munching on viarum leaves, the shepherd told me that goats loved the plant) and thought of sharing the photos with you.

Tropical Soda Apple (Solanum viarum)
Mcleodganj, Dharamshala, HP
1750m

01 January, 2015


nice

we see them in ganges lower delta here in neglected land sometimes


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Id of Fruit – ID28112019SH1 : 6 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (2)
Fruit for id pl. Is this Solanum sp.?
Location – Mandal (Uttarakhand)
Date – November 2019

Solanum varium??



slight spelling correction. look a yours and … and the thread


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Shrub resembling Diospyros kaki. : 6 posts by 3 authors.
At first glance I identified this shrub as Diospyros kaki.
But the examination of the leaves tells me that I was wrong!
What is your opinion on this subject?
Thank you for your informed response!

It is not Diospyros kaki !


This is Solanum sp.

Thank you very much … I looked in the Solanum but is not easy…

Maybe S. viarum? What do you think?

Yes, Solanum viarum



https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/c13fdde81573fa3b/solanum%20xanthocarpum%201.jpg?part=0.1&view=1&vt=ANaJVrFlFHrvlPuf4lrKXXn5LGgL8-UGg4uUrFmwQFeSNvnn4IZwlyXVsh9FCmmaugPnZcW9I3M0pjBqgAQO7K8SF8vYy9Bv-3SPcNtTWfpCNEGihzwkqmU

solanum xanthocarpum in kangra ( sameer rastogi): common name: yellow nightshade


I think S. viarum.


ID Looks good


Correct Id, viarum




https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/ce0a0969782d5c53/Copy%20of%20Mishmi%20268.jpg?part=0.2&view=1&vt=ANaJVrHb9KyIZkYNdMc81HCDBTwwYJkDbMpydBfVhEIV_sDwp_shNTzy_iLSI0SWJ2EGLtcSkZngODaRyMS676_VV0VqJyC_Mnoifn7k5f7mZ-1iyFeRkho
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/ce0a0969782d5c53/Copy%20of%20Mishmi%20267.jpg?part=0.1&view=1&vt=ANaJVrFegEPFMwk_WixYlQCe8zb2MDnL6Y13I5zNwgKGDRpPtBd5De4D3PaFguyiO4Z3teWVz9jK169Vz9GxqTglbNVPBROfHITo2hWk46Ef7k9TLjdoCdM

Fruit for Id. ID11032015SH3 : 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (2)
Fruit for Id pl. Is this Wild Brinjal ?
Location – Mishmi Hills, Arunachal Pradesh
Date- 25.2.02.2015
Habitat –Wild


Solanum viarum, Dunal ?


ID Looks good


Yes, it’s,



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References:

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