Keys in Flora of Bhutan including record of plants from Sikkim (Part 1 Vol. 1- by AJC Grierson and D G Long- 1983):
1. Erect trees or shrubs more than lm tall; adult leaves (3- )4- 15 cm …… 2
Prostrate or decumbent shrubs with main stems running at or below. ground level, with or without ascending shoots; leaves 0.5- 2 cm, sometimes 3- 4 cm in S. calyculata …. 9
2. Leaves subopposite ….. Species 1 (S. salwinensis Handel-Mazzetti)
Leaves alternate …… 3
3. Catkins sessile or shortly (up to 1 cm) pedunculate; peduncles naked or bearing small bract-like leaves 1 em long or less, dissimilar to foliage leaves at stem apices …. . 4
Catkins on peduncles 0.8-2( – 5) cm, shorter in S. babylonica (on males 0-6 mm, females 5- 10 mm); peduncles bearing small leaves 1.5 – 4.5 cm similar to foliage leaves at stem apices … … 6
4. Leaves serrulate, sometimes obscurely, occasionally entire in S. wallichiana … Species 6 (S. wallichiana Andersson syn. of Salix disperma Roxb. ex D. Don) & 7 (S. stomatophora Floderus)
Leaves entire, sometimes with a few gland-tipped teeth near base in S. sikkimensis ………… 5
5. Male bracts ovate or narrowly ovate, acute; filaments either completely free or fused to apex; ovary ovoid, shortly pointed at apex …… Species 2 (S. myrtillacea Andersson) & 3 (S. obscura Andersson)
Male bracts obovate, obtuse, often notched at apex; filaments connate at base or up to middle; ovary narrowly ovoid, with long attenuate apex Species 4 (S. sikkimensis Andersson) & 5 (S. bhutanensis Floderus)
6. Male catkins with 6- 12 stamens at each bract; female catkins with capsules on, pedicels 3-4 mm …….. Species 8 (S. tetrasperma Roxb.)
Male catkins with 2 stamens at each bract; female catkins with capsules sessile or on pedicels up to 1 mrn .. … 7
7. Mature leaves finely serrulate throughout …… Species 9 (S. babylonica L.) & 10 (S. excelsa J. F. Gmelin)
Mature leaves entire or obscurely serrulate near apex …. 8
8. Leaves densely and persistently pubescent, not glaucous beneath Species 11(S. daltoniana Andersson.) 12 (S. psilostigma Andersson), 13 (S. eriostachya Andersson)
Leaves sparsely pubescent at first becoming glabrous, glaucous beneath Species 14 (S. longiflora Andersson), 15 (S. oxycarpa Andersson syn. of Salix sericocarpa Andersson), 16 (S. radinostachya Schneider), 17 (S. sp.)
9. Catkins with many (more than 10) flowers ………. 10
Catkins with few (less than 1 0) flowers ……. 12
10. Leaves pubescent on veins beneath; catkins lax-flowered .. Species 18 (S. thomsoniana Andersson)
Leaves glabrous or glabrescent; catkins rather densely flowered at first …. 11
11. Leaves narrow, 1 cm broad or less …… Species 19 (S. serpyllum Andersson)
Leaves more than 1 cm broad, sometimes 0.6 cm in S. flabellaris Species 20 (S. flabellaris Andersson), 21 (S. calyculata Andersson), 22 (S. pseudocalyculata Kimura)
12. Leaves toothed at apex …….. Species 23 (S. oreophila Andersson)
Leaves entire …… species 24 (S. lindleyana Andersson)
Salix acmophylla Boiss. (Native range is E. Medit. to Central Asia and India (Haryana) as per POWO; Turkey (E-Anatolia, S-Anatolia, SE-Anatolia), Iran (EC-Iran, E-Iran, N-Iran, Iranian Aserbaijan, S-Iran, W-Iran), Iraq (NE-Iraq, NW-Iraq, SE-Iraq: Mesopotamia, W-Iraq: Desert), Israel (coastal W-Israel, Rift Valley, N-Israel), Jordania (S-Jordania, W-Jordania), Lebanon (coastal W-Lebanon), Saudi Arabia (NE-Saudi Arabia), Sinai peninsula (C-Sinai), Syria (Jazira, NW-Syria), Oman, Afghanistan (Badghys, Bamyan, Farah, Helmand, Herat, Kabul, Kandahar, Kunar / Nuristan, Laghman, Wardak, Nangarhar, Paktia / Khost, Parwan, Samangan), Pakistan (Sind, Baluchistan, Kurram, N.W.Frontier Prov., Chitral, Swat, Gilgit, Hazara, Punjab), Jammu & Kashmir (Murree, Kashmir), Turkmenistan (Kopet-Dagh), Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, N-India as per Catalogue of Life)
Salix aegyptiaca L. (Introduced) (S- & E-European Russia, S-Ukraine, Crimea, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Turkey (E-Anatolia, SE-Anatolia), Iran (EC-Iran, NE-Iran: Mts., N-Iran, Iranian Aserbaijan, W-Iran, W-Iran), Iraq (NE-Iraq), Afghanistan (Balkh, Kandahar, widely planted), Pakistan (I) (Baluchistan (I), Punjab (I)) as per Catalogue of Life)
Salix alba L. (Introduced) (Europe to N. China, NW. Africa; Native to: Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Altay, Austria, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Central European Rus, China North-Central, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kriti, Krym, Lebanon-Syria, Morocco, Netherlands, North Caucasus, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Qinghai, Romania, Sardegna, Sicilia, South European Russi, Spain, Switzerland, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, West Siberia, Xinjiang, Yugoslavia; Introduced into: Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Chile Central, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Denmark, District of Columbia, Finland, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Krasnoyarsk, Libya, Maine, Maryland, Masachusettes, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Norway, Ohio, Ontario, Pennsylvania, Québec, Rhode I., Saskatchewan, Sweden, Tadzhikistan, Tennessee, Vermont, Virginia, West Himalaya, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Yemen as per POWO)
Salix babylonica L. (Introduced) (Native to: China North-Central, China Southeast, Inner Mongolia, Korea, Manchuria, Qinghai; Introduced into: Afghanistan, Alabama, Algeria, Argentina Northwest, Arkansas, Bermuda, California, Cape Provinces, Chile Central, Chile North, Colorado, Cuba, Delaware, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Fiji, Florida, Free State, Georgia, Haiti, Illinois, Iran, Iraq, Japan, Jawa, Kentucky, Kirgizstan, Krym, KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Louisiana, Maryland, Mexico Central, Morocco, New York, North Carolina, North Caucasus, Northern Provinces, Pakistan, Puerto Rico, Romania, South Carolina, Tadzhikistan, Tennessee, Thailand, Transcaucasus, Tristan da Cunha, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, Virginia, West Himalaya, Zimbabwe as per POWO)
Salix capreaL. (Introduced) (Temp. Eurasia: Albania, Altay, Austria, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Central European Rus, Corse, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East European Russia, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Korea, Krym, Lebanon-Syria, Netherlands, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Norway, Poland, Romania, Sicilia, South European Russi, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Transcaucasus, Turkey, Ukraine, Yugoslavia; Introduced into: Alabama, Argentina South, Arkansas, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Illinois, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Nebraska, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Ontario, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Tristan da Cunha, Washington as per POWO)
Salix disperma Roxb. ex D. Don (China (China (Gansu, Guizhou, Hebei, Hubei, Hunan, Nei Mongol, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang), Tibet, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Afghanistan (Kabul, Kunar / Nuristan, Nangarhar), Pakistan (Kurram, Chitral, Astor, Swat), Jammu & Kashmir (Hazara, Kashmir), Myanmar [Burma] (Kachin) as per Catalogue of Life)
Salix excelsa S.G.Gmel. (Introduced) (Turkey (E-Anatolia, Inner Anatolia, N-Anatolia, NE-Anatolia, W-Anatolia), Iran (EC-Iran, NE-Iran: Mts., N-Iran, Iranian Aserbaijan, S-Iran, W-Iran), Lebanon (C-Lebanon), Syria (NW-Syria), N-Yemen, Afghanistan (Wakhan, Badghys, Baghlan, Balkh, Bamyan, Faryab, Herat, Kabul, Wardak, Orozgan / Daykundi, Paktia / Khost, Parwan, Qunduz, Takhar), Pakistan (Kurram, Baluchistan, Quetta, Gilgit), Jammu & Kashmir, Georgia [Caucasus], Northern Caucasus, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Bhutan (I) as per Catalogue of Life)
Salix flabellaris Andersson (China (W-Sichuan, NW-Yunnan), Tibet, Bhutan, Sikkim, Afghanistan (Kunar / Nuristan), Pakistan (Chitral, Swat, Deosai, Baltistan, Gilgit), Jammu & Kashmir (Zanskar, Hazara, Poonch, Kashmir) as per Catalogue of Life)
Salix × fragilis L. (Native to: Turkey; Introduced into: Alaska, Albania, Alberta, Algeria, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Belgium, British Columbia, Bulgaria, California, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Central European Rus, Colorado, Connecticut, Corse, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, District of Columbia, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, Finland, France, Free State, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Idaho, Illinois, India, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Ireland, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Krym, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Maine, Manchuria, Manitoba, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Mongolia, Nebraska, Netherlands, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northern Territory, Norway, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Ontario, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Poland, Portugal, Prince Edward I., Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Sicilia, South Australia, South Dakota, South European Russi, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tasmania, Tennessee, Transcaucasus, Turkey-in-Europe, Ukraine, Uruguay, Utah, Vermont, Victoria, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Western Australia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Yugoslavia as per POWO)
Salix × fragilis f. vitellina (L.) I.V.Belyaeva (Introduced) (Introduced into: Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Austria, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Central European Rus, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Egypt, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krym, Masachusettes, Missouri, Nepal, Netherlands, North Caucasus, Northwest European R, Ohio, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Romania, Sicilia, South European Russi, Spain, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Transcaucasus, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Yugoslavia as per POWO)
Salix tetrasperma Roxb. (Saudi Arabia (Hejaz, C-Saudi Arabia, Nejd Desert), S-Egypt, Pakistan (Baluchistan, Quetta, Kurram, Gilgit, Punjab, Lahore), Jammu & Kashmir, Java, India, peninsular Malaysia (Perak, Pahang, Selangor), Sumatra, Lesser Sunda Isl. (Lombok, Sumbawa, Sumba, Flores), Borneo, Philippines (Luzon, Bohol, Mindanao), China (Guangdong, Hainan, Yunnan), Tibet, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Sikkim, Myanmar [Burma] (Bago, Kachin, Mandalay, Sagaing), Nepal, Bangladesh as per Catalogue of Life)
Willows and Poplars (SALICACEAE) of INDIA- Selected Salix and Populus species of Himalaya Photos by Sukla. Chanda. Produced by S. Chanda, R. Foster, J. Philipp, T. Wachter; with support from Connie Keller, Ellen Hyndman Fund & Andrew Mellon Foundation
Salix sikkimensis &
STUDIES ON THE INDIAN SPECIES OF THE GENUS SALIX L., SECTIONS CAESIAE, CHEILOPHILAE AND HELIXWnft SPECIAL REFERENCE TO IDENTIFICATION AND DISTRIBUTION By Sukla Chanda, A. Pramanik and G.G. Maiti (Abstract: …. only in the north western Himalayan region of India these sections Caesiae, Cheilophilae have single representative member viz. S. myricaefolia Andersson and S. wilhelmsiana M. Bieb. respectively and the section Helix is represented by 2 species as S. pycnostachya Andersson and S. sericocarpa Andersson. In the present account the distributional pattern, taxonomic characters and identification of these 4 species of Salix are discussed with two keys one for sections and the other for species.)
Flora of Peninsular India with keys at species links, if any:
Salix babylonica (Cultivated at higher altitudes)
Species with description & pictures in Flowers of India as on 2.2.14:
Species with description & keys in Flora of Pakistan (Distribution):
Salix acmophylla (Turkey, Syria, Palestine, Sinai, Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Kashmir, India and Central Asia)
Salix aegyptiaca (Turkey-South-Eastern Anatolia (Provinces Bitlis, Hakkiari), South-Eastern Transcaucasia (Zangezur, Karabagh), Northern Persia, widely cultivated in Egypt, Iraq, Afghanistan, Pakistan etc.)
Salix alba (Europe except the Arctic W. Siberia; Mediterranean region, S.W. and Central Asia. Often planted. Widely naturalized in Pakistan)
Salix babylonica (Native country uncertain, probably China, widely planted)
Salix blakii (Pakistan (Chitral), Kashmir, Afghanistan, Kazakstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Iran, China (S. Xinjiang))
Salix caesia (Pakistan (Chitral, Gilgit), Kashmir, Afghanistan, Kirghizstan, China (Xinjiang, Xizang), Mongolia, Russia (S. Siberia), Europe)
Salix capusii (Pakistan (Chitral, Kurram valley, Gilgit), Kashmir, 1500-3500 m; Afghanistan, Tajikistan; China (Xinjiang))
Salix denticulata subsp. denticulata (Eastern Afghanistan, Pakistan (Kurram, Swat, Hazara, Murree) Kashmir, India Nepal and China (Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan))
Salix denticulata subsp. hazarica (Pakistan (Chitral, Dir, Hazara), Kashmir)
Salix dolichostachya (Pakistan (Murree), Kashmir, India (Himachal Predesh Tehri-Garhwal))
Salix excelsa (Pakistan (N. Baluchistan, Gilgit, Kurram) Kashmir, (probably all introduced), Afghanistan, former Russia (Central Asia), China (Kashghar), Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Lebanon, Syria)
Salix fedtschenkoi (Afghanistan (Nuristan), Tajikistan (Pamir, Darvaz), Pakistan (Gilgit) (A.K. Skvortsov, l.c.); China (Xinjiang))
Salix flabellaris (Pakistan, (Chitral, Swat, Hazara, Karakoram, Gilgit), Kashmir, India (Tehri-Garhwal), Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim; China (W. Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan))
Salix iliensis (Afghanistan, Pakistan (Chitral, Gilgit), Kashmir, Kazakstan, Kirghizstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan)
Salix karelinii (Afghanistan, Kirghizstan, Tajikistan, Pakistan (Chitral, Gilgit, Hazara), Kashmir, China (W. Xinjiang), Nepal)
Salix koeieana (Pakistan (Quetta Dist.); Afghanistan)
Salix lindleyana (Pakistan (Hazara), Kashmir, India (Kumaon), Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan; China (Yunnan; Xizang))
Salix nuristanica (Afghanistan, Pakistan (Chitral))
Salix pycnostachya (Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan (Chitral, Gilgit, Swat), Kashmir, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Khirgzstan and China (S. Xinjiang))
Salix schugnanica (Afghanistan, Paksitan (Chitral), Tajikistan, China (Xinjiang))
Salix sclerophylla (China (Gansu, Qinghai, Sichuan, Yunnan, Xizang), India, Nepal, Kashmir and Pakistan)
Salix sericocarpa (Afghanistan, Pakistan (Chitral, Gilgit, Hunza), Kashmir, India, Nepal, Sikkim, China (Xizang, Yunnan))
Salix tetrasperma (Pakistan (N.W.F. Province, Punjab, Baluchistan), India, Myanmar, China (Guangdong, Hainan, Xizang, Yunnan) Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines and Vietnam)
Salix turanica (Afghanistan, Paksitan (Chitral, Swat), Kashmir, Kazakstan, Kirghizstan, Tajikistan, N.W. India, Chian (Xinjiang), Mongolia)
Salix viminalis (West and Central Europe, Russia, China, Mongolia, Japan, China, Kashmir, India)
Salix wallichiana (Afghanistan, Pakistan (Chitral, Kurram, Swat, Gilgit, Hazara), Kashmir, India, Nepal, Bhutan, Tibet, N. Mynamar; China (Gansu, Guizhou, Hebei, Hubei, Hunan, Nei Mongol, S. Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan Zhejiang))
Salix wilhelmsiana (Iran, Oman, Afghanistan, Pakistan (Gilgit, Hunza), Kashmir, Kirghistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakstan, China (Gansu, Nei Mongolia, Ningxia, XinjiAng), S.W. Asia, Europe)
Indian Herbal Remedies: Rational Western Therapy, Ayurvedic, and Other … edited by C.P. Khare (2004)- Details-
Salix caprea L. (Cultivated)
Indian Medicinal Plants: An Illustrated Dictionary edited by C.P. Khare (2007)- Details-
Salix ×fragilis L. (Cultivated)
Flora of Davanagere District, Karnataka, India By B. K. Manjunatha, V. Krishna, T. Pullaiah (2004)- Details-
Forest Plants of Eastern India By Amal Bhusan Chaudhuri 91993)- Brief details-
Gardening in India By George Marshall Woodrow, G Marshall (1999)- Brief details-
Floriculture in India By Gurcharan Singh Randhawa, Amitabha Mukhopadhyay (1986)- Brief details-
Salicaceae (including Flacourtiaceae) Fortnight: SALICACEAE basics (1) : 11 posts by 6 authors.
In India two genera Populus L. and Salix L. are reported under Salicaceae sensu stricto. A key to the genera is presented below:
1a. Vegetative buds with many outer scales; terminal buds frequently present; catkins mostly pendulous;
floral bracts dentate or lobed; flower with disc but without any glands ………………………… 1. Populus
1b.Vegetative buds with one outer scale; terminal bud absent; catkins generally erect; occasionally
spreading or pendulous; floral bracts generally entire; flowers without any disc, but with glands.. 2. Salix
Some addition which I found from Flowers of Himalaya by Polunin which might be useful. (… may add or alter if anything is not correct)
SALIX : The flowers are insect pollinated. The leaves are narrow and short stalked.
POPULUS: Flowers are wind pollinated numerous and pendulous. Leaves with broad blade and slender leaf stalk.
The list of sp. mentioned
Trees or shrubs
Cultivated sp. Large arboreal trees
S.alba White willow
S.excelsa Crack willow
S. babylonica. Weeping willow
Dwarf alpine shrublets, usually less than a meter.
Leaves tiny less than a cm
Leaves usually more than a cm
In Maharashtra there are only two species mentioned under Salicaceae.
Thanks … You just miss one little thing from this book that Salix acmophylla is also mentioned as a cultivated species here. Flowers of the Himalaya (by Polunin and Stainton) is a good book, but it deals only central and western Himalaya (in the introductory part you could find the map and areas they covered). So we can get only 13 species (9 wild and 4 cultivated) of Salix and 5 species of Populus.
Talbot (1911) in his book Forest Flora of the Bombay Presidency and Sind had also added Salix babylonica and mentioned the other two species as you said. According to him this species is cultivated in “Poona, Bombay and elsewhere throughout the presidency”.
Salicaceae (including Flacourtiaceae) Fortnight: SALICACEAE basics (2) : 4 posts by 3 authors.
Deciduous trees, or shrubs; branches terete.Leaves mostly alternate; blades variously shaped, often long and narrow; petioles frequently short; stipules small, free, deciduous. Catkin solitary, axillary to terminal, appearing before, with or after leaves; male flowers: sessile, bracteate; glandular; gland 1 or 2, fleshy and juicy; stamens 2-many; filaments free, or connate; female flowers: sessile, bracteate; glandular; ovary sessile or stipitate. Infructescence slender; capsules ovoid-conical, 2-valved; seeds oblong to ellipsoid, small, comose.
The genus Salix L. have 400 species, chiefly distributed in northern temperate regions ( Mabberley, 2008 ), a few are also found in the Southern Hemisphere excludingAustralia and New Guinea. According to Fang ( 1987) there are ca. 526 species of Salix L. in the World, most of which are distributed in the Northern Hemisphere, with only a few are distributedto Southern Hemisphere. In India most of the species are found in the Himalaya from Jammu & Kashmir to Arunachal Pradesh. A few viz. S. tetrasperma and S. ichnostachya are available in the tropical and subtropical zones as well. S. tetrasperma is the most widely spread species of Salix in India, found almost all the parts.
Collection and identification of Salix are pretty laborious job as it found in very hostile hill slopes and look very similar in the field. As no such elaborate flower is present in this member, identification can be confirmed after dissecting the flower in many cases.
The majority of the species of Salix are grown along or near the river banks, lakes, etc. even grow on boulder-strewn ground near stream. The common habitat of Salix nearer to water bodies reflects the fact that they need constant moisture supply for immediate seed germination. Many willows are grown as ornamentals and for screens, shelter, holding banks and some of the species for the tuff flexible branches from which baskets are made.
Salix : 1 post by 1 author.
I have updated eFI (efloraofindia) page on Salix
Attempts have been made to incorporate most of the species available in India & nearby areas with details & keys directly or through links as far as possible. It’s quite possible that there may be some discrepancy in the accepted names & synonyms taken from other links.
Species discussed so far in efloraofindia are given at the bottom of the page in the form of links against Subpages. On clicking them one can see all the details.
If someone can provide complete list of Indian species with source references it will be wonderful.
Thanks, Sukla ji, for the wonderful fortnight on Salicaceae.
Any comments/ corrections are welcome
Salix (Salicaceae) page with comparative images of species in efloraofindia : 1 post by 1 author.
I request you to pl. go through & point out mistakes, if any. I hope this will aid in identifications in future. If anybody can send images of other species of this genus (for incorporation in the website), if any, or can identify unidentified images, it will be really nice.