Image by Ajinkya Gadave


Images by Dinesh Valke




Senna multijuga (Rich.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby



Images by Muthu Karthick, N.



Images by Surajit Koley






Key to Indian Species of Cassia Complex (CassiaChamaecristaSenna)

1a The longest filament (or filaments of three anterior stamens) sigmoidally curved, longest more than 2.5 cm long 2
1b The longest filament straight, less than 1 cm long 8
2a Flowers yellow or golden yellow 3
2b Flowers pink, reddish to white 4
3a Leaflets less than 10 pairs, longer than 5 cm, glabrous on both surfaces Cassia fistula
3b Leaflets 10 or more pairs, shorter than 5 cm, puberulent on both surfaces; petals 11-15 mm long Cassia moschata
4a Filaments of 3 longer stamens not swollen in the middle; pedicels less than 2 cm long; petals 10-15 mm long 5
4b Filaments of 3 longer stamens swollen in the middle; pedicels more than 2.5 cm long; petals usually longer than 15 mm 6
5a Pod more than 35 cm long with pulp inside, usually broader than 2.5 cm Cassia grandis
5b Pod less than 35 cm long with dry pith inside, usually narrower than 2.5 cm Cassia roxburghii
6a Stipules reniform, about 2.5 cm broad, cuspidate; leaflets velvety on both surfaces; ovary glabrous Cassia renigera
6b Stipules less than 2 cm broad; leaflets glabrous or silky beneath only; ovary hairy 7
7a Stipules 12-15 mm long, leafy; leaflets usually rounded or obtuse at tip; calyx dark red; petals 2.5-3.5 cm long, pink to dark red Cassia javanica ssp. javanica
7b Stipules 5 mm long, narrow, not leafy; leaflets acute at tip; calyx Green; petals 1.2-2.5 cm long, pink to nearly white, turning yellow Cassia javanica ssp. nodosa
8a Ovary stalk less than 0.9 mm long, fruitless than 9 cm long; braceoles present; legume elastically coiling 9
8b Ovary stalk more than 0.9 mm long, fruit more than 9 cm long; bracteoles absent; legume not elastically coiling 14
9a Leaflets 2 pairs; one linear gland present between each pair or only one pair of leaflets; leaflets broader than 1 cm; stamens 5(2-7) Chamaecrista absus
9b Leaflets more than 2 pairs; glands present on petiole below leaflets; Leaflets linear, narrower than 1 cm; stamens 10 or 4-5 10
10a Gland on petiole stalked, just below the lowest pair of leaflets 11
10b Gland on petiole sessile 12
11a Stamens 5; pedicel less than 7 mm long; sepals 5-6 mm long Chamaecrista pumila
11b Stamens 10; pedicel 10-15 mm long; sepals 6-8 mm long Chamaecrista kleinii
12a Leaflets usually in 30-60 pairs Chamaecrista mimosoides
12b Leaflets usually in less than 30 pairs 13
13a Stamens 4-5; leaflets 5-10 mm long; stem with short curved hairs leaves less than 6 cm long Chamaecrista nomame
13b Stamens 10, sometimes 7; leaflets 8-14 mm long; stem with spreading hairs; leaves longer than 6 cm Chamaecrista leschenaultiana
14a Leaves without glands 15
14b Leaves with glands on rachis or petiole 23
15a Pod cylindrical or 4-angled; leaflets 10-16 pairs, 3-9 cm long; pod 15-30 cm long, 1 cm thick Senna spectabilis
15b Pod compressed 16
16a Leaflets 5 cm or more long; pod winged Senna alata
16b Leaflets less than 5 cm long; pod not winged 17
17a Pod elliptic-oblong to falcate, less than 7 cm long 18
17b Pod linear-oblong, longer than 7 cm 20
18a Leaflets narrower usually less than 10 mm broad, acute; pod 3-7 cm long, oblong to subfalcate, valves not crested Senna alexandrina
18b Leaflets broader usually broader than 10 mm, obtuse; pod 3-6 cm long, falcate, valves with longitudinal ridge of raised crests 19
19a Raceme 10-25 cm long, longer than subtending leaves; sepals 9-13 mm long; petals 12-20 mm long Senna italica ssp. italica
19b Raceme less than 10 cm long, shorter than subtending leaves; sepals 6-8 mm long; petals 8-9 mm long Senna italica ssp. micrantha
20a Pod 15-30 cm long, 1-2 cm broad; stipules minute, subulate, less than 3 mm long Senna siamea
20b Pod shorter than 15 cm; stipules minute or larger 21
21a Inflorescence subspicate; pedicel 5-7 mm long; stipules foliaceous, 1.5-2.5 cm long; shrub; pod pilose Senna didymobotrya
21b Inflorescence paniculate; pedicel longer than 10 mm; pod glabrous 22
22a Shrub; stipules minute, less than 3 mm long; leaves 10-15 cm long; pod 7-12 cm long Senna montana
22b Tree; stipules foliaceous, about 9 mm long with filiform tip; leaves 15-30 cm long; pod 12-15 cm long Senna timoriensis
23a Glands on rachis between pairs of leaflets, none on petiole 24
23b Gland on petiole, none on rachis between pairs of leaflets 38
24a Pod terete or subterete, broader than 10 mm 25
24b Pod compressed or if terete then less than 8 mm broad 27
25a Leaflets 2 pairs; gland between lower pair of leaflets; petals 2-3 cm long Senna bacillaris
25b Leaflets 3-5 pairs; petals 1-2 cm long 26
26a Gland only between lowest pairs of leaflets; leaflets rounded or subacute Senna bicapsularis
26b Glands between leaflets of each pair; leaflets acuminate Senna septemtrionalis
27a Stipules reniform, broader than 7 mm, persistent Senna auriculata
27b Stipules linear less than 5 mm broad, caducous 28
28a Leaflets 12 or more pairs Senna multijuga
28b Leaflets less than 12 pairs 29
29a Pods 1-2 cm wide 30
29b Pods less than 1 cm wide 33
30a Glands clavate or sessile, between all or most pairs of leaflets, pod tomentose or glabrous 31
30b Glands clavate usually between lowest two pairs of leaflets; pod glabrous 32
31a Young branches tomentose; leaflets 4-8 pairs, densely tomentose especially beneath, oblong to elliptic, 2-3 cm long, glands sessile; pod 10-14 cm long, tomentose, 50-90 seeded. Senna glandulosa
31b Young branches glabrous; leaflets 3-5 pairs, almost glabrous, ovate to ovate elliptic, 4-11 cm long; glands clavate or conical; pod 6-10 cm long, glabrous. Senna floribunda
32a Leaflets 4-6 pairs; leaves 15-30 cm long; stalk of pod 10-20 mm long Senna sulfurea
32b Leaflets 6-9 pairs; leaves 10-15 cm long; stalk of pod 5-7 mm long Senna surattensis
33a Leaves with 5-15 pairs of leaflets, generally clustered 3-5 together at nodes; leaflets 4-10mm long; pod 8-15 cm long. Senna polyphylla
33b Leaves with 2-7 pairs of leaflets, occurring singly at nodes; leaflets longer than 15 mm 34
34a Leaflets 4-7 pairs, 2-3 cm long; flowers in pairs in leaf axils; pod 6-8 cm long Senna pallida
34b Leaflets 2-5 pairs; flowers more than two in short racemes 35
35a Leaflets ovate or oblong, not obovate; Leaflets 2-3 pairs, oblong or oblong-lanceolate, 2.5-5 cm long; pod 7-9 mm broad Senna corymbosa
35b Pods obovate; leaflets 3-5 pairs. 36
36a Leaflets 4 pairs (3-5); glands between all or lowest pair of leaflets; pod 3-5 cm long, 5-10 seeded Senna uniflora
36b Leaflets 3 pairs glands between lowest 1-2 pairs; pod longer than 10 cm; more than 20 seeded 37
37a Glands 2, between lowest two pairs of leaflets; sepals glabrous; petals 8-12 mm long; anthers of three large stamens rounded at tip; pedicel 12-15 mm long in fruit Senna tora
37b Gland only one between lowest pair of leaflets; sepals hairy; petals 12-15 mm long; anthers of three large stamens narrowed at tip; pedicel 30 mm long in fruit Senna obtusifolia
38a Plants hirsute; leaves with 3-5 pairs of leaflets; gland subclavate, near the base of petiole; pod 12-15 cm long, 3-7 mm wide, hirsute, linear, curved Senna hirsuta
38b Plants glabrous or subglabrous; Leaves with 4-10 pairs of leaflets; gland clavate or hemispheric; fruit shorter than 13 cm, glabrous at maturity 39
39b Gland at base of petiole, sessile, hemispherical; leaflets 3-6 pairs; pod 10-13 cm long, compressed, glabrous, often slightly curved, 20-30 seeded, torulose when mature Senna occidentalis
39b Gland situated 3-10 mm above the base of petiole, clavate; leaflets 3-12 pairs; pod 5-10 cm long, somewhat inflated, puberulent when young, glabrous when mature, not curved, 30-40 seeded, not torulose when mature 40
40a Leaflets 4-12 pairs, 4-9 cm long, acute or mucronate, branches not purple; pod 9-10 cm long    Senna sophera var. sophera
40b Leaflets 3-5 pairs, less than 3 cm long, obtuse at apex; branches slender, purple; pod 5-8 cm long Senna sophera var. purpurea


  1. Cassia bakeriana Craib.
  2. Cassia fistula L.
  3. Cassia grandis L.f.
  4. Cassia javanica var. javanica
  5. Cassia javanica var. nodosa (Cassia nodosa Buch.-Ham.; C. javanica var. indochinensis Gagnep.)
  6. Cassia moschata Kunth
  7. Cassia nealiae Irwin & Barneby
  8. Cassia renigera
  9. Cassia roxburghii DC. (Cassia marginata Roxb.)


  1. Chamaecrista absus (L.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby (Cassia absus L.)
  2. Chamaecrista kleinii (Wight & Arn.) V.Singh (Cassia kleinii Wight. & Arn.)
  3. Chamaecrista leschenaultiana (DC.) Degener (Cassia wallichiana DC.)
  4. Chamaecrista mimosoides L. (Cassia mimosoides L.)
  5. Chamaecrista nomame (Sieber) H.Ohashi (Cassia hochstetteri Ghesq.)
  6. Chamaecrista pumila (Lam.) K.Larsen (Cassia pumila Lam.)


  1. Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Cassia alata L.)
  2. Senna alexandrina Mill. (Cassia senna L.)
  3. Senna auriculata (L.) Roxb. (Cassia auriculata L.)
  4. Senna bacillaris (L.f.) IRWIN & Barneby (Cassia bacillaris L.f.)
  5. Senna bicapsularis (L.) Roxb. (Cassia bicapsularis L.)
  6. Senna corymbosa (Lam.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby (Cassia corymbosa Lam.)
  7. Senna didymobotrya (Fresen.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby (Cassia didymobotrya Fresen.)
  8. Senna floribunda (Cav.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby (Cassia floribunda Cav.)
  9. Senna hirsuta (L.) Irwin & Barneby (Cassia hirsuta L.)
  10. Senna italica Mill. subsp. italic (Cassia obovata Collad; C. obtusa Roxb.)
  11. Senna italica subsp. micrantha (Brenan) Lock (Cassia italica subsp. micrantha Brenan)
  12. Senna montana (Roth) V. Singh (Cassia montana Roth; Cassia setigera DC.) 
  13. Senna multiglandulosa (Jacq.) Irwin & Barneby (Cassia tomentosa L.f.)
  14. Senna multijuga (Rich.) Irwin & Barneby (Cassia multijuga Rich.)
  15. Senna obtusifolia (L.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby (Cassia obtusifolia L.)
  16. Senna occidentalis (L.) Link (Cassia occidentalis (L.) Rose)
  17. Senna pallida  (Vahl) H.S.Irwin & Barneby (Cassia biflora L.)
  18. Senna polyphylla (Jacq.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby  (Cassia polyphylla Jacq.)
  19. Senna septemtrionalis (Viviani) Irwin & Barneby
  20. Senna siamea (Lam.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby (Cassia siamea Lam.)
  21. Senna sophera (L.) Roxb. (Cassia sophera L.)
  22. Senna sophera var. purpurea (Lindl.) V.Singh (Cassia purpurea Roxb. ex Lindl.)
  23. Senna spectabilis (DC.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby (Cassia spectabilis DC.)
  24. Senna sulfurea (Collad.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby (Cassia sulfurea Collad; C. glauca Lam.)
  25. Senna surattensis (Burm.f.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby (Cassia surattensis Burm.f.)
  26. Senna timoriensis (DC.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby (Cassia timoriensis DC.)
  27. Senna tora (L.) Roxb. (Cassia tora L.)
  28. Senna uniflora (Mill.) Irwin & Barneby (Cassia uniflora Mill.)

Chamaecrista absus,
C. auriculata (now Senna auriculata)
Cassia fistula,
C. italica (now Senna italica),
Chamaecrista kleinii,
C. occidentalis (now Senna occidentalis),
Chamaecrista pumila,
Cassia siamea (now S. siamea),
C. senna (now Senna alexandrina)
C. sophera (now Senna shophera)
C. tora (now Senna tora)


Pl. go through Senna (‎‎‎‎‎‎‎‎‎‎Fabaceae (Leguminosae)‎) page with images of species in efloraofindia.

If you find any incorrect identification, pl. let us know. If anybody can send images of other species of this genera (for incorporation in the website), if any, or can identify unidentified images, it will be really nice.

Cassia vs Senna : 2 posts by 2 authors.
What is the difference between Genus Cassia and Senna?
the name of Cassia siamea has been changed to Senna siamea. initially i got a clue that the out of 10 stamens in Cassia, 3 are staminodes while in Senna all the 10 stamens are functional. but this is not the case with every Senna
second clue was that the pods in senna genus are flat as in Senna siamea but that point is also not universal.
So what are the points in distinguishing the two genera?  are there any morphological characters or are they distinguished on the basis of some molecular characteristics? 
Can anyone please guide me in this context?

Cassia are having cylindric pod, seeds are separated by horizontal septum. Cassia spectabilis is having cylindric pod, but it is kept under Senna. Most of the Senna are herbs /shrubs.